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Development of Novel Activated Carbon-Based Adsorbents for Control of Mercury Emission From Coal-Fired Power Plants

Description: The overall objective of this study is to evaluate pertinent design and operational parameters that would enable successful application of activated carbon adsorption for the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The study will evaluate the most suitable impregnate such as sulfur, chloride and other chelating agents for its ability to enhance the adsorptive capacity of activated carbon for mercury vapor under various process conditions. The main process variables to be evaluated include temperature, mercury concentration and speciation, relative humidity, oxygen content, and presence of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas. The optimal amount of impregnate for each of these carbons will be determined based on the exhibited performance. Another important parameter which governs the applicability of adsorption technology for the flue gas clean up is the rate at which vapor phase mercury is being removed from the flue gas by activated carbon. Therefore, the second part of this study will evaluate the adsorption kinetics using the impregnated activated carbons listed above. The rate of mercury uptake will also be evaluated under the process conditions that are representative of coal-fired power plants. Concerned with the ability of the adsorbed mercury to migrate back into the environment once saturated adsorbent is removed from the system, the study will also focus on the mercury desorption rate as a function of the type of impregnate, loading conditions, and the time of contact prior to disposal.
Date: September 8, 1997
Creator: Vidic, Radisav D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acceptance test procedure (ATP) for the master equipment list(MEL) database system -- phase I

Description: The Waste Remediation System Facilities Configuration Management Integration group has requested development of a system to help resolve many of the difficulties associated with management of master equipment list information. This project has been identified as Master Equipment List (MEL) database system. Further definition is contained in the system requirements specification (SRS).
Date: January 8, 1997
Creator: Thornton, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

Description: The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).
Date: September 8, 1997
Creator: Haas, C.R., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consequence analysis of a NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank. Revision 2

Description: Toxicological consequences are presented for three postulated accidents involving caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) addition to a waste tank to adjust the tank waste pH. These are spray from the skid mounted delivery system, spray from a cargo tank truck, and rupture of a cargo tank truck. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated.
Date: July 8, 1997
Creator: Van Vleet, R.J. & Lancing, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank farm restoration and safe operation, project W-314, upgrade scope summary report

Description: This revision of the Project W-314 Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR) represents a refinement of the project scope and supporting justification from which the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) was developed. It defines the actual upgrades and provides traceability to the requirement or driver for the activity.
Date: January 8, 1997
Creator: Jacobson, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

Description: The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997.
Date: September 8, 1997
Creator: Price, S. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-C-202 using the in situ vapor sampling system

Description: The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-202. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 25, 1996 sampling of SST 241-C-202. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media.
Date: August 8, 1997
Creator: Lockrem, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radial cutting torch

Description: The project`s aim is to complete development of the Radial Cutting Torch, a pyrotechnic cutter, for use in all downhole tubular cutting operations in the petroleum industry. Project objectives are to redesign and pressure test nozzle seals to increase product quality, reliability, and manufacturability; improve the mechanical anchor to increase its temperature tolerance and its ability to function in a wider variety of wellbore fluids; and redesign and pressure test the RCT nozzle for operation at pressures from 10 to 20 ksi. The proposal work statement is included in the statement of work for the grant via this reference.
Date: January 8, 1997
Creator: Robertson, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-T-104 using the in situ vapor sampling system

Description: The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-T-104. This document presents sampling data resulting from the February 7, 1996 sampling of SST 241-T-104. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the laboratories that supplied and analyzed the sampling media.
Date: August 8, 1997
Creator: Lockrem, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of phosphor thermometry to galvanneal processing

Description: A system has been developed for determining temperatures of galvanneal steel during the production process. It is based on an optical method known as phosphor thermometry and it provides for reliable, emissivity-independent measurements. This development is a part of the American Iron and Steel Institute`s (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a joint endeavor between the AISI and the U.S. Department of Energy. Galvanneal is a corrosion-resistant steel that is widely used for automotive and other applications. Improved thermometry should enable steelmakers to significantly improve product quality as well as to increase the yield. ultimately decreasing costs.
Date: May 8, 1997
Creator: Beshears, D.L.; Abston, R.A. & Allison, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Develop the dual fuel conversion system for high output, medium speed diesel engines. Quarterly report number 1, September 1--December 31, 1996

