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Effect of gamma irradiation on the strength of Climax stock quartz monzonite

Description: A laboratory study was made of the effects of a massive dose of {gamma} irradiation upon the mechanical properties of Climax stock quartz monzonite. Twenty-nine cylinders of rocks were tested using the Brazilian method and 26 strain gauged cylinders were tested to failure in uniaxial compression. One-half the cylinders in each group were subjected to a {gamma} ray dose of 13.2 MGy (1.32 x 10{sup 9} rads), or six times the maximum five-year dose to rock at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax, Nevada Test Site. The irradiation treatment lowered the ultimate compressional strength and lowered Young`s modulus under uniaxial loads greater than 20 MPa. The treatment did not measurable affect the elastic behavior of the rock in compression, nor did it affect the Brazilian tensile strength. These trends suggest that the {gamma} irradiation lowered the threshold stress at which microfractures begin to form. The irradiation has apparently not directly induced microfracturing in the rock, so a direct degrading effect on thermal and fluid transport properties is not expected.
Date: March 31, 1982
Creator: Durham, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal conductivity, bulk properties, and thermal stratigraphy of silicic tuffs from the upper portion of hole USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

Description: Thermal-conductivity and bulk-property measurements were made on welded and nonwelded silicic tuffs from the upper portion of Hole USW-G1, located near the southwestern margin of the Nevada Test Site. Bulk-property measurements were made by standard techniques. Thermal conductivities were measured at temperatures as high as 280{sup 0}C, confining pressures to 10 MPa, and pore pressures to 1.5 MPa. Extrapolation of measured saturated conductivities to zero porosity suggests that matrix conductivity of both zeolitized and devitrified tuffs is independent of stratigraphic position, depth, and probably location. This fact allows development of a thermal-conductivity stratigraphy for the upper portion of Hole G1. Estimates of saturated conductivities of zeolitized nonwelded tuffs and devitrified tuffs below the water table appear most reliable. Estimated conductivities of saturated densely welded devitrified tuffs above the water table are less reliable, due to both internal complexity and limited data presently available. Estimation of conductivity of dewatered tuffs requires use of different air thermal conductivities in devitrified and zeolitized samples. Estimated effects of in-situ fracturing generally appear negligible.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Lappin, A.R.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Enniss, D.O.; Buters, S.W.; Prater, F.M.; Muller, C.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent-Fuel Test-Climax: a progress report

Description: Both operational and technical objectives are being pursued at the Spent-Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). The principal operational objective is to demonstrate the safe and reliable packaging, handling, and storage of spent nuclear reactor fuel in a deep geologic media and to retrieve the fuel afterward. Packaging of the spent fuel at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (EMAD) facility, initial emplacement 420m below surface in the Climax granitic stock, and three subsequent exchanges of fuel canisters between EMAD and the SFT-C has demonstrated that application of straightforward engineering practices provides a safe and highly reliable system with no significant radiation exposure to the operating personnel. The primary technical objectives of the test are simulation of the thermal effects occurring in a panel of a large repository and comparison of the relative effects on the granitic host rock of heat alone versus heat in combination with ionizing radiation. Other technical objectives direct project activities toward instrument evaluation, ventilation effects, thermal and thermomechanical response of a jointed rock mass, and computer model validation. Recent findings from field measurements and laboratory studies are briefly discussed for: performance of data acquisition system and instrumentation; near-and intermediate-field temperature measurements; ventilation and dewpoint measurements; acoustic emission monitoring of fractures in granites; radiation-dose-to-granite measurements.
Date: September 20, 1982
Creator: Patrick, W.C. & Ballou, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and calculational results from the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

Description: The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted under the technical direction of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The SFT-C is located 420 m below surface in the Climax placed in test storage in April and May 1980. At the same time, 6 electrical elevated-temperature phase of the test. Data related to heat transfer, thermomechanical response, radiation dose, and radiation damage have been collected and are presented here, as appropriate, with calculational results. In general, measured and calculated results compare well.
Date: October 14, 1982
Creator: Patrick, W.C.; Ramspott, L.D. & Ballou, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of the mineralogy-petrology of tuffs of Yucca Mountain and the secondary-phase thermal stability in tuffs

Description: Yucca Mountain is composed of a thick sequence of silicic tuffs that are quite variable in degree of welding, alteration, and zeolitization. Tuff units above the water table are commonly devitrified or still vitric, with the exception of the zeolitized Pah Canyon Member in USW-G2. The devitrified tuffs above the water table commonly contain alkali feldspar, quartz, tridymite, and cristobalite, with minor smectite. The vitric tuffs are partly to wholly altered to sodium-calcium-saturated smectite. Below the water table are generally densely welded nonzeolitized tuffs and less densely welded zeolite-containing tuffs. The specific mineral assemblage present in Yucca Mountain tuffs has important implications in choosing a repository. The secondary phases clinoptilolite, mordenite, and smectite are very important because of their large cation sorption capacities. However, whereas densely welded tuffs containing no zeolite or glass are resistant to heating and do not dehydrate significantly, zeolitized, vitric, and smectite-containing horizons are very sensitive to minor increases in temperature. Smectites are particularly sensitive to changes in water vapor pressure and temperature, and temperature increases can lead to water evolution and large volume reductions. Similarly, clinoptilolite and mordenite begin to dehydrate below 100{sup 0}C, resulting in volume decreases. The exact effect of temperature on vitric tuffs is unclear. Under hydrothermal conditions the smectites gradually transform to nonexpanding, low sorption capacity illites, and there is evidence that this reaction has occurred in the deeper portions of USW-G2. Clinoptilolite transforms under hydrothermal conditions to analcime plus quartz with a concomitant volume decrease and water evolution. Again, there is evidence of this reaction occurring in Yucca Mountain tuffs at 80 to 100{sup 0}C.
Date: November 1, 1982
Creator: Bish, D.L.; Vaniman, D.T.; Byers, F.M. Jr. & Broxton, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status report on the Spent-Fuel Test-Climax, Nevada Test Site: a test of dry storage of spent fuel in a deep granite location

Description: The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is located at a depth of 420 m in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. The test array contains 11 canistered PWR fuel assemblies, plus associated electrical simulators and electrical heaters. There are nearly 900 channels of thermal, radiation, stress, displacement, and test control instrumentation. This paper is a general status report on the test, which started in May 1980.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Ramspott, L. D.; Ballou, L. B. & Patrick, W. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of measured and calculated radiation doses in granite around emplacement holes in the spent-fuel test: Climax, Nevada Test Site

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has emplaced eleven spent nuclear-reactor fuel assemblies in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site as part of the DOE Nevada Nuclear-Waste Storage Investigations. One of our objectives is to study radiation effects on the rock. The neutron and gamma-ray doses to the rock have been determined by MORSE-L Monte Carlo calculations and measurements using optical absorption and thermoluminescence dosimeters and metal foils. We compare the results to date. Generally, good agreement is found in the spatial and time dependence of the doses, but some of the absolute dose results appear to differ by more than the expected uncertainties. Although the agreement is judged to be adequate for radiation effects studies, suggestions for improving the precision of the calculations and measurements are made.
Date: October 11, 1982
Creator: van Konynenburg, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

Description: From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A. & Kubancsek, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

XUV and X-ray spectra from Texas Experimental Tokamak plasmas

Description: The first XUV and x-ray spectra were recorded from TEXT with a grