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A Siphon Break as a Blocking Valve

Description: An experiment was conducted io determine the feasibility of using the breaking of a siphon as a quick-acting means for stopping sodium fiow following a loss of pump power. A 2-in. pipe system with a high-speed free-surface centrifugal pump was used in this investigation. Runs were made with sodium at 500 and 940 deg F, cover gas at various pressures up to 10 psig, and Reynolds numbers up to approximately 360,000. The siphon-break was established as an effective method for rapid flow stoppage; however, a brief reversal of flow follows the initial flow stoppage. An expression for the flow transient following the breaking of the siphon was derived which agreed reasonably well with experimental results. (auth)
Date: October 15, 1959
Creator: McDonald, J. & Marten, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sodium Graphite Reactor Materials Survey

Description: >The materials problems associated with the present sodium graphite reactor system have generally been approached by using existing knowledge and data to meet the proposed operating conditions. This discussion reviews the general reactor concept and the specific materials used for the major reactor components: (1) shielding materials; (2) core materials; and (3) sodium cooling system materials. In each case, the materials problems and the materials used to minimize or eliminate these problems are described. Economical nuclear power is currently dependent on the flow of improved materials for high temperature use in high radiation fields. Rapid progress is being made in this respect. (auth)
Date: September 15, 1959
Creator: Hayward, B. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Programming for Sodium Graphite Reactors

Description: The effect of fuel programming, i.e., the scheme used for changing fuel in a core, on the reactivity and specific power of a sodium graphite reactor is discussed Fuel programs considered Include replacing fuel a core-load at a time or a radial zone at a time, replacing fuel to manutain the same average exposure of fuel elements throughout the core, and replacing and transferring fuel elements to maintain more highly exposed fuel in the center or at the periphery of the core. Flux and criticality calculations show the degree of power flattening and the concurrent decrease in effective multiplication which results from maintaining more exposed fuel toward the core center. Corverse effects are shown for the case of maintaining more exposed fuel near the core periphery. The excess reactivity which must be controlled in the various programs is considered. Illustrative schedules for implementing each of these programs in an SGR are presented. (auth)
Date: October 15, 1959
Creator: Connolly, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Strength Zirconium Alloys

Description: The properties of zirconium alloyed with aluminum tin, and molybdenum were investigated. Using reactorgrade zirconium sponge, 11 zirconium-base alloys were double arc-melted and cast into 6-in.-diam. ingots weighing 35 lb each. By such standard hot working procedures as extruding and rolling, the ingots were converted to 1/8-in.-thick strips. The extruded and rolled products were used for a variety of evaluation studies which included corrosion thermal conductivity, tensile, and creep tests. The alloys demonstrated short-time elevated temperature strength properties equal to or greater than type-304 stainless steel. Their corrosion resistance in sodium, at 1000 deg F, compares favorable with that of unalloyed zirconium. The creep resistance and the thermal conductivity were found to be less than those for type-304 stainless steel, but adequate for nuclear reactor application. (auth)
Date: July 15, 1959
Creator: Wagner, R.K. & Kline, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HNPF Cold Trap Evaluation

Description: Two designs of sodium cold traps for the HNPF have been subjected to full scale tests, Performance features that were investigated include oxide removal efficiency, oxide capacity, pressure drop characteristics, economizer effectiveness, and temperature profiles, Results indicate that both designs should perform satisfactorily in the Hallam plant, (auth)
Date: December 15, 1959
Creator: Cygan, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Casting Development for Uranium-Molybdenum Alloy Shapes

Description: The casting of shapes of uranium--molybdenum metal of varying sizes and thicknesses from a molten charge has been successfally accomplished with specificially designed graphite distributors and molds. Solid cylinders, hollow cylinders, and flat plate shapes were cast in gang molds. As many as 35 solid cylinders have been cast simultaneously. All castings had smooth surfaces, and solid shapes were cast to 0.006-in. tolerance on all dimensions except length. (auth)
Date: November 15, 1959
Creator: Binstock, M. H. & Stanley, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SRE Experimental Fuel Program. (Interim Report)

Description: ABS>A program was set up to develop and evaluate suitable fuels for Sodium Graphite Reactors. The method being ased is to irradiate various fuel materials in fullsize element designs, in the SRE, under measured temperatures and known reactor conditions. To date, uranium, dilute uranium alloys, thorium- uraniam alloys, and U0/sub 2/ were fabricated, assembled into fuel elements, and loaded into the SRE. A schedule was established for these fuels to be evaluated in the SRE hot cell after irradiation. New fuel materials are being investigated and will be tested in a similar manner. (auth)
Date: October 15, 1959
Creator: Hayward, B. R. & Walter, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Studies of Scavenging Systems Related to Radioactive Fallout. Letter Report No. 7 Covering Period April 1 to May 31, 1959

Description: Progress is reported on the development of a cyclone which will remove particles larger than 8 microns. A method is proposed for a more efficient separation of particles by increasing the number of size separation filters in the sampling train. Preliminary tests with submicron polystyrene particles are being conducted. Numerous methods have been tried for counting the particles in a water droplet of the polystyrene aerosol. The criteria for a satisfactory method of counting particles are discussed. A proposed method to accomplish this is to use carbon-14 labeled polystyrene hydrosols. (For preceding period see ARF-3127-6.) (B.O.G.)
Date: June 15, 1959
Creator: Stockham, J. D. & Rosinski, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collected Methods for Analysis of Sodium Metal

Description: Methods for analyzing chemical impurities in sodium metal samples are presented. Chemical analysis was used to determine impurities in calcium, carbon, chromium, iron, lithium, nickel, oxygen, potassium, and zirconium. Spectrographic analysis was used to determine other impurities. Sodium samples obtained from experimental apparatus were analyzed by these methods. (auth)
Date: October 15, 1959
Creator: Perrine, H. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REACTOR FUEL WASTE DISPOSAL PROJECT PRESSURE-TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON SALT CAVITIES AND SURVEY OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS STORAGE

Description: It is deemed feasible to store reactor fuel wastes in a salt dome cavity to a depth where the differential in pressure between the soil over-burden pressure and pressure of the fluid inside the cavity does not exceed 3000 psi, and the temperature is less than 400 deg F. Tests at pressure increments of 1000 psi were conducted on a 2" cylindrical cavity contained in a 6-in. long by 6-in. cylindrical salt core. Tests indicate that the cavity exhibited complete stability under pressures to 3000 psi and temperatures to 300 deg F. At temperatures of 100 to 400 deg F and pressures to 5000 psi continuous deformation of the cavity resulted. Initial movement of the salt was observed at all pressures. This was evidenced by vertical deformation and cavity size reduction. It was noted that a point of structural equilibrium was reached at lower temperatures when the pressure did not exceed 5000 psi. A literature study reveals that the most common type of cavity utilized in liquefied petroleum gas storage is either cylindrical or ellipsoidal. A few are pear or inverted cone shaped. There was no indication of leakage for cavities when pressure tested for as long as 72 hr. This indicates that the salt mass is not permeable under conditions of prevailing underground temperature and pressure. Salt specimens tested under atmospheric Pressure and temperature exhibited permeabilities of 0.1 to 0.2 millidarcys. The cost of completing underground storage cavities in salt masses is expected to be approximately 05 per barrel of storage space. (auth)
Date: January 15, 1959
Creator: Brown, K.E.; Jessen, F.W. & Gloyna, E.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RELEASE OF FISSION GASES FROM THE AE-6 REACTOR ON MARCH 25, 1959

Description: An analysis was made of the fission-gas-release incident during the pressure pumpdown of the AE-6 Reactor resulting in the contamination of the reactor room and members of the operating staff. Descriptions are given of the normal core pumping procedures, procedural alterations during the incident, the discovery of the contamination and its possible causes, and the remedial actions taken. Steps taken to minimize the chance of the occurrence of the contamination in the future are listed. (B.O.G.)
Date: April 15, 1959
Creator: Blackshaw, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ORGANIC COOLANT RECLAMATION. Quarterly Progress Report No. 3 for June 15, 1959-September 15, 1959

Description: In the third quarter of research on organic coolant reclamation, reaction conditions which show promise as reclamation prccedures were found in two major areas of investigation. In the study of hydrocracking of polyphenyls, ten catalysts show activity. One of these, a platinum on alumina, gives a very clean reaction with high conversions per pass and high yields in the model systems under study. The redistribution reaction in the model case of benzene and p-terphenyl gave reproducible results with high enough conversion to be of interest for reclamation. ( For preceding period see AECU-4268.) (auth)
Date: October 15, 1959
Creator: Wineman, R.J.; Adams, J.S. & Scola, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DETECTION OF ThO$sub 2$ CONTAMINATION IN SIMULATED CUTS AND ABRASIONS

Description: Tests have been made to determine the sensitivity of various radiation detection instruments for known amounts of ThO/sub 2/ contained in simulated cuts and abrasions. A shielded Geiger-Mueller counter tube can be expected to detect at least 0.1 mg ThO/sub 2/ when counting for a reasonable length of time provided the ThO/sub 2/ deposit is on the surface of the subject being counted. A shielded gamma-spectrometer-crystal, set at a 50-kev cutoff, can be expected to detect at least 0.5 mg ThO/sub 2/ even when an absorber equivalent to 1/2 in. of paraffin is placed between the crystal and the ThO/sub 2/ sample. Duration of exposure of standard film badge photographic emulsions is inversely proportional to the amount of material present and an exposure of about 300 hr is required to detect 10 mg of surface ThO/sub 2/. Although no information is available on the amount of thorium required to induce fibrosarcomas, an extrapolation of data for plutonium indicates that of the order of 1/2 gram of thorium must be present before occurrence of fibrosarcomas would be observed. This value does not represcnt a lower limit but is more likely to be a value for which occurrence of fibrosarcomas are a virtual certainty. It appears to be most desirable to experimentally determine the lower limit value for the amount of ThO/sub 2/ required to induce fibrosarcomas, noting that this may be as much as a factor of 100 smaller than the value cited above. (auth)
Date: January 15, 1959
Creator: Thomas, D.G. & Hilyer, J.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CONTAINMENT PROPERTIES OF DCX

Description: The ''absolute'' containment of ions in the DCX magnetic mirror field resulting from the cylindrical symmetry of the field is discussed. The regions of confine;, ment in space and momentum are plotted for 300-kev deuterons. (auth)
Date: June 15, 1959
Creator: Fowler, T K & Rankin, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PATHFINDER ATOMIC POWER PLANT FINAL REPORT MOISTURE DE-ENTRAINMENT TESTS IN TWO- AND FOUR-INCH DIAMETER TEST SECTIONS

Description: Tests are described to determine the amount of entrained moisture occurring in the steam of the Pathfinder Power Plant as design parameters were varied. It was found that the height of the moisture separator and the velocity of the steam should be adjusted so that the permissible steam velocity for the particular height is not exceeded. If this is done, the amount of moisture entering the separator should be less than 1%, an amount of moisture that should not be difficult to remove with moisture separators. (J.R.D.)
Date: November 15, 1959
Creator: Wilson, J. & McDermott, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HRT Process Flowsheets--Revised Edition

Description: Revised HRT flowsheets are presented. These revisions cover such items as relocation of freezer units on the lines, corrections to the numbering of lines, valves or instruments, and the addition of a few lines in the service areas. The waste and vent system flowsheet was redrawn as two sheets. (C.J.G.)
Date: December 15, 1959
Creator: Robertson, R. C. & Jones, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEASIBILITY OF PARTIAL CHEMICAL CONTROL FOR THE SM-2. SM-2 (FORMERLY APPR- 1B) DESIGN PROGRAM, TASK 12-CHEMICAL CONTROL

Description: Chemical control of the SM-2 was evaluated both as a partial substitute for burnable poison in the fuel element meat and as a means of improving plant performance. Based on a review of existing information, boric acid was chosen as the reference soluble poison. It was shown that 60% of the burnable B/sup 10/ in the fuel element matrix could be replaced by soluble B/sup 10/ in the coolant without impairing plant stability during load transients. The feasibility of improving power distribution and reducing the number of control rods by supplementing the burnable poison with chemical control was also demonstrated. A preliminary design of an injection and removal system was prepared for the SM-2. (auth)
Date: May 15, 1959
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Early Antiproton Work [Nobel Lecture]

Description: Early work on the antiproton, particularly that part which led to the first paper on the subject, is described. Conclusions that can be drawn purely from the existence of the antiproton are discussed. (W.D.M.)
Date: December 15, 1959
Creator: Chamberlain, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of Oxygen in Oxide Films by Neutron Activation Analysis

Description: Preliminary experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of the nuclear reactions Li/sup 6/ (n, alpha )H/sup 3/ and O/sup 16/(H/sup 3/,n) F/sup 18/ to determine the thickness of oxide films on metals. Sheets of thin paper and of aluminum, imbedded in powdered LiF, were irradiated with pile neutrons at a flux of 6 x 10/sup 11/ n/cm/sup 2//sec and counted with an end-window proportional counter. A saturation activity of 1.87 hr F/sup 18/ of 150 dis/min per microgram of oxygen was observed in the paper, but radioactivity due to impurities masked F/sup 18/ in the aluminum. It is concluded that a 1 A (0.01 mu gm/cm/sup 2/) oxide film thickness may be measured by a neutron irradiation at a flux of 10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2//sec but chemical separation of induced radioactivity from the bulk metal is essential. (auth)
Date: July 15, 1959
Creator: Winchester, J. W.; Meyer, R. E.; Bate, L. C. & Leddicotte, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE SURFACE REACTIONS OF METALS. Summary Report for October 1, 1958 to November 1, 1959

Description: Weight increases during the oxidation of irradiated foils of pure copper were greater than for unirraaiated specimens. Enhanced reactivity appeared to be strongest in the thin-film region up to about 5 mu g/cm/sub 2/. Oxide film (Cu/ sub 2/O) thickness for both irradiated and unirradiated specimens was approximately 1200 A. Radiation did not affect the reduction of Cu/sub 2/O during the induction period (period in which the reduction proceeds very slowly or not at all). In later stages of the reduction process, a serious lack of reproducibility was observed. Radiation effects on films of Cu/sub 2/O formed by prior oxidation of the copper substrate decreased the kinetics of secondary oxidation. The secondary oxidation curve exhibited a large gap at the point of interrnption for irradiation. The development of an automatic recording microbalance of high sensitivity and a furnace for studies in reactor radiation fields is reported. Measurements were made of the electrode potentials of irradiated (5.5 x 10/sup 19/ neutrons cm/sup -2/) copper, aluminum, magnesium, and zirconium. Cell potentials were found to be dominated by the oxide films formed on the electrode surfaces. The results indicate that radiation does affect the local anode reaction potential. No significant difference between the rates of the dissolution reaction of cold-worked and annealed copper specimens in Fe(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ was observed. Results on irradiated specimens indicated that irradiation enhanced the reactivity of copper specimens on the order of 5%. Irradiated copper specimens developed etch pits at a slightly greater rate than unirradiated specimens in
Date: December 15, 1959
Creator: Carpenter, F. D. & White, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PATHFINDER ATOMIC POWER PLANT COOLANT DISTRIBUTION TESTS. Final Report

Description: Tests were made to determine the head loss coefficient through the inlet plenum of the Pathfinder reactor and to determine the now distribution among the fuel element nozzles for various operating conditions--with all three pumps operating at the same flow rate and with any combination of only two pumps operating at the same flow rate. A quarter-scale wooden model was used for the tests. Air was used as the fluld. The loss coefficient was determined to be 1.8 plus or minus 0.3. The velocities of flow through the fuel element nozzles were determined to be within plus or minus 5 per cent of average flow when all pumps are operating and within plus or minus 10 per cent of average flow when only two pumps are operating. (auth)
Date: November 15, 1959
Creator: Wilson, J. & Styles, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEASUREMENT OF THE SRE AND KEWB PROMPT NEUTRON LIFETIME USING RANDOM NOISE AND REACTOR OSCILLATION TECHNIQUES

Description: The prompt neutron lifetime of the SRE was measured by both the oscillation and random noise techniques. Measurement by use of the oscillation technique gave a prompt neutron lifetime of (5 25 plus or minus 0 35) x 10/sup - 4/ sec for a calculated beta of 7 x 10/sup -3/. The measured noise response indicated a lifetime of (5.25 plus or minus 0.7) x 10/sup -4/ sec. Both measured values are in agreement with the calculated value of 5 x 10/sup -4/ sec. Four experiments utilizing the noise analysis technique were performed to determine the prompt neutron lifetime of the KEWB. All four experiments gave results which agreed within 3%, For an estimated beta of 8 x 10/sup -3/, the measured value obtained was (7.8 plus or minus 0.3) x 10/sup -5/ sec. This is in reasonable agreement with both the energy independert calculated value of 6.6 x 10/sup -5/ see and the value of 6.2 x 10/sup -5/ sec obtained from the experimental inhour equation The oscillation technique has been found to be better suited for lifetime determinations in reactors where the prompt neutron break frequency is less than 5 cps. Reactor noise analysis is more suitable for reactors which have prompt neutron lifetime break frequencies above 20 cps. (auth)
Date: October 15, 1959
Creator: Griffin, C.W. & Lundholm, J.G. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department