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An Analysis of Higher Education in Iran and a Proposal for Its Improvement

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is the development of a plan to reform the structure of the current system of Iranian higher education, both quantitatively and qualitatively. These goals have been set by the Charter of Educational Revolution and coincide with the Development Plans of the nation which have aimed to bring about a fundamental change in society. Educational history of Iran since ancient times is discussed, with special emphasis on higher education, and the religio-cultural influences in shaping the organization of educational institutions and curricula are overviewed. The nation developed one of the world's oldest scholastic centers of higher learning, Gondi-Shapur Academy, whose international faculty contributed significantly to the advancement of knowledge. Iranian culture was exposed to Islam following the Arab invasion; and Islamic doctrine, which has been opposed to secular education, has dominated the educational philosophy of the country. Western education came to Iran through military institutions and religious institutions. Modern schools increased during the last decades of the nineteenth century; however, their progressive development can be traced only from the reign of Reza Shah, beginning in 1925. The first modern university of Iran was established forty years ago. The provincial universities and other institutions of higher learning came into existence in following years. After adopting the Charter of Educational Revolution in 1968, Iran experienced a rapid expansion of its institutions of higher learning. The percentage of total student enrollment in these institutions has never exceeded 0.37 per cent of the population, however, because the institutions could not expand rapidly enough to accommodate the students who applied for admission. Graduate education is also in the primary stages of development, currently comprising 2.4 per cent of the college students of the nation. To cope with these shortcomings, the study has come to the following conclusions: 1. ...
Date: May 1974
Creator: Naeli, Mohammed Ali
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Characteristics of National Science Foundation-Sponsored Science Programs in American Secondary Schools and Implications for Science Education in Kuwaiti Secondary Schools

Description: The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate selected characteristics of the National Science Foundation-sponsored science curricular programs developed in the United States for use at the secondary school level, and to determine some curricular and instructional implications for Kuwaiti secondary school science programs. The study is designed to include a description and an evaluation of selected characteristics of four NSF-sponsored science curricular programs, namely Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEM Study), Earth Science Curriculum Project (ESCP), and Harvard Project Physics (HPP) programs. The study also includes a description and evaluation of selected characteristics of all Kuwaiti secondary school science programs in biology, chemistry, geology (earth science), and physics. The characteristics of science programs of both countries are described and evaluated, individually and collectively, by using Zorn's Criteria. Based on the results obtained, certain implications for Kuwaiti secondary school science programs are drawn, both individually and collectively. Recommendations to be considered in future revision and improvement of Kuwaiti science programs are presented. The results of the study reveal that the NSF-sponsored science programs are superior to Kuwaiti science programs in a variety of characteristics, such as the emphasis on active student involvement in inquiry-oriented activities, the inclusion of related information sources (bibliographies) in student textbooks, and the provision of extensive supplementary reading materials.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Jarragh, Abdullah J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Job Satisfaction Among Faculty Members at Yarmouk University

Description: This study measured and analyzed job satisfaction among faculty members at Yarmouk University in relation to gender, marital status, age, annual salary, years of experience, academic rank, academic activity, faculty affiliation, country in which the last degree was received, tenure status, and nationality. The population consisted of 350 full-time faculty members. A total of 216 (61.7%) faculty members participated in this study. The data collecting instruments consisted of the faculty data sheet and the Job Descriptive Index. Frequencies, percentages, means, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to analyze the data. The level of significance was set at 0.05. A Scheffe method of multiple comparison was used for follow-up investigation. Although the results of the study indicate that there were no significant differences in job satisfaction among faculty members with regard to gender, marital status, academic activity, and the country in which the faculty member received the last degree, significant differences were found with regard to age, annual salary, nationality, years of experience, rank, tenure status, and faculty affiliation.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Tanash, Salameh Y. (Salameh Yousef)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceptions of the Sudanese Professional Working in Saudi Arabia on Migration and Economic Development of the Sudan

Description: The brain drain emerged as a phenomenon in the Sudan in the early 1970's when a change in the political system was followed by a change in the economic situation. The oil price increases created a dynamic process that led to attractive employment conditions in the petroleum producing countries such as Saudi Arabia and to depressed economic conditions in the developing countries like the Sudan. The purposes of the study are to (a) obtain information on the Sudanese professionals working in Saudi Arabia, (b) determine what major factors influence their migration, and (c) to develop policy recommendations on the flow of migration from the Sudan. The population of this study were Sudanese professionals living in Saudi Arabia. Data were generated through surveying a sample of 300 subjects selected randomly from the defined population. A survey questionnaire based on the research questions was developed for this study. Data from 263 respondents were analyzed. The findings of the study suggest that the majority of the Sudanese professionals working in Saudi Arabia are male, between 30 to 40 years of age. They have many years of experience and a high level of qualifications. The factors that led to their migration are: (a) high cost of living in the Sudan, (b) low salary, (c) money shortage, (d) high cost of housing, (e) little opportunity for advancement, and (f) shortage of basic necessities. It is realized that migration has costs and benefits for the Sudan. Government policies should be directed to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs. It is recommended that the government should adopt policies to regulate migration and assure the Sudanese expatriates of the efficient execution of these policies, attract their remittances through exemption and facilities, and work toward eliminating or reducing the causes of migration.
Date: March 1990
Creator: Hamid, Adil A. (Adil Abdelaziz)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Sociometric Descriptive Study of Iranian College Students Nominated on the Basis of Outstanding Personality Development

