Search Results

Augeries, for Flute, Clarinet, Percussion and Tape: Aesthetic Discussion and Theoretical Analysis

Description: Augeries is a multi-channel electro-acoustic composition for flute, clarinet, percussion, and tape. It is intended to be diffused through an 8-channnel playback system. Inspired by the first four lines of William Blake's Augeries of Innocence, Augeries captures the qualitative aspects of Blake's poetry by presenting the listener with an equally aperspectival aesthetic experience. The small-scale structure reflected on the large-scale form - the infusion of vastness and expansiveness into the fragile and minute. Augeries incorporates techniques of expansion and contraction, metonymic relationships, dilation and infolding of time, and structured improvisation to create an experience that is designed to explore the notion of musical time, and to bring to the listener the sense of time freedom. The critical analysis suggests that the increase in the notions of musical time, the aesthetics with which they conform, and the new time forms created, encapsulate communicative significance. This significance exists within a horizon of meaning. Semiotics illuminates an understanding of the structuring techniques used to render time as an area of artistic play. Understanding the aesthetics and mechanisms through which these techniques can be used constitutes a shared horizon of meaning. The concepts of cultural phenomenologist Jean Gebser, as explicated in The Ever-Present Origin, are used to contextualize these notions, through a description of the various consciousness structures with specific attention to the space-time relationships. Of specific concern are the aperspectival manifestations in music in the twentieth century and beyond. Special emphasis is given to the area of electro-acoustic music, particularly spectral music. The theoretical analysis explores how the various techniques are used to create an aperspectival experience, and includes specific descriptions of the technique of refraction as metonymy, and pitch set analysis of the technique of expansion and contraction.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Gedosh, David
Partner: UNT Libraries

Public release of optimization of metallization scheme for thin emitter wrap-through solar cells for higher efficiency, reduced precious metal costs, and reduced stress.

Description: Back-contact crystalline-silicon photovoltaic solar cells and modules offer a number of advantages, including the elimination of grid shadowing losses, reduced cost through use of thinner silicon substrates, simpler module assembly, and improved aesthetics. While the existing edge tab method for interconnecting and stringing edge-connected back contact cells is acceptably straightforward and reliable, there are further gains to be exploited when you have both contact polarities on one side of the cell. In this work, we produce 'busbarless' emitter wrap-through solar cells that use 41% of the gridline silver (Ag) metallization mass compared to the edge tab design. Further, series resistance power losses are reduced by extraction of current from more places on the cell rear, leading to a fill factor improvement of about 6% (relative) on the module level. Series resistance and current-generation losses associated with large rear bondpads and busbars are eliminated. Use of thin silicon (Si) wafers is enabled because of the reduced Ag metallization mass and by interconnection with conductive adhesives leading to reduced bow. The busbarless cell design interconnected with conductive adhesives passes typical International Electrotechnical Commission damp heat and thermal cycling test.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Ruby, Douglas Scott; Murphy, Brian (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Meakin, David (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Jason (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM) & Hacke, Peter (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INTERFACE RESIDUAL STRESSES IN DENTAL ZIRCONIA USING LAUE MICRO-DIFFRACTION

Description: Due to their aesthetic value and high compressive strength, dentists have recently employed ceramics for restoration materials. Among the ceramic materials, zirconia provides high toughness and crack resistant characteristics. Residual stresses develop in processing due to factors including grain anisotropy and thermal coefficient mismatch. In the present study, polychromatic X-ray (Laue) micro-diffraction provided grain orientation and residual stresses on a clinically relevant zirconia model ceramic disk. A 0.5 mm x 0.024 mm region on zirconia was examined on a 500 nm scale for residual stresses using a focused poly-chromatic synchrotron X-ray beam. Large stresses ranging from - to + 1GPa were observed at some grains. On average, the method suggests a relatively small compressive stress at the surface between 47 and 75 MPa depending on direction.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Bale, H. A.; Tamura, N.; Coelho, P.G. & Hanan, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accessing the Power of Aesthetics in Human-computer Interaction

Description: In information systems design there are two schools of thought about what factors are necessary to create a successful information system. The first, conventional view holds that system performance is a key, so that efficiency characteristics such as system usability and task completion time are primary concerns of system designers. The second, emerging view holds that the visual design is also the key, so that visual interface characteristics such as visual appeal, in addition to efficiency characteristics, are critical concerns of designers. This view contends that visual design enhances system use. Thus, this work examines the effects of visual design on computer systems. Visual design exerts its influence on systems through two mechanisms: it evokes affective responses from IT users, such as arousal and pleasure and it influences individuals’ cognitive assessments of systems. Given that both affective and cognitive reactions are significant antecedents of user behaviors in the IT realm, it is no surprise that visual design plays a critical role in information system success. Human-computer-interaction literature indicates that visual aesthetics positively influences such information success factors as usability, online trust, user satisfaction, flow experience, and so on. Although academic research has introduced visual design into the Information Systems (IS) field and validated its effects, visual design is still very limited in three contexts: product aesthetics in e-commerce, mobile applications and commercial emails. This dissertation presents three studies to help fill these theoretical gaps respectively.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Chenyan, Xu
Partner: UNT Libraries

A high-efficiency indirect lighting system utilizing the solar 1000 sulfur lamp

Description: High-lumen light sources represent unique challenges and opportunities for the design of practical and efficient interior lighting systems. High-output sources require a means of large-scale distribution and avoidance of high-luminance glare while providing efficient delivery. An indirect lighting system has been developed for use with a 1,000 Watt sulfur lamp that efficiently utilizes the high-output source to provide quality interior lighting. This paper briefly describes the design and initial testing of this new system.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Siminovitch, M.; Gould, C. & Page, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hedonic travel cost and random utility models of recreation

Description: Micro-economic theory began as an attempt to describe, predict and value the demand and supply of consumption goods. Quality was largely ignored at first, but economists have started to address quality within the theory of demand and specifically the question of site quality, which is an important component of land management. This paper demonstrates that hedonic and random utility models emanate from the same utility theoretical foundation, although they make different estimation assumptions. Using a theoretically consistent comparison, both approaches are applied to examine the quality of wilderness areas in the Southeastern US. Data were collected on 4778 visits to 46 trails in 20 different forest areas near the Smoky Mountains. Visitor data came from permits and an independent survey. The authors limited the data set to visitors from within 300 miles of the North Carolina and Tennessee border in order to focus the analysis on single purpose trips. When consistently applied, both models lead to results with similar signs but different magnitudes. Because the two models are equally valid, recreation studies should continue to use both models to value site quality. Further, practitioners should be careful not to make simplifying a priori assumptions which limit the effectiveness of both techniques.
Date: July 9, 1998
Creator: Pendleton, L.; Mendelsohn, R. & Davis, E.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 5, Appendices J-M

Description: In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices J through M, which describe potential impacts regarding traffic, noise, and aesthetics. The results of the traffic studies described in these appendices resulted in the following conclusions: Unacceptable levels of service will occur on numerous roads within and outside of the park increasingly in the Mure based upon current and future ...
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

Description: This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Trettin, L.D.; Petrich, C.H. & Saulsbury, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the potential for a coal-fired power plant to cause visibility impairment in a National Park

Description: The visibility analysis examined potential impacts of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), a proposed 50-MW coal-fired power plant to be built adjacent to the existing 25-MW Healy Unit 1 (a conventional pulverized-coal unit) in Healy, Alaska, about 6 km north of Denali National Park. The analysis used the PLUVUE I visibility model to calculate ambient concentrations of species in the plume with potential to cause visible effects. The optical effects were determined in separate calculations when the sun was within about 10 {degree} of the horizon, in the winter. Results indicated that almost all the potential impact would be caused by NO{sub x}. Analysis of the number of daytime hours per year that the HCCP plume would be perceptible from the Visitor Access Center, shows that the predicted number of hours is extremely low for the base case: 2 hours for the north sight path, 2 hours for the south sight path, and a total of 2 hours. Sensitivity analysis shows more sensitivity to changing the perceptibility threshold than extending the sight paths. Cumulative visibility impacts of air emissions resulting from the simultaneous operation of the HCCP and Healy Unit No. 1 were also evaluated; results show that the percentage of hours affected is much less than 1% of daytime hours during the year.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Richards, L.W. & Miller, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress on linking gender and sustainable energy

Description: The field of gender and energy has been identified as critical in global sustainable energy development and is increasingly important to decision makers. The theme of women and energy was of significance at the 1998 World Renewable Energy Congress in Florence, Italy. This paper traces further developments in this field by summarizing selected programmatic initiatives, meetings, and publications over the past 18 months.
Date: April 5, 2000
Creator: Farhar, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Towards breaking the silence between the two cultures: Engineering and the other humanities

