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open access

The Political and Administrative Role of Planning and Budgeting in Saudi Arabia: Adaptation for Rapid Change

Description: This study examines the political and administrative role of planning and budgeting in Saudi Arabia. It demonstrates how they have contributed to lessening the political crises of distribution, participation, and penetration that confront developing countries. The study also investigates how these two bureaucratic processes have helped adapt rapid changes in a manner acceptable to the cultural milieu. In addition, the study explores the politics of planning and budgeting and identifies the roles various actors play. The evolution and institutionalization of planning and budgeting are examined through printed materials and interviews with planners and budgeters in the Ministries of Planning and Finance. In addition, a number of the Ulama, businessmen, former government bureaucrats, officials of key ministries and agencies, and media were interviewed in an attempt to understand how they interact in the politics of planning and budgeting.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Al-Kahtani, Mohammed S. A. (Mohammed Saeed A.)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Saudi Arabia: A Preliminary Prevalence Screening

Description: Education in Saudi Arabia, including the education of children with special needs, is developing rapidly. However, children with emotional and behavioral disorders are neither consistently identified nor adequately served in Saudi Arabia although they are recognized as a distinct category of children who require special education services. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders among children in Saudi Arabia to assess the need for intervention services to help those children reach their potential. The current research identified the types of behaviors that are most evident in the study sample. Also, the relationship between demographics and emotional and behavioral disorders is studied to identify possible predictors of disruptive forms of behavior. Parents of children aged 4-17 years in Saudi Arabia were surveyed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The findings of the study suggest that children with emotional and behavioral disorders in Saudi Arabia may account for 20% of the population of children between the ages of 4 and 17. The findings also revealed that over 20% of children in Saudi Arabia have difficulties in peer relationship and lack the necessary prosocial behaviors. The parent reporting, child gender, child education type, the geographical region, the father's education level, and the family's socioeconomic status were found to be statistically significant predictors of children's difficulties. However, these predictors were only able to explain a small portion of the difficulty scores.
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Date: December 2017
Creator: Maajeeny, Hassan
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report discusses the current state of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, its current relationship with the United States, and future initiatives to further develop U.S.-Saudi relations.
Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report discuses Saudi Arabia's governmental structure, human rights issues, relations with countries in the region, defense policies, and U.S. relations with the country. Special focus is given to military affairs and trade with Saudi Arabia.
Date: September 21, 2018
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Information Behavior of Individual Investors in Saudi Arabia

Description: Information plays a significant role in the success of investment strategies. Within a non-advisory context, individual investors elect to build and manage their investment portfolios to avoid the cost of hiring professional advisors. To cope with markets’ uncertainty, individual investors should acquire, understand, and use only relevant information, but that task can be affected by many factors, such as domain knowledge, cognitive and emotional biases, information overload, sources’ credibility, communication channels’ accuracy, and economic costs. Despite an increased interest in examining the financial performance of individual investors in Saudi Arabia, there has been no empirical research of the information behavior of individual investors, or the behavioral biases affecting the investment decision making process in the Saudi stock market (SSM). The purpose of this study was to examine this information behavior within a non-advisory contextualization of their investment decision-making process through the use of an online questionnaire instrument using close-ended questions. The significant intervening variables identified in this study influence the individual investors’ information behavior across many stages of the decision making process. While controlling for gender, education, and income, the optimal information behavior of individual investors in the SSM showed that the Experience factor had the greatest negative effect on the Information Seeking Behavior of individual investors. This was followed by Risk Tolerance, Financial Self-Efficacy, Emotional Biases, Education Level, Formal Information Access, Regret Aversion Bias, and Subjective Financial Knowledge. The Information Acquisition and Information Searching Behavior was influenced by the Acquisition Skepticism, Regret Aversion Bias, Formal Information Access, Overconfidence, and Information Seeking Behavior. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Formal Information Sources have a statistically significant positive effect on the Information Seeking Behavior, and on the Information Acquisition and Information Searching of individual investors in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the Socioeconomic Status (SES) of individual investors in Saudi Arabia was significantly influenced …
Date: May 2016
Creator: Elwani, Nabil Mohammed
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Development of an Instrument to Measure the Level of Acceptability and Tolerability of Cyber Aggression: Mixed-Methods Research on Saudi Arabian Social Media Users

