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Penetrating radiation impact on NIF final optic components

Description: Goal of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to achieve thermonuclear ignition in a laboratory environment in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This will enable NIF to service the DOE stockpile stewardship management program, inertial fusion energy goals, and advance scientific frontiers. All of these applications will make use of the extreme conditions that the facility will create in the target chamber. In the case of a prospected 20 MJ yield scenario, NIF will produce 10{sup 19} neutrons with DT fusion 14 MeV energy per neutron. There will also be high-energy x rays as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous target debris produced either directly or indirectly by the inertial confinement fusion process. A critical design issue is the protection of the final optical components as well as sophisticated target diagnostics in such a harsh environment.
Date: October 15, 1996
Creator: Marshall, C.D.; Speth, J.A.; DeLoach, L.D. & Payne, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for top and bottom squarks

Description: Searches for the lightest scalar top quark {bar t}{sub 1} and scalar bottom quark {bar b}{sub 1} performed at LEP2 with a center-of-mass energy of up to {radical}s = 209 GeV and at Tevatron using data collected at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV during Run I and at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV during Run II, are discussed. Different possible decay modes were considered and no evidence for any such signal was observed. Exclusion limits were extracted.
Date: October 15, 2003
Creator: Rott, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final evaluation & test report for the standard waste box (docket 01-53-7A) type A packaging

Description: This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A compliance test and evaluation results of the Standard Waste Box. Testing and evaluation activities documented herein are on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Safety, Health and Security (EM-5), Germantown, Maryland. Duratek Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations performed an evaluation of the changes as documented herein under Docket 01-53-7A.
Date: October 15, 2001
Creator: KELLY, D L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of Prompt and MHD-Induced Fast Ion Loss from National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

Description: A range of effects may make fast ion confinement in spherical tokamaks worse than in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Data from neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer, and a fast ion loss diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that neutral beam ion confinement is consistent with classical expectations in quiescent plasmas, within the {approx}25% errors of measurement. However, fast ion confinement in NSTX is frequently affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity, and the effect of MHD can be quite strong.
Date: October 15, 2002
Creator: Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Roquemore, A.L.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Alekseyev, A.; Cecil, F.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special Analysis: Update of Disposal of Cement-Stabilized Encapsulated Waste at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

Description: This Special Analysis for Components-in-Grout (CIG) expands the list of isotopes to the full suite of normal isotopes. This revision also addresses selected isotopes in special waste forms from the K and L basin resin that have waste-specific Kds and high-concentration I-129 wastes with waste-specific Kds, including Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) activated carbon vessels. The full suite of normal isotopes was first screened using the Slit Trench screening results as a conservative approach. The isotopes that survived the screening were analyzed to determine the appropriate CIG inventory limits. The groundwater modeling was revised to incorporate improvements and changes in other recent Special Analyses and Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) evaluations. The air pathway analysis was modified to consider a distributed source rather than a point source. These changes are discussed below in intruder and groundwater sections. Tables and figures are provided in appendices that are directly related to the most recent analyses. Changes to inventory limits are shown in Table 7. Inventory limits for solubility- limited radionuclides require special treatment as discussed in Section 3.1.1.3. U-238 and Pu-239 were analyzed as being solubility-limited, because otherwise they would consume excessive amounts of their inventory limits. Other U and Pu isotopes were not analyzed as being solubility- limited because they would not consume excessive amounts of inventory limits. Current and projected inventories for the K and L basin resins are compared against inventory limits for a single set of 5 CIG trenches. Projections for the K and L basin waste are through 2035, thus actual inventory consumption is dependent on the total number of CIG trenches excavated and filled through 2035. Current inventory for three ETF activated carbon vessels awaiting disposal are compared against inventory limits for a single set of 5 CIG trenches.
Date: October 15, 2003
Creator: Collard, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The atmospheric neutrino flavor ratio in Soudan 2.

Description: We have measured the flavor ratio of ratios (R) in atmospheric neutrino interactions using a 1.52 kton-year exposure of Soudan 2. We find R = 0.67 {+-} 0.15{sub {minus}0.06}{sup +0.04}. This value is about 2{sigma} from the expected value of 1.0 and is consistent with the anomalous ratios measured by the Kamiokande and IMB experiments. We note that since our acceptance matrix is different from those of the water Cherenkov experiments we would not expect to measure the same value of R, unless R=1.
Date: October 15, 1997
Creator: Goodman, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selecting Compositions for Phase 1 of the Product Consistency Test (PCT) Assessment Study

Description: The purpose of this task is to generate the glass property/composition data and model necessary for enhancing operational processing windows. This effort is intended to be both generally applicable to all Department of Energy (DOE) High-Level Waste (HLW) glasses and specific to individual waste processing plants such as the DWPF and the planned High-Level and Low Activity Waste (HLW and LAW) plants at Hanford. Phase 1 consists of determining the glass compositional region where the existing durability model is not dependable in identifying durable glasses. Phase 2 will be devoted to developing a method of ensuring that durable glass compositions are not excluded from processing.
Date: October 15, 2002
Creator: Cozzi, A.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Modeling for the Prevention of Solids Formation During Canyon Processing of Legacy Nuclear Materials

Description: This report describes the effort to develop a predictive model of the stability of aqueous solutions of nuclear materials will enable the avoidance of concentrations that may cause salts to precipitate. Therefore, for the processing of off-normal material, the risk of producing unwanted solids that require processing to stop will be reduced. Processing delays result in higher operating costs. In addition, the improved model may reduce the work scope for future flowsheet development by identifying the concentration of dissolver solutions that avoid the precipitation of salts. As an initial impact, the improved INEEL model should reduce costs for the processing of difficult-to-dissolve residues from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site by shortening the time it takes to determine dissolving solutions. As a long-term impact, this model should improve schedules to dissolve other off-normal nuclear materials and process aqueous solutions that are stored throughout the DOE complex.
Date: October 15, 2003
Creator: Rhodes, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions

Description: We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors.
Date: October 15, 2002
Creator: Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Doerner, R.; Antar, G.; Baldwin, M.; Conn, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH SO2 REMOVAL EFFICIENCY TESTING

Description: This final report describes the results of performance tests at six full-scale wet lime- and limestone-reagent flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The objective of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of low capital cost sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal upgrades for existing FGD systems as an option for complying with the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The upgrade options tested at the limestone-reagent systems included the use of organic acid additives (dibasic acid (DBA) and/or sodium formate) as well as increased reagent ratio (higher excess limestone levels in the recirculating slurry solids) and absorber liquid-to-gas ratio. One system also tested operating at higher flue gas velocities to allow the existing FGD system to treat flue gas from an adjacent, unscrubbed unit. Upgrade options for the one lime-based system tested included increased absorber venturi pressure drop and increased sulfite concentration in the recirculating slurry liquor.
Date: October 15, 1997
Creator: Blythe, Gary M. & Phillips, James L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Tank 43H Samples at the Conclusion of Uranyl Carbonate Addition

Description: Tank 43H serves as the feed Tank to the 2H evaporator. In the months of July and August 2001, about 21,000 gallons of a depleted uranyl carbonate solution were added to Tank 43H and agitated with two Flygt mixers. The depleted uranium addition served to decrease the U-235 enrichment in the Tank 43H supernate so that the supernate could be evaporated with no risk of accumulating enriched uranium.
Date: October 15, 2002
Creator: Oji, L.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discovery of Disposal of Low-Level Waste in Slit Trench Segments Shallower than Analyzed in Performance Assessment

Description: The effect of disposing of low-level waste in slit trenches that are shallower than those analyzed in the revised performance assessment for the E-Area low-level waste facility is evaluated. The conclusion of the evaluation is that such disposal is bounded by the performance assessment if all of the disposed waste packages meet the slit trench Waste Acceptance Criteria and if at least four feet of soil is placed over the disposed waste packages.
Date: October 15, 2002
Creator: Cook, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An application of performance goal based method for the design and evaluation of structures

Description: This paper describes an application of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) performance goal based method for the design and evaluation of structures, systems, and components (SSCS) at Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH). The philosophy on which DOE`s method is based has been employed to construct a graded approach to the minimum structural design and evaluation criteriz@ used at the DOE Hanford Site that complies with the DOE Order 54E;0.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation. The FDH structural design and evaluation criteria applies to both nuclear and non-nuclear SSCs that are not covered by a reactor safety analysis report.
Date: October 15, 1996
Creator: Conrads, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 1, Technical report. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

Description: This program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium for Coal Water Mixture Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I is nearly completed. During this reporting period, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, engineering designs and economics for retrofitting the Crane, Indiana boiler to fire coal-based fuels, and a 1,000-hour demonstration of dry, micronized coal were completed. In addition, a demonstration-scale micronized-coal water mixture (MCWM) preparation circuit was constructed and a 1,000-hour demonstration firing MCWM began. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations involved literature surveys of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, trace metals, volatile organic compounds, and fine particulate matter capture. In addition, vendors and engineering firms were contacted to identify the appropriate emissions technologies for the installation of commercial NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removal systems on the demonstration boiler. Information from the literature surveys and engineering firms will be used to identify, design, and install a control system(s). Work continued on the refinement and optimization of coal grinding and MCWM preparation procedures, and on the development of advanced processes for beneficiating high ash, high sulfur coals. Work also continued on determining the basic cost estimation of boiler retrofits, and evaluating environmental, regulatory, and regional economic impacts. In addition, the feasibility of technology adoption, and the public`s perception of the benefits and costs of coal usage was studied. A coal market analysis was completed. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, emissions reductions and economic analyses of coal use.
Date: October 15, 1996
Creator: Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A. & Hatcher, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary design parameters of 6 GeV storage ring lattice for Synchrotron Light Source

Description: In this note, we describe a design of lattice, which is by no means optimized for the ultimate performance, but these parameters can be used for the starting point of other design efforts. Assumptions and features used in this design are: (1) 32 periods which is reasonably high periodicity for chromaticity corrections. (2) Achromatic bending cell which enables us to make all straight sections to be dispersion free. (3) Twiss parameters at dispersion area are the same for all cells to make undulator straight section can be tuned to wiggler straight section a-id vice versa. (4) No attempt is made to extract the photon beam from bending magnets, and when this feature is added, the lattice design may have to be changed in order to provide-the photon beam channel. (5) Natural emittance in the horizontal plane is made as small as possible in the range of 10-8m radians. This value can be optimized later by judicious choice of the Twiss parameters through the bending magnets. (6) The bending magnet should have parallel edges in order to simplify its construction. This assumption implies that there is vertical focussing from the edge. (7) The beta functions at the straight section should be tunable so that various configurations of the insertion devices should be accommodated.
Date: October 15, 1984
Creator: Cho, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

Description: This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition.
Date: October 15, 1996
Creator: Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A. & Hatcher, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical aspects of top quark production at hadron collider

Description: We summarize our calculation of the total cross section for top quark production at hadron colliders within the context of perturbative quantum chromodynamics, including resummation of the effects of initial-state soft gluon radiation to all orders in the strong coupling strength.
Date: October 15, 1996
Creator: Berger, E.L. & Contopanagos, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRADA final report for CRADA number Y1294-0296: Optical particulate emission monitor

Description: The Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology (ORCMT) and Environmental Systems Corporation (ESC) have collaborated on an effort to develop the optical system for an enhanced particulate emission monitor. The purpose of this effort was to assist a small East Tennessee company in perfecting an instrument that would meet or exceed the performance of competing foreign instruments and provide measurement capabilities necessary to assure compliance of Department of Energy facilities and other industrial facilities with expected EPA regulations. The two parties collaborated on design, assembly, and bench testing of the prototype instrument. The prototype system was targeted to have the capability for measuring micron size particles in concentrations as low as 10 micrograms per cubic meter and to have the added benefit of improving sampling statistics (i.e. measurements will be made over larger regions of the stack) over current instruments. Project deliverables were a prototype optical system and characterization data.
Date: October 15, 1995
Creator: Miller, A.C. Jr.; Bernacki, E. & Nuspliger, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Designs Studies of Low-Aspect Ratio Quasi-Omnigenous Stellarators