Description: This research study was developed to investigate a group of Outstanding college personalities in Iran. The purposes of the study were: (a) to identify a "frequently nominated" group and an "infrequently nominated" group of University of Isfahan students based on the social criterion of "outstanding personality development"; (b) to determine whether or not "friendship nominations" unduly influenced the selection of "frequently nominated" students; (c) to determine whether or not "frequently nominated" and "infrequently nominated" students could be reliably differentiated on stressful life events, developmental histories, mental health adjustment, expressed needs, and descriptive data; and (d) to present a summary of the most striking and consistent findings on personality development of the "frequently nominated" students. This study concludes that 1. A "frequently nominated" group and an "infrequently nominated" group of normal Iranian student personalities, based on the social criterion of "outstanding personality development," can be identified and statistically differentiated. 2. "Outstanding" Iranian student personalities have greater affiliative capacities than other normal Iranian student personalities. 3. "Outstanding" Iranian student personalities possess ego strength, as evidenced by their desire to make decisions from inner self evaluations and to break parental standards, to a greater extent than other normal Iranian student personalities. 4. "Outstanding" Iranian student personalities do not practice self—sacrifice. 5. "Outstanding" Iranian student personalities are actualizing their capacities to a greater degree than are other normal Iranian student personalities. 6. "Outstanding" Iranian student personalities are not free from stressful situations, problems, or inner conflicts.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Brown, Sherry Yale
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Development of Behavioral Objectives for the Second Year Chemistry Course in Kuwait Secondary Schools

Description: The purpose of this study is to develop a set of behavioral objectives for the Second Year Chemistry Course in Kuwait Secondary Schools. This set of behavioral objectives will help school teachers to choose their activities, teaching methods, questions, and evaluation procedures; it will be useful in the preparation and use of behavioral objectives in their other courses. As a conclusion, the Chemical Education Material Study (CHEMS) appears more beneficial than the traditional chemistry course by its effect on student achievement and the stimulation of the cognitive abilities such as application and analysis processes. The present Kuwaiti chemistry course appears more organized than previous courses and the movement is toward the modern approach. Use of behavioral objectives appears more effective than the use of general objectives (or no objectives) in the area of students' achievements and attitudes, in the area of course content, and organization of complex cognitive processes. Recommendations for improvement of the Kuwaiti chemistry course and for further studies on behavioral objectives are listed.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Jasim, Saleh A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perceived Responsibility, Authority, and Delegation of Department Chairpersons Compared to Perceptions of Faculty in Saudi Arabian Universities

Description: This investigation compared the perceptions of responsibility, authority, and delegation held by department chairpersons and those held by faculty members in Saudi Arabian universities. The three purposes of the study were to determine differences in perceptions between department chairpersons and their faculty members, to determine any significant interaction between the independent variable (position) and each of the eleven clarification variables with respect to respondents' perceptions, and to determine any significant difference in perceptions between respondents in different categories of each of the clarification variables. The findings were as follows. There was a significant difference in perceptions of responsibility between department chairpersons and their faculty members, but no such difference was found for authority or delegation. Significant interactions were found between position and three of the clarification variables with regard to perceptions of responsibility, between position and none of the clarification variables with regard to perceptions of authority, and between position and four of the clarification variables with regard to perceptions of delegation. In addition, significant differences in perceptions were found among categories of six clarification variables with regard to responsibility, of four clarification variables with regard to authority, and of seven clarification variables with regard to delegation.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Masoud, Khalid S. (Khalid Saad)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Educational Activities at the University of Jordan in Two Decades (1962-1982)

Description: This study examined the educational activities at the University of Jordan, established in 1962, which is the oldest university in the country. The study traced the historical development of the university, which emphasizes highly-qualified graduates, and analyzed some of its educational practices. Research on this subject is limited. Jordanians have written little about their educational system, and there is little evidence of foreign scholars' interest in the subject. Some researchers argued that national pride was the main reason for establishing the university, since financial resources were not available to initiate and sustain serious research. The university started in the fall semester of 1962 with 167 students and one faculty, the Faculty of Arts. Two decades later, the university had ten faculties: Commerce and Administrative Sciences, Sciences, Medical Sciences (Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy), Agriculture, Education, Law, Engineering, Sharia, and Physical Education. The total number of staff continued to increase from 7 in 1962 to 627 by 1982. The size of the physical structure increased from one building to 40 buildings with approximately 18,000 square meters in 1982. As of 1982, more than 15,253 students had graduated from the university with bachelor's, master's, and diplomas-in-education degrees. In 1972, the University of Jordan changed from the yearly system to the credit-hour system, making it the first university in the region to adapt the credit-hour system. This study also provided information on students studying in Jordanian schools, students in host countries, students and faculty distribution in seven faculties, faculty demographics, research projects, degree programs, university budgets, as well as the multipurpose general secondary education examination which has no clear directive philosophy.
Date: May 1990
Creator: Sammour, Hael Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries