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Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). Final report

Description: A feasibility study to develop a requirements analysis and functional specification for a data management system for large-scale DNA sequencing laboratories resulted in a functional specification for a Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). This document reports the results of this feasibility study, and includes a functional specification for a SIMS relational schema. The SIMS is an integrated information management system that supports data acquisition, management, analysis, and distribution for DNA sequencing laboratories. The SIMS provides ad hoc query access to information on the sequencing process and its results, and partially automates the transfer of data between laboratory instruments, analysis programs, technical personnel, and managers. The SIMS user interfaces are designed for use by laboratory technicians, laboratory managers, and scientists. The SIMS is designed to run in a heterogeneous, multiplatform environment in a client/server mode. The SIMS communicates with external computational and data resources via the internet.
Date: February 15, 1996
Creator: Fields, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow using the finite element method

Description: The equations of motion describing turbulent flows (in both the low and high Reynolds-number regimes) are well established. However, present day computers cannot meet the enormous computational requirement for numerically solving the governing equations for common engineering flows in the high Reynolds number turbulent regime. The characteristics that make turbulent, high Reynolds number flows difficult to simulate is the extreme range of time and space scales of motion. Most current engineering calculations are performed using semi-empirical equations, developed in terms of the flow mean (average) properties. These turbulence{open_quote} models{close_quote} (semi-empirical/analytical approximations) do not explicitly account for the eddy structures and thus, the temporal and spatial flow fluctuations are not resolved. In these averaging approaches, it is necessary to approximate all the turbulent structures using semi-empirical relations, and as a result, the turbulence models must be tailored for specific flow conditions and geometries with parameters obtained (usually) from physical experiments. The motivation for this research is the development of a finite element turbulence modeling approach which will ultimately be used to predict the wind flow around buildings. Accurate turbulence models of building flow are needed to predict the dispersion of airborne pollutants. The building flow turbulence models used today are not capable of predicting the three-dimensional separating and reattaching flows without the manipulation of many empirical parameters. These empirical parameters must be set by experimental data and they may vary unpredictably with building geometry, building orientation, and upstream flow conditions.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: McCallen, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). Project definition study: Phase I

Description: This report describes a five-year plan for the construction and commissioning of a reliable and versatile NBTF facility for the production of high-quality, high-yield radioisotopes for research, biomedical, and industrial applications. The report is organized in nine sections providing, in consecutive order, responses to the nine questions posed by the U.S. Department of Energy in its solicitation for the NBTF Project Definition Study. In order to preserve direct correspondence (e.g., Sec. 3 = 3rd item), this Introduction is numbered {open_quotes}0.{close_quotes} Accelerator and facility designs are covered in Section 1 (Accelerator Design) and Section 2 (Facility Design). Preliminary estimates of capital costs are detailed in Section 3 (Design and Construction Costs). Full licensing requirements, including federal, state, and local ordinances, are discussed in Section 4 (Permits). A plan for the management of hazardous materials to be generated by NBTF is presented in Section 5 (Waste Management). An evaluation of NBTF`s economic viability and its potential market impact is detailed in Section 6(Business Plan), and is complemented by the plans in Section 7 (Operating Plan) and Section 8 (Radioisotope Plan). Finally, a plan for NBTF`s research, education, and outreach programs is presented in Section 9 (Research and Education Programs).
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: Lagunas-Solar, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation Physics for Personnel and Environmental Protection

Description: The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory FERMILAB- TM- 1834 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. This manuscript has been authored by Universities Research Association, Inc. under con- tract No. DE- ACO% 76CH03000 with the U. S. Department of Energy. The United States Government and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a nonexclusive, paid- up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for This text is dedicated to my wife Claudia, and our children, Joe and Sally, who provided me with love, cheerfulness, and their support during the long hours spent in the preparation of various versions of this text. I acknowledge the opportunity provided by the Fermilab Director, John Peoples, Jr., to be a part of the U. S. Particle Accelerator School. Also, the encouragement of Mel Month and A. Lincoln Read to teach in the USPAS has been sincerely appreciated. Several members of the Fermilab Environment, Safety and Health Section ...
Date: February 15, 1999
Creator: Cossairt, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Results of Testing of Flow Effects on Evaporator Scaling

