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Supreme Court Appointment Process: Roles of the President, Judiciary Committee, and Senate

Description: This report discusses the appointment of Supreme Court Justices, including the President's selection of a nominee and process to reach confirmation in the Senate. The appointment of a Supreme Court Justice is an event of major significance in American politics. Each appointment is of consequence because of the enormous judicial power the Supreme Court exercises as the highest appellate court in the federal judiciary. Appointments are usually infrequent, as a vacancy on the nine-member Court may occur only once or twice, or never at all, during a particular President's years in office. Under the Constitution, Justices on the Supreme Court receive lifetime appointments. Such job security in the government has been conferred solely on judges and, by constitutional design, helps insure the Court's independence from the President and Congress.
Date: September 3, 2010
Creator: Rutkus, Denis S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Questioning Supreme Court Nominees About Their Views on Legal or Constitutional Issues: A Recurring Issue

Description: This report discusses a recurring Senate issue regarding what kinds of questions are appropriate for Senators to pose to a Supreme Court nominee appearing at hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Particularly at issue has been whether, or to what extent, questions by committee members should seek out a nominee's personal views on current legal or constitutional issues or on past Supreme Court decisions that have involved those issues.
Date: June 23, 2010
Creator: Rutkus, Denis Steven
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Description: This report identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation based on referrals as of October 31, 2007. For each committee list, positions are categorized as full- or part-time and then grouped by department or agency. Where nominations have been referred to more than one committee, the organizations and titles are noted under each of the committees to which the nominations were referred. The lists also include the lengths of fixed terms, where applicable. Some commissions, councils, and other multi-member entities are required, by their enabling statutes, to maintain political balance in some way.
Date: March 18, 2008
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.; Bearden, Maureen & Lisbeth, Terrence L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nomination and Confirmation of Lower Federal Court Judges in Presidential Election Years

Description: This report seeks to shed light on whether Senate processing of lower court nominations, particularly to the courts of appeals, has tended over recent decades to slow down in presidential election years. The report begins by reviewing recent debate, and historical events dating back to 1980, concerning whether the Senate and its Judiciary Committee customarily observe a practice referred to as the "Thurmond rule." Next, the report provides narratives on each presidential election year from 1980 to 2004, reviewing Senate and committee actions taken on court of appeals and district court nominations in each of the years. The report then compares these years quantitatively, examining the number and percent of nominations processed and the last dates of committee and Senate action taken.
Date: August 13, 2008
Creator: Rutkus, Denis Steven & Scott, Kevin M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Filling Advice and Consent Positions at the Outset of a New Administration

Description: In its 2004 report, the 9/11 Commission identified what it perceived were shortcomings in the appointment process during presidential transitions. This report examines the advice and consent appointment process during such transitional periods, including the selection and vetting of PAS positions, temporary staffing and differences in the length of the appointment process for cabinet members compared to sub-cabinet members.
Date: December 18, 2008
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.; Bearden, Maureen & Palmer, Betsy
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nominations to Cabinet Positions During Inter-Term Transitions Since 1984

Description: This report documents nominations to Cabinet positions during inter-term presidential transitions since 1984. During this period, three two-term Presidents — Ronald W. Reagan, William J. Clinton, and George W. Bush — made 30 nominations during inter-term transitions. For the purposes of this report, CRS considered an inter-term nomination to be one made between November 1 of a President's reelection year and April 30 of the first year of his second term.
Date: February 20, 2013
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.; Hogue, Henry B. & Greene, Michael W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nominations to Cabinet Positions During Inter-Term Transitions Since 1984

Description: This report discusses nominations to Cabinet positions during inter-term presidential transitions. It begins with a discussion of the positions that make up the Cabinet and the process by which nominations to such positions are considered in the Senate. Following this discussion, the report provides data on, and analysis of, the pace of Senate consideration of inter-term transition nominations to Cabinet positions since 1984.
Date: July 30, 2014
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.; Greene, Michael & Hogue, Henry B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

Description: This report describes the provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty and of the original Senate debate in 1949 pertinent to enlargement and the procedures that have been followed for each subsequent enlargement proposal. It also discusses what the Senate did with respect to the reunification of Germany in 1990 and the implications of that event for Germany's membership in NATO.
Date: January 15, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supreme Court Nominations: Senate Floor Procedure and Practice, 1789-2011

Description: This report examines the ways in which the Senate has handled the 160 Supreme Court nominations the President has sent to the Senate. As the purpose of this report is to examine the forms taken by Senate proceedings on these 160 nominations, it treats each nomination as a separate case. It is not couched in terms of the smaller number of different individuals nominated or the ultimate outcome the confirmation process may have had for each individual.
Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Palmer, Betsy
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recess Appointments: A Legal Overview

Description: This report provides an overview of the Recess Appointments Clause, exploring its historical application and legal interpretation by the executive branch, the courts, and the Comptroller General. Furthermore, congressional legislation designed to prevent the President's overuse or misuse of the Clause is also explored.
Date: January 6, 2012
Creator: Chu, Vivian S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recess Appointments: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report supplies brief answers to some frequently asked questions regarding recess appointments. These are appointments to high-level policy-making positions in federal departments which are generally confirmed by the Senate. When the Senate is in recess, the President may make a temporary appointment, called a recess appointment, to any such position without Senate approval.
Date: January 9, 2012
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Description: Report that identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation based on referrals as of the date of passage of S. 679, which became P.L. 112-166 on August 10, 2012. It begins with a brief description of the referral process and identify, for each committee to which referrals have been made, the positions that fall within the committee's jurisdiction.
Date: November 15, 2012
Creator: Davis, Christopher M. & Mansfield, Jerry W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appointment and Confirmation of Executive Branch Leadership: An Overview

Description: This report begins by explaining the three distinct stages that comprise the advice and consent process, which is the means through which most of these positions are filled. The report then provides an overview of recess appointments and briefly discusses other options that are available to Presidents for temporarily filling vacant advice and consent positions. Finally, it discusses certain types of statutory provisions that Congress has applied selectively to specific advice and consent positions in the executive branch.
Date: June 22, 2015
Creator: Hogue, Henry B. & Carey, Maeve P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NATO Enlargement: Albania, Croatia, and Possible Future Candidates

Description: This report discusses the current status of NATO membership following the April 2-4, 2008 NATO summit in Bucharest, Romania. A principal issue was consideration of the candidacies for membership of Albania, Croatia, and Macedonia. The allies agreed to extend invitations to Albania and Croatia. Although the alliance determined that Macedonia met the qualifications for NATO membership, Greece blocked the invitation due to an enduring dispute over Macedonia's name.
Date: April 14, 2009
Creator: Morelli, Vincent; Ek, Carl; Belkin, Paul; Woehrel, Steven & Nichol, Jim
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statutory Qualifications for Executive Branch Positions

Description: This report provides background on the framework for constitutional appointments, discusses Congress's constitutional authority to set qualifications for appointees, discusses congressional practices in this area, and provides related analysis and options. It also includes two tables with examples of existing positions with qualification requirements.
Date: September 9, 2015
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NATO Enlargement: Albania, Croatia, and Possible Future Candidates

Description: This report discusses the current status of NATO membership following the April 2-4, 2008 NATO summit in Bucharest, Romania. A principal issue was consideration of the candidacies for membership of Albania, Croatia, and Macedonia. The allies agreed to extend invitations to Albania and Croatia. Although the alliance determined that Macedonia met the qualifications for NATO membership, Greece blocked the invitation due to an enduring dispute over Macedonia's name.
Date: October 6, 2008
Creator: Morelli, Vincent; Ek, Carl; Belkin, Paul; Woehrel, Steven & Nichol, Jim
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Piracy off the Horn of Africa

Description: This report discusses recent attacks -- including those on U.S.-flagged vessels -- in the waters off the Horn of Africa, which have brought new U.S. and international attention to the long-standing problem of piracy in the region.
Date: April 21, 2009
Creator: Ploch, Lauren; Blanchard, Christopher M.; O'Rourke, Ronald; Mason, R. C. & King, Rawle O.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History

Description: This report discusses the process of Advice and Consent in the Senate. Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution states that the President "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other Public Ministers and Counsels, Judges of the Supreme Court, and all Other Officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law…."
Date: July 2, 2008
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

Description: This report describes the provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty and of the original Senate debate in 1949 pertinent to enlargement and the procedures that have been followed for each subsequent enlargement proposal. It also discusses what the Senate did with respect to the reunification of Germany in 1990 and the implications of that event for Germany's membership in NATO.
Date: January 16, 2009
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

Description: This report describes the provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty and of the original Senate debate in 1949 pertinent to enlargement and the procedures that have been followed for each subsequent enlargement proposal. It also discusses what the Senate did with respect to the reunification of Germany in 1990 and the implications of that event for Germany's membership in NATO.
Date: January 16, 2009
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department