Description: Significant progress has been made in the development of new modest-size compact stellarator devices that could test optimization principles for the design of a more attractive reactor. These are 3 and 4 field period low-aspect-ratio quasi-omnigenous (QO) stellarators based on an optimization method that targets improved confinement, stability, ease of coil design, low-aspect-ratio, and low bootstrap current.
Date: October 15, 1998
Creator: Batchelor, D.B.; Carreras, B.A.; Hirshman, S.P.; Lynch, V.E.; Sanchez, R.; Spong, D.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EMP on a NTS experiment

Description: This report is a compilation of two previous sets of pretest calculations, references 1 and 2 and the grounding and shielding report, reference 3. The calculations performed in reference 1 were made for the baseline system, with the instrumentation trailers not isolated from ground, and wider ranges of ground conductivity were considered. This was used to develop the grounding and shielding plan included in the appendix. The final pretest calculations of reference 2 were performed for the modified system with isolated trailers, and with a better knowledge of the ground conductivity. The basic driving mechanism for currents in the model is the motion of Compton electrons, driven by gamma rays, in the air gaps and soil. Most of the Compton current is balanced by conduction current which returns directly along the path of the Compton electron, but a small fraction will return by circuitous paths involving current flow on conductors, including the uphole cables. The calculation of the currents is done in a two step process -- first the voltages in the ground near the conducting metallic structures is calculated without considering the presence of the structures. These are then used as open circuit drivers for an electrical model of the conductors which is obtained from loop integrals of Maxwell`s equations. The model which is used is a transmission line model, similar to those which have been used to calculate EMP currents on buried and overhead cables in other situations, including previous underground tests, although on much shorter distance and time scales, and with more controlled geometries. The behavior of air gaps between the conducting structure and the walls of the drift is calculated using an air chemistry model which determines the electron and ion densities and uses them to calculate the air conductivity across the gap.
Date: October 15, 1991
Creator: Gilbert, J.; van Lint, V. & Sherwood, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A prototype distributed object-oriented architecture for image-based automatic laser alignment

Description: Designing a computer control system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a complex undertaking because of the system`s large size and its distributed nature. The controls team is addressing that complexity by adopting the object-oriented programming paradigm, designing reusable software frameworks, and using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for distribution. A prototype system for image-based automatic laser alignment has been developed to evaluate and gain experience with CORBA and OOP in a small distributed system. The prototype is also important in evaluating alignment concepts, image processing techniques, speed and accuracy of automatic alignment objectives for the NIF, and control hardware for aligment devices. The prototype system has met its inital objectives and provides a basis for continued development.
Date: October 15, 1996
Creator: Stout, E.A.; Kamm, V.J.M.; Spann, J.M. & Van Arsdall, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of impulsively loaded pressure vessels

Description: Explosion containment vessels for containing from 2,000 to 3,000 five ton nuclear explosions are considered. Analysis methods appear adequate and lowest weights using the most advanced materials available in the next five years are projected.None of these materials can be fabricated today and all require extensive development. Present material technology limits the choice of materials and defines the weight. The addition of safety factors and fixtures (nozzles, etc.) will add to this weight considerably, and may well radically alter the vessel response. Improvements in the strength weight ratios of metals and glasses over those considered in this report do not appear reasonable at this time. Winding schemes to utilize the high strength of steel wires and somehow maintain a reasonable thickness appear to offer the most promise. A `ductile` beryllium would of course offer vast improvement, but no indications that this is being developed have appeared and all presently known beryllium is much too brittle.
Date: October 15, 1963
Creator: Brown, N.; Cornwell, R.; Hanner, D.; Leichter, H. & Mohr, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department