Description: Over the years, I have attended numerous meetings like this one at the Center for the Study of Higher Education. I have noticed that most of the attendees, and certainly the speakers, tend to come from the social sciences or humanities. Only rarely do I see anyone here from Berkeley's College of Chemistry or College of Engineering. I come from the College of Chemistry that includes Berkeley's Department of Chemical Engineering. I mention this background to indicate that my remarks here are necessarily less abstract, less theoretical and less philosophical than those of most previous seminar speakers. My remarks are probably somewhat simplistic because, as a result of my engineering background, I tend to focus less on generalities and principles, giving more attention to possible solutions of limited practical problems. About seven weeks ago, I was invited to attend a conference sponsored by the Berlin Academy of Sciences where ''Sciences'' is not confined to natural sciences but includes also humanities and social sciences. The topic of the Conference was ''Sprachlosigkeit'', a German word that roughly translated means inability to speak. The subtitle was ''Silence Between the Disciplines''. The German universities are worried about the increasing gulf between what is often called ''the two cultures''. This gulf is a problem everywhere, including Berkeley, but it is my impression that it is much worse in Europe than in America. The International Conference in Berlin was attended by some big names including the presidents of the Humboldt University in Berlin, the University of Uppsala in Sweden and the Central European University of Budapest, as well as some distinguished academics from a variety of institutions including Harvard and Stanford, and the presidents of three major funding organizations: The Volkswagen Foundation, The German National Science Foundation and the Max Planck Society. The speakers were primarily ...
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Prausnitz, John M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating ducts into the conditioned space: Successes and challenges

Description: In residential and light commercial construction in the United States, heating and cooling ducts are often located outside the thermal or pressure boundary of the conditioned space. This location is selected for aesthetic and space requirement reasons. Typical duct locations include attics, above dropped ceilings, crawlspaces, and attached garages. A wide body of literature has found that distribution system conduction and air leakage can cause 30-40% energy losses before cooling and heating air reaches the conditioned space. Recent innovative attempts at locating ducts in the conditioned space have had mixed results in terms of improving duct efficiency. Some of these strategies include cathedralizing attics (sealing and insulating at the attic roofline) and locating ducts in interstitial spaces. This paper reviews modeling studies that suggest substantial savings could be realized from these strategies and presents field measurements which reveal that construction planning and execution errors can prevent these strategies from being widely applied or from being effective when they are applied. These types of problems will need to be overcome for effective integration of ducts into the conditioned space.
Date: May 1, 2004
Creator: Siegel, Jeffrey & Walker, Iain
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New National Conservation Training Center a model of energy-efficient design: FEMP technical assistance case study fact sheet

Description: This FEMP technical assistance case study shows that energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and aesthetics can be incorporated into the design of a Federal facility--in this case the National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, WV, which encompasses many buildings with a variety of purposes.
Date: October 7, 1998
Creator: Atkison, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using the whole-building design approach to incorporate daylighting into a retail space: Preprint

Description: This paper focuses on implementation of daylighting into the Bighorn Center, a collection of home improvement retail spaces in Silverthorne, Colorado, which were constructed in three phases. Daylighting was an integral part of the design of the Phase 3 building. Energy consultants optimized the daylighting design through detailed modeling using an hourly building energy simulation tool. Energy consultants also used this tool to address the building owner's concerns related to customer comfort and increased product sales.
Date: June 21, 2000
Creator: Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.; Eastment, M. & Judkoff, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zero energy homes: Combining energy efficiency and solar energy technologies

Description: In a typical Florida house, air-conditioning accounts for about 35% of all the electricity the home uses. As the largest single source of energy consumption in Florida, a home's air-conditioning load represents the biggest energy challenge facing Florida residents. The Florida Solar Energy Center designed a project to meet this challenge. Two homes were built with the same floor plan on near-by lots. The difference was that one (the control home) conformed to local residential building practices, and the other (the Zero Energy home) was designed with energy efficiency in mind and a solar technology system on the roof. The homes were then monitored carefully for energy use. The projects designers were looked to answer two questions: (1) could a home in a climate such as central Florida be engineered and built so efficiently that a relatively small PV system would serve the majority of its cooling needs--and even some of its daytime electrical needs; and (2) would that home be as comfortable and appealing as the conventional model built alongside it? The answer was yes, even though it was conducted in the summer of 1998--one of the hottest summers on record in Florida.
Date: March 9, 2000
Creator: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Team learning center design principles

Description: This is a preliminary report of a multi-year collaboration of the authors addressing the subject: Can a facility be designed for team learning and would it improve the efficiency and effectiveness of team interactions? Team learning in this context is a broad definition that covers all activities where small to large groups of people come together to work, to learn, and to share through team activities. Multimedia, networking, such as World Wide Web and other tools, are greatly enhancing the capability of individual learning. This paper addresses the application of technology and design to facilitate group or team learning. Many organizational meetings need tens of people to come together to do work as a large group and then divide into smaller subgroups of five to ten to work and then to return and report and interact with the larger group. Current facilities were not, in general, designed for this type of meeting. Problems with current facilities are defined and a preliminary design solution to many of the identified problems is presented.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Daily, B.; Loveland, J. & Whatley, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual quality assessment of electrochromic and conventional glazings

Description: Variable transmission, ``switchable`` electrochromic glazings are compared to conventional static glazings using computer simulations to assess the daylighting quality of a commercial office environment where paper and computer tasks are performed. RADIANCE simulations were made for a west-facing commercial office space under clear and overcast sky conditions. This visualization tool was used to model different glazing types, to compute luminance and illuminance levels, and to generate a parametric set of photorealistic images of typical interior views at various times of the day and year. Privacy and visual display terminal (VDT) visibility is explored. Electrochromic glazings result in a more consistent glare-free daylit environment compared to their static counterparts. However, if the glazing is controlled to minimize glare or to maintain low interior daylight levels for critical visual tasks (e.g, VDT), occupants may object to the diminished quality of the outdoor view due to its low transmission (Tv = 0.08) during those hours. RADIANCE proved to be a very powerful tool to better understand some of the design tradeoffs of this emerging glazing technology. The ability to draw specific conclusions about the relative value of different technologies or control strategies is limited by the lack of agreed upon criteria or standards for lighting quality and visibility.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Moeck, M.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.D.; Sullivan, R. & Selkowitz, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

Description: A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.
Date: July 8, 2012
Creator: V., Sirenko & U., Rohatgi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hearing Nano-Structures: A Case Study in Timbral Sonification

Description: We explore the sonification of x-ray scattering data, which are two-dimensional arrays of intensity whose meaning is obscure and non-intuitive. Direct mapping of the experimental data into sound is found to produce timbral sonifications that, while sacrificing conventional aesthetic appeal, provide a rich auditory landscape for exploration. We discuss the optimization of sonification variables, and speculate on potential real-world applications. We have presented a case study of sonifying x-ray scattering data. Direct mapping of the two-dimensional intensity values of a scattering dataset into the two-dimensional matrix of a sonogram is a natural and information-preserving operation that creates rich sounds. Our work supports the notion that many problems in understanding rather abstract scientific datasets can be ameliorated by adding the auditory modality of sonification. We further emphasize that sonification need not be limited to time-series data: any data matrix is amenable. Timbral sonification is less obviously aesthetic, than tonal sonification, which generate melody, harmony, or rhythm. However these musical sonifications necessarily sacrifice information content for beauty. Timbral sonification is useful because the entire dataset is represented. Non-musicians can understand the data through the overall color of the sound; audio experts can extract more detailed insight by studying all the features of the sound.
Date: June 18, 2012
Creator: Schedel, M. & Yager, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Mexicans` images and perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Winter, 1992--1993

Description: This report uses survey data to profile New Mexico residents` images and perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The survey results are the responses of a representative, stratified random sample of 992 New Mexico households to a set of questions asked in October, 1992. The data allow statistical inference to the general population`s responses to the same set of questions at the time the survey was administered. The results provide an overview of New Mexico residents` current images and perceptions of the Laboratory. The sample margin of error is plus or minus 3.5% at the 95% confidence level.
Date: January 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Mexicans` perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Awareness and evaluations

Description: This report uses survey data to profile New Mexico residents`perceptions of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The survey results are the responses of a representative, randomly selected sample of New Mexico households to a set of questions asked in September and October 1990. The data allow statistical inference to the general population`s responses to the same set of questions at the time the survey was administered. The results provide an overview of New Mexico residents` current perceptions of LANL. The sample margin of error is slightly less than plus or minus five percent. Because our sample frame is designed to be proportionate to population, counties with the smallest populations, such as Mora and Los Alamos, tend to have very few respondents in a standard sample. In order to have sample sizes sufficiently large to discern statistically significant differences across these counties, we took additional, non-proportionate random samples from Los Alamos County and its neighboring counties, including Rio Arriba, Taos, San Miguel, Mora and Sandoval Counties. This required the specification of new sample frames for each of the six counties and an additional sample of 300 respondents (50 in each county). Therefore, the analysis for this report is somewhat more complex than usual in that two separate samples will be analyzed, the state-wide random sample and the oversample.
Date: November 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Interactive Facades - Critical Elements for Future GreenBuildings?

Description: Building designers and owners have always been fascinated with the extensive use of glass in building envelopes. Today the highly glazed facade has almost become an iconic element for a 'green building' that provides daylighting and a visual connection with the natural environment. Even before the current interest in green buildings there was no shortage of highly glazed building designs. But many of these buildings either rejected sunlight, and some associated daylight and view with highly reflective glazings or used highly transmissive glass and encountered serious internal comfort problems that could only be overcome with large HVAC systems, resulting in significant energy, cost and environmental penalties. From the 1960's to the 1990's innovation in glazing made heat absorbing glass, reflective glass and double glazing commonplace, with an associated set of aesthetic features. In the last decade there has been a subtle shift from trying to optimize an ideal, static design solution using these glazings to making the facade responsive, interactive and even intelligent. More sophisticated design approaches and technologies have emerged using new high-performance glazing, improved shading and solar control systems, greater use of automated controls, and integration with other building systems. One relatively new architectural development is the double glass facade that offers a cavity that can provide improved acoustics, better solar control and enhanced ventilation. Taken to its ultimate development, an interactive facade should respond intelligently and reliably to the changing outdoor conditions and internal performance needs. It should exploit available natural energies for lighting, heating and ventilation, should be able to provide large energy savings compared to conventional technologies, and at the same time maintain optimal indoor visual and thermal comfort conditions. As photovoltaic costs decrease in the future, these onsite power systems will be integrated within the glass skin and these facades will become local, non-polluting ...
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Selkowitz, Stephen; Aschehoug, Oyvind & Lee, Eleanor S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Aims for Zero-Energy: Support for PV on New Homes

Description: As a market segment for solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption, new homes have a number of attractive attributes. Homebuyers can easily roll the cost of the PV system into their mortgage and, with rebates or other financial incentives, potentially realize an immediate net positive cash flow from the investment. PV system performance can be optimized by taking roof orientation, shading, and other structural factors into account in the design of new homes. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), which are subject to fewer aesthetic concerns than traditional, rack-mounted systems, are well-suited to new construction applications. In large new residential developments, costs can be reduced through bulk purchases and scale economies in system design and installation. Finally, the ability to install PV as a standard feature in new developments - like common household appliances - creates an opportunity to circumvent the high transaction costs and other barriers typically confronted when each individual homeowner must make a distinct PV purchase decision.
Date: May 11, 2006
Creator: Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan & Bolinger, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supporting Photovoltaics in Market-Rate Residential NewConstruction: A Summary of Programmatic Experience to Date and LessonsLearned

Description: As a market segment for solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption, new homes have a number of attractive attributes. Homebuyers can easily roll the cost of the PV system into their tax-deductible home mortgage and, with rebates and other financial incentives, potentially achieve an immediate net-positive cash flow from the investment. New homes are amenable to building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), which are less susceptible to aesthetic concerns than traditional, rack-mounted systems. The performance of PV systems can be optimized on new homes by taking roof orientation and shading into account when designing the home. Perhaps most importantly, subdivisions with PV systems installed on a large number of homes offer potential cost savings from volume purchases of modules and inverters and from scale economies in system design and installation. Finally, the ability of builders to install PV as a standard feature on multiple homes in new subdivisions offers an opportunity to circumvent the high transaction costs and information-related market barriers typically confronted when each individual homeowner must make a decision about installing PV. Builders may benefit in several ways from incorporating PV into new homes. Builders may gain greater market differentiation, enhanced media exposure, and less community or political opposition to development projects. Additionally, if homebuyers place a high value on PV, builders may be able to earn additional profits, just as they would on granite countertops or other high-value home features. Although the impact of PV on the original sale price of new homes has not yet been rigorously examined, some limited empirical evidence does suggest that PV and energy efficient features may have a positive effect on resale value. Along with its unique advantages, residential new construction also faces unique barriers to PV adoption. Most fundamentally, perhaps, is the general aversion to technology risk within the building industry, particularly in ''hot'' housing ...
Date: February 10, 2006
Creator: Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan & Bolinger, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department