Description: This investigation has focused on the effects of fluid flow on solids deposition from solutions that simulate the feed to the 2H evaporator at the Savannah River Site. Literature studies indicate that the fluid flow (or shear) affects particle-particle and particle-surface interactions and thus the phenomena of particle aggregation in solution and particle deposition (i.e., scale formation) onto solid surfaces. Experimental tests were conducted with two configurations: (1) using a rheometer to provide controlled shear conditions and (2) using controlled flow of reactive solution through samples of stainless steel tubing. All tests were conducted at 80 C and at high silicon and aluminum concentrations, 0.133 M each, in solutions containing 4 M sodium hydroxide and 1 A4 each of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Two findings from these experiments are important for consideration in developing approaches for reducing or eliminating evaporator scaling problems: (1) The rheometer tests suggested that for the conditions studied, maximum solids deposition occurs at a moderate shear rate, approximately 12 s{sup -1}. That value is expected to be on the order of shear rates that will occur in various parts of the evaporator system; for instance, a 6 gal/min single-phase liquid flow through the 2-in. lift or gravity drain lines would result in a shear rate of approximately 16 s{sup -1}. These results imply that engineering approaches aimed at reducing deposits through increased mixing would need to generate shear near all surfaces significantly greater than 12 s{sup -1}. However, further testing is needed to set a target value for shear that is applicable to evaporator operation. This is because the measured trend is not statistically significant at the 95% confidence interval due to variability in the results. In addition, testing at higher temperatures and lower concentrations of aluminum and silicon would more accurately represent conditions in ...
Date: February 15, 2002
Creator: Hu, M.Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective File I/O Bandwidth Benchmark

Description: The effective I/O bandwidth benchmark (b{_}eff{_}io) covers two goals: (1) to achieve a characteristic average number for the I/O bandwidth achievable with parallel MPI-I/O applications, and (2) to get detailed information about several access patterns and buffer lengths. The benchmark examines ''first write'', ''rewrite'' and ''read'' access, strided (individual and shared pointers) and segmented collective patterns on one file per application and non-collective access to one file per process. The number of parallel accessing processes is also varied and well-formed I/O is compared with non-well formed. On systems, meeting the rule that the total memory can be written to disk in 10 minutes, the benchmark should not need more than 15 minutes for a first pass of all patterns. The benchmark is designed analogously to the effective bandwidth benchmark for message passing (b{_}eff) that characterizes the message passing capabilities of a system in a few minutes. First results of the b{_}eff{_}io benchmark are given for IBM SP and Cray T3E systems and compared with existing benchmarks based on parallel Posix-I/O.
Date: February 15, 2000
Creator: Rabenseifner, R. & Koniges, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological risk assessment for the remote-handled transuranic waste storage options at Argonne National Laboratory - East.

Description: Interim storage of the remote-handled transuranic (RH/TRU) waste is needed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). Two on-site facilities, the northwest (NW) vaults in the 317 Area and the converted spent nuclear fuel pool in Building 331, were identified as potential storage locations through previous studies. To assist the decision making process of selecting a storage location, radiological risk assessments were conducted to analyze potential radiation exposures that would be associated with storage of the RH/TRU waste in these two facilities. Three drum storage scenarios (one for the 317 Area and two for Building 331) considering different drum handling procedures and stacking patterns were developed. Time-motion information on worker activities that would occur in the procedures was collected and recorded in spreadsheets. Using the time-motion information, potential external doses were estimated for the involved workers for each step in the procedures. The sum of the potential external doses over all the activity steps gave the total collective dose for each scenario. The results show that during the storage phase, storing waste drums in half-liners in Building 331 would result in the lowest collective radiation exposure; however, it would also require the most human resources. When retrieving waste drums for off-site shipment was considered, storing waste drums in the 317 Area would be the most favorable option because it would require the least amount of human resources and would also result in the lowest collective radiation exposure.
Date: February 15, 2002
Creator: Cheng, J.-J.; Avci, H.; Hecker, D.; Bray, W.; Bray, T. & Grandy, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WebDB Component Builder - Lessons Learned