Description: Cyber aggression came about as a result of advances in information communication technology and the aggressive usage of the technology in real life. Cyber aggression can take on many forms and facets. However, the main focus of this study is cyberbullying and cyberstalking through information sharing practices that might constitute digital aggressive acts. Human aggression has been extensively investigated. Studies focusing on understanding the causes and effects that can lead to physical and digital aggression have shown the prevalence of cyber aggression in different settings. Moreover, these studies have shown strong relationship between cyber aggression and the physiological and physical trauma on both perpetrators and their victims. Nevertheless, the literature shows a lack of studies that could measure the level of acceptance and tolerance of these dangerous digital acts. This study is divided into two main stages; Stage one is a qualitative pilot study carried out to explore the concept of cyber aggression and its existence in Saudi Arabia. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 Saudi social media users to collect understanding and meanings of cyber aggression. The researcher followed the Colaizzi’s methods to analyze the descriptive data. A proposed model was generated to describe cyber aggression in social media applications. The results showed that there is a level of acceptance to some cyber aggression acts due to a number of factors. The second stage of the study is focused on developing scales with reliable items that could determine acceptability and tolerability of cyber aggression. In this second stage, the researcher used the factors discovered during the first stage as source to create the scales’ items. The proposed methods and scales were analyzed and tested to increase reliability as indicated by the Cronbach’s Alpha value. The scales were designed to measure how acceptable and tolerable is cyber-bullying, cyber-stalking in Saudi …
Date: May 2016
Creator: Albar, Ali Aldroos
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior as risk factors for human papillomavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

Description: This article seeks to determine the prevalence and the sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a hospital-based cohort of women in Saudi Arabia.
Date: April 3, 2016
Creator: Alhamlan, F. S.; Khayat, H. H.; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Al-Muammar, T. A.; Tulbah, A. M.; Al-Badawi, I. A. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Information
open access

Student, School, Parent Connectedness, and School Risk Behaviors of Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

Description: This article investigates select school behaviors, including school absenteeism, engaging in fights, and discipline for misconduct at school as well as their association with the school environment, school and home connectedness.
Date: October 31, 2015
Creator: AlMakadma, AbdulKarim S. & Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini
Partner: UNT College of Information
open access

Perceived Responsibility, Authority, and Delegation of Department Chairpersons Compared to Perceptions of Faculty in Saudi Arabian Universities

Description: This investigation compared the perceptions of responsibility, authority, and delegation held by department chairpersons and those held by faculty members in Saudi Arabian universities. The three purposes of the study were to determine differences in perceptions between department chairpersons and their faculty members, to determine any significant interaction between the independent variable (position) and each of the eleven clarification variables with respect to respondents' perceptions, and to determine any significant difference in perceptions between respondents in different categories of each of the clarification variables. The findings were as follows. There was a significant difference in perceptions of responsibility between department chairpersons and their faculty members, but no such difference was found for authority or delegation. Significant interactions were found between position and three of the clarification variables with regard to perceptions of responsibility, between position and none of the clarification variables with regard to perceptions of authority, and between position and four of the clarification variables with regard to perceptions of delegation. In addition, significant differences in perceptions were found among categories of six clarification variables with regard to responsibility, of four clarification variables with regard to authority, and of seven clarification variables with regard to delegation.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Masoud, Khalid S. (Khalid Saad)
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

Description: The United States and Saudi Arabia have long-standing economic and defense ties, and the U.S. has a strong security commitment to Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was a key member of the allied coalition that expelled Iraqi forces from Kuwait in 1991. Bombing attacks against several U.S. and foreign-operated installations in Saudi Arabia have raised some concerns about security of U.S. citizens and what appears to be growing anti-Americanism in some segments of the Saudi population. Other principal issues of bilateral interest include security in the post-war Gulf region, the Saudi position on the Arab-Israeli conflict, arms transfers to Saudi Arabia, Saudi external aid programs, bilateral trade relationships and oil production, and Saudi policies on human rights and democracy.
Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: Prados, Alfred B. & Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

Description: The United States and Saudi Arabia have long-standing economic and defense ties, and the U.S. has a strong security commitment to Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was a key member of the allied coalition that expelled Iraqi forces from Kuwait in 1991. Bombing attacks against several U.S. and foreign-operated installations in Saudi Arabia have raised some concerns about security of U.S. citizens and what appears to be growing anti-Americanism in some segments of the Saudi population. Other principal issues of bilateral interest include security in the post-war Gulf region, the Saudi position on the Arab-Israeli conflict, arms transfers to Saudi Arabia, Saudi external aid programs, bilateral trade relationships and oil production, and Saudi policies on human rights and democracy.
Date: August 2, 2006
Creator: Prados, Alfred B. & Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Saudi Arabia: Post-War Issues and U.S. Relations

Description: Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saudi dynasty, enjoys special importance in the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 1932, it has benefitted from a stable political system based on a smooth process of succession to the throne and an increasingly prosperous economy dominated by the oil sector. Decrees by King Fahd in March 1992 establishing an appointive consultative council and provincial councils and promulgating a basic law providing for certain citizens' rights could signal a gradual trend toward a more open political system.
Date: April 13, 2001
Creator: Prados, Alfred B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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