Description: Energy Conversions Incorporated has made substantial progress on the EMD-710 dual-fuel test cell in the first quarter of the project. The project is on schedule and has not met with any major roadblocks that would derail the planned timetable. Please note that much of the work done started before the funding arrived, and therefore those items are not included in the financial expenditures for the quarter.
Date: January 8, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gravitational microlensing searches and results

Description: Baryonic matter, in the form of Machos (MAssive Compact Halo Objects), might be a significant constituent of the dark matter that dominates the Milky Way. This article describes how surveys for Machos exploit the gravitational microlens magnification of extragalactic stars. The experimental searches for this effect monitor millions of stars, in some cases every night, looking for magnification events. The early results of these surveys indicate that Machos make up a significant fraction of the dark matter in the Milky Way, and that these objects have stellar masses. Truly substellar objects do not contribute much to the total. Additionally, the relatively high event rate towards the Galactic bulge seems to require that the bulge be elongated, and massive.
Date: May 8, 1997
Creator: Alcock, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project W-441, cold vacuum drying facility design requirements document

Description: This document has been prepared and is being released for Project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document sets forth the physical design criteria, Codes and Standards, and functional requirements that were used in the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document contains section 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements Document. The remaining sections will be issued at a later date. The purpose of the Facility is to dry, weld, and inspect the Multi-Canister Overpacks before transport to dry storage.
Date: May 8, 1997
Creator: O`Neill, C.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders for battery application

Description: The primary objective of this research was to investigate the synthesis and characterization of Ni(OH){sub 2} powders by homogeneous precipitation. Previous research of the same method showed conflicting results and complete characterization of the particle morphology was not carried out. This study has produced precipitates having a composition of 2Ni(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}Ni(HCO{sub 3}){sub 1.85}(NO{sub 3}){sub 0.15}. The XRD patterns showed peaks commonly observed for {alpha}-Ni(OH){sub 2}. The precipitates produced from low and high cation concentration solutions showed that the mean particle size and specific surface area increased with aging time. The high specific surface area measured suggested that the particle growth occurred through the aggregation of nanosized crystallites. The TEM micrographs confirmed that the particles were actually aggregates of thin films or sheets that were crumpled and intertwined together. This work also investigated the effect of dispersant on the particle morphology. The addition of dispersants did not alter the density of the particles implying that the dispersants were not incorporated into the solid phase. A general decrease in mean particle size at each aging time was observed resulting in an increase in specific surface area. The use of dispersants provided steric hindrance for the particles in the solution to aggregate, thus smaller particles were observed. Cyclic voltammetric tests were carried out to see if the high surface area Ni(OH){sub 2} produced in this work had superior performance characteristics compared to the commercial powders currently available. Indeed, the study showed that the homogeneously precipitated Ni(OH){sub 2} had higher coulombic efficiency and degree of reversibility than the commercial powders. The efficiency values of all the homogeneously precipitated powders were approximately 90%. The same efficiency values observed were probably due to the same specific surface areas of the powders after aging in KOH solution.
Date: October 8, 1997
Creator: Widjaja, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Managing routine bioassay requirements

Description: The Hanford Site is a very diverse Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Site in Eastern Washington State that includes: retired reactor facilities, spent fuel storage facilities, chemical separations facilities, laboratories, and plutonium separations facilities. As a result worker routine bioassays requirements may include routine whole body counting for mixed fission products, chest counting for uranium or plutonium, and/or urinalyses for plutonium, ura@u@ strontium-90, and tritium depending on work assignments. In such a situation it is easy to perform unnecessary bioassays and incur unnecessary cost. Program Implementation Fluor Daniel Hanford has been working with the Pacific Northwest National. Laboratories to reduce the number of routine bioassays in the internal dosimetry program while ensuring the program is compliant with regulatory requirements. This has been accomplished by: 1. Clearly identifying what work requires routine bioassay 2. Clearly identifying what routine bioassay is required 3. Having a system in place to make sure personnel who need routine bioassay get it and 4. Taking measures to ensure that workers who doiVt need routine bioassay don`t get it.
Date: October 8, 1997
Creator: Baumann, B. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

Description: Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 {micro}l injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few {micro}l of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.
Date: October 8, 1997
Creator: Freeze, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel design for a high power superconducting delay line

Description: Potential designs for a high power superconducting delay line of approximately 10ms duration are described. The transmitted signal should have low dispersion and little attenuation to recapture the original signal. Such demands cannot be met using conventional metal conductors. This paper outlines a proposal for a new transmission line design using low temperature superconducting material which meets system specifications. The 25W line is designed to carry pulsed signals with an approximate rise time of 8 nsec and a maximum voltage of 25kV. Predicted electrical design and performance of the line is presented.
Date: May 8, 1997
Creator: Chen, Y. J. & Caporaso, G. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thomson scattering from inertial confinement fusion plasmas

Description: Thomson scattering has been developed at the Nova laser facility as a direct and accurate diagnostic to characterize inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Flat disks coated with thin multilayers of gold and beryllium were with one laser beam to produce a two ion species plasma with a controlled amount of both species. Thomson scattering spectra from these plasmas showed two ion acoustic waves belonging to gold and beryllium. The phase velocities of the ion acoustic waves are shown to be a sensitive function of the relative concentrations of the two ion species and are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. These open geometry experiments further show that an accurate measurement of the ion temperature can be derived from the relative damping of the two ion acoustic waves. Subsequent Thomson scattering measurements from methane-filled, ignition-relevant hohlraums apply the theory for two ion species plasmas to obtain the electron and ion temperatures with high accuracy. The experimental data provide a benchmark for two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using LASNEX, which is presently in use to predict the performance of future megajoule laser driven hohlraums of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The data are consistent with modeling using significantly inhibited heat transport at the peak of the drive. Applied to NIF targets, this flux limitation has little effect on x- ray production. The spatial distribution of x-rays is slightly modified but optimal symmetry can be re-established by small changes in power balance or pointing. Furthermore, we find that stagnating plasma regions on the hohlraum axis are well described by the calculations. This result implies that stagnation in gas-filled hohlraums occurs too late to directly affect the capsule implosion in ignition experiments.
Date: July 8, 1997
Creator: Glenzer, S.H.; Back, C.A. & Suter, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlinear response of superconductors to alternating fields and currents

Description: This report discusses the following topics on superconductivity: nonlinearities in hard superconductors such as surface impedance of a type II superconductimg half space and harmonic generation and intermodulation due to alternating transport currents; and nonlinearities in superconducting weak links such as harmonic generation by a long Josephson Junction in a superconducting slab.
Date: October 8, 1997
Creator: McDonald, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

Description: Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.
Date: October 8, 1997
Creator: Zhang, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nova experiments to investigate hydrodynamic instabilities in the solid state

Description: Experiments were done to shock compress and accelerate copper foils at peak presssures of {approximately}3 Mbar above and below the melt temperature to study the effects of material strength on hydrodynamic instabilities. An x-ray drive generated in a hohlraum target was used to generate the shock wave profiles. The growth of a preimposed perturbation at an embedded interface is diagnosed by x-ray radiography. Results obtained using a high contrastshaped laser pulse show that the growth of the modulation is delayed compared to fluid simulations,which could be due to material strength stabilization. In contrast, when a copper foil is placed above the melt temperature at {gt}3 Mbar with a single shock, it melts upon compression and the modulation growth is consistent with fluid modeling. Experimental results from copper shocked to 3 Mbar both below and above the melt temperature are presented and compared with simulation.
Date: July 8, 1997
Creator: Kalantar, D.H.; Remington, B.A.; Chandler, E.A.; Colvin, J.D.; Griswold, D.L.; Turner, R.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formal language constrained path problems

Description: In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.
Date: July 8, 1997
Creator: Barrett, C.; Jacob, R. & Marathe, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department