Description: Oracle WebDB is the easiest way to produce web enabled lightweight and enterprise-centric applications. This concept from Oracle has tantalized our taste for simplistic web development by using a purely web based tool that lives nowhere else but in the database. The use of online wizards, templates, and query builders, which produces PL/SQL behind the curtains, can be used straight ''out of the box'' by both novice and seasoned developers. The topic of this presentation will introduce lessons learned by developing and deploying applications built using the WebDB Component Builder in conjunction with custom PL/SQL code to empower a hybrid application. There are two kinds of WebDB components: those that display data to end users via reporting, and those that let end users update data in the database via entry forms. The presentation will also discuss various methods within the Component Builder to enhance the applications pushed to the desktop. The demonstrated example is an application entitled HOME (Helping Other's More Effectively) that was built to manage a yearly United Way Campaign effort. Our task was to build an end to end application which could manage approximately 900 non-profit agencies, an average of 4,100 individual contributions, and $1.2 million dollars. Using WebDB, the shell of the application was put together in a matter of a few weeks. However, we did encounter some hurdles that WebDB, in it's stage of infancy (v2.0), could not solve for us directly. Together with custom PL/SQL, WebDB's Component Builder became a powerful tool that enabled us to produce a very flexible hybrid application.
Date: February 15, 2000
Creator: Macedo, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank 241-TY-104 Tank characterization plan

Description: This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-C Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-104.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: Schreiber, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A {open_quotes}New{close_quotes} regime for nuclear weapons and materials

Description: In this paper, I discuss the principal ideas that I covered in my presentation on December 8, 1993, at the Future of Foreign Nuclear Materials Symposium held by the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. I was asked to discuss issues related to military inventories of plutonium, and I took this opportunity to describe a possible declaratory regime that could encompass military as well as civilian inventories of plutonium. The {open_quote}new{close_quotes} in the title does not imply that the regime discussed here is an original idea. Rather, the regime will be {open_quotes}new,{close_quotes} when it is adopted. The regime proposed here and in other works is one in which all stocks of nuclear weapons and materials are declared. Originally, declarations were proposed as a traditional arms control measure. Here, declarations are proposed to support the prevention of misuse of nuclear weapons and materials, including support for the nonproliferation regime. In the following, I discuss: (1) Worldwide inventories of nuclear weapons and materials, including the fact that military plutonium must be viewed as part of that worldwide inventory. (2) Life cycles of nuclear weapons and materials, including the various stages from the creation of nuclear materials for weapons through deployment and retirement of weapons to the final disposition of the materials. (3) Mechanisms for making declarations. (4) Risks and benefits to be derived from declarations. (5) Possibilities for supporting evidence or verification.
Date: February 15, 1994
Creator: Sutcliffe, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GaAs Self-Aligned JFETS with Carbon-Doped P+ Region

Description: Self-aligned JFETs with a carbon-doped p{sup +} region have been reported for the first time. For these JFETs, both the channel and p{sup +} region were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and are termed epitaxial JFETs in this study. The epitaxial JFETs were compared to ion implanted JFETs of similar channel doping and threshold voltage. Both JFETs were fabricated using the same self-aligned process for doping the source and drain regions of the JFET and for eliminating excess gate capacitance of conventional JFETs. The gate turn-on voltage for the epitaxial JFETs was 1.06 V, about 0.1 V higher than for the implanted JFETs. The reverse breakdown voltage was similar for both JFETs but the reverse gate leakage current of the epitaxial JFETs was 1-3 orders of magnitude less than the implanted JFETs. The epitaxial JFETs also showed higher transconductance and lower knee voltage than the implanted JFETs.
Date: February 15, 1999
Creator: Allerman, A.A.; Baca, A.G.; Chang, P.C. & Drummond, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Origin of the Time-Dependence of Wet Oxidation of AlGaAs

Description: The time-dependence of the wet oxidation of high-Al-content AlGaAs can be either linear, indicating reaction-rate limitation, or parabolic, indicating diffusion-limited rates. The transition from linear to parabolic time dependence can be explained by the increased rate of the formation of intermediate As{sub 2}O{sub 3} vs. its reduction to elemental As. A steadily increasing thickness of the As{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing region at the oxidation front will shift the process from the linear to the parabolic regime. This shift from reaction-rate-limited (linear) to diffusion-limited (parabolic) time dependence is favored by increasing temperature or increasing Al mole fraction.
Date: February 15, 1999
Creator: Allerman, A.A.; Ashby, C.I.H.; Bridges, M.M.; Hammons, B.E. & Hou, H.Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor process flow technical data

Description: A computer program is being developed for the solution of general system flow problems. As a complement to this program, a summary of the process system has been prepared. This assembles information from a number of different reports, drawings and technical notebooks into one place for easy use and reference. It is expected that the information contained in this report will be of use in safety and design studies of these process systems. This report presents current values of the reactor flow characteristics and the primary pumping system characteristics. It also presents the process piping system and the basis for a computing program for calculating system pressure drops.
Date: February 15, 1962
Creator: Jones, S.S.; Morrissey, J.E. & Manuel, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Field Induced Surface Modification of Au

Description: We discuss the role of localized high electric fields in the modification of Au surfaces with a W probe using the Interfacial Force Microscope. Upon bringing a probe close to a Au surface, we measure both the interfacial force and the field emission current as a function of separation with a constant potential of 100 V between tip and sample. The current initially increases exponentially as the separation decreases. However, at a distance of less than {approximately} 500{angstrom} the current rises sharply as the surface begins to distort and rapidly close the gap. Retraction of the tip before contact is made reveals the formation of a mound on the surface. We propose a simple model, in which the localized high electric field under the tip assists the production of mobile Au adatoms by detachment from surface steps, and a radial field gradient causes a net flux of atoms toward the tip by surface diffusion. These processes give rise to an unstable surface deformation which, if left unchecked, results in a destructive mechanical contact. We discuss our findings with respect to earlier work using voltage pulses in the STM as a means of nanofabrication.
Date: February 15, 1999
Creator: Erchak, A. A.; Franklin, G. F.; Houston, J. E.; Mayer, T. M. & Michalske, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

Description: Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.
Date: February 15, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Void fraction system computer software design description

Description: This document describes the software that controls the void fraction instrument. The format of the document may differ from typical Software Design Reports because it was created with a graphical programming language. Hardware is described in Section 2. The purpose of this document is describe the software, so the hardware description is brief. Software is described in Section 3. LabVIEW was used to develop the viscometer software, so Section 3 begins with an introduction to LabVIEW. This is followed by a description of the main program. Finally each Westinghouse developed subVI (sub program) is discussed.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: Gimera, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Audit of management of the site characterization program at Yucca Mountain

Description: The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for establishing an underground repository to store high-level nuclear waste. In accordance with the amended Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department began characterization of the Yucca Mountain site to assess the feasibility of safely storing spent fuel and high-level waste for 10,000 years. Site characterization was originally scheduled to be completed in 1995. Subsequently, your predecessor, Admiral Watkins, changed the plan completion date to 2001. The purpose of our audit was to determine if the Department is making adequate progress in characterizing the Yucca Mountain project.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: Layton, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CSER 94-012: Criticality safety evaluation report for 340 Facility

Description: This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) covers the 340 Facility which acts as a collecting point for liquid and solid waste from various facilities in the 300 Area. Criticality safety is achieved by controlling the amount and concentration of the fissionable material sent to the 340 Facility from the originating facilities in the 300 Area, a method similar to that used elsewhere at Hanford for the waste tank farms. Unlike those, however, the waste received at the 340 Facility will be far less radioactive. It is concluded that present operations meet the two contingency criterion. The facility will still be safely subcritical even after two independent and concurrent failures (either of equipment or administrative controls). The solid waste storage and liquid waste will be managed separately. The solid waste storage area is classified as exempt because it contains less than 15 grams of fissionable materials. The Radioactive Liquid Waste System is classified as isolated because it contains less than one third of a minimum critical mass. The criticality safety of the 340 Facility devoted to the Radioactive Liquid Waste System (RLWS) is assured by the form and concentration of the fissile material and could also be classified as a limited control facility. However, the 340 Facility has been operated as an isolated facility which results in a more conservative limit.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: Altschuler, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary design requirements document (DRD) for Project W-236B, ``Initial Pretreatment Module``

Description: The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to separate Hanford Site tank waste supernatants into low-level and high-level fractions. This documents sets forth function requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). System and physical interfaces between the IPM project and the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. Supplemental DRDs will be prepared to provide more detailed requirements specific to systems described in the DRD.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: Swanson, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of chemical vulnerabilities in the Hanford high-level waste tanks

Description: The purpose of this report is to summarize results of relevant data (tank farm and laboratory) and analysis related to potential chemical vulnerabilities of the Hanford Site waste tanks. Potential chemical safety vulnerabilities examined include spontaneous runaway reactions, condensed phase waste combustibility, and tank headspace flammability. The major conclusions of the report are the following: Spontaneous runaway reactions are not credible; condensed phase combustion is not likely; and periodic releases of flammable gas can be mitigated by interim stabilization.
Date: February 15, 1996
Creator: Meacham, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Accelerated Aging on Fiber Damage Thresholds

Description: Laser-induced damage mechanisms that can occur during high-intensity fiber transmission have been under study for a number of years. Our particular interest in laser initiation of explosives has led us to examine damage processes associated with the transmission of Q-switched, Nd:YAG pulses at 1.06 {micro}m through step-index, multimode, fused silica fiber. Laser breakdown at the fiber entrance face is often the first process to limit fiber transmission but catastrophic damage can also occur at either fiber end face, within the initial entry segment of the fiber, and at other internal sites along the fiber path. Past studies have examined how these various damage mechanisms depend upon fiber end-face preparation, fiber fixturing and routing, laser characteristics, and laser-to-fiber injection optics. In some applications of interest, however, a fiber transmission system may spend years in storage before it is used. Consequently, an important additional issue for these applications is whether or not there are aging processes that can result in lower damage thresholds over time. Fiber end-face contamination would certainly lower breakdown and damage thresholds at these surfaces, but careful design of hermetic seals in connectors and other end-face fixtures can minimize this possibility. A more subtle possibility would be a process for the slow growth of internal defects that could lead to lower thresholds for internal damage. In the current study, two approaches to stimulating the growth of internal defects were used in an attempt to produce observable changes in internal damage thresholds. In the first approach test fibers were subjected to a very high tensile stress for a time sufficient for some fraction to fail from static fatigue. In the second approach, test fibers were subjected to a combination of high tensile stress and large, cyclic temperature variations. Both of these approaches were rather arbitrary due to the lack of ...
Date: February 15, 1999
Creator: Setchell, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A mathematical and numerical study of nonlinear waves arising in a one-dimensional model of a fluidized bed. Final report

Description: In sections 2-4 the authors present the fundamental mathematical model and the important features they have discovered during the last three years. The model presented in section 2 is typical of the set of equations studied by researchers in the past. However, a novel approach is taken here by the introduction of a stream function for the total mass flux. This is done because the differences and similarities between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional models emerge very clearly in this setting. The mathematical model is a quasilinear hyperbolic-elliptic system of partial differential equations. In one dimension the hyperbolic and elliptic parts decouple and in two dimensions they do not. As shocks and free boundaries are expected to play an important part, the authors also develop the jump conditions for the model in section 2.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: Ganser, G. & Christie, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

No-thermal plasma processing of VOCs and NO{sub x} at LLNL

Description: For the past few years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive research program on the application of non-thermal plasmas for air pollution control and abatement. This program combines an extensive modeling effort with an experimental facility and test program. We believe that there are two major issues to be addressed in order to apply non-thermal plasma processing to air pollution control; these are electrical energy consumption and byproduct identification. The thrust of our work has been to understand the scalability of the non-thermal process by focusing on the energy efficiency of the non-thermal process and to identify the byproducts to ensure that effluent gases from a non-thermal processor are benign. We have compared different types of electrical discharge reactors both theoretically and experimentally. Our interests in the application of non-thermal plasmas vary from the destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to NO{sub x} reduction for mobile applications. This paper will discuss the processing of both NO{sub x} and VOCs by non-thermal plasmas at LLNL.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E. & Wallman, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser sampling system for an inductively-coupled atomic emission spectrometer. Final report

Description: A laser sampling system was attached to a Perkin Elmer Optima 3000 inductively-coupled plasma, atomic emission spectrometer that was already installed and operating in the Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Colorado School of Mines. The use of the spectrometer has been highly successful. Graduate students and faculty from at least four different departments across the CSM campus have used the instrument. The final report to NSF is appended to this final report. Appendices are included which summarize several projects utilizing this instrument: acquisition of an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer for the geochemistry program; hydrogen damage susceptibility assessment for high strength steel weldments through advanced hydrogen content analysis, 1996 and 1997 annual reports; and methods for determination of hydrogen distribution in high strength steel welds.
Date: February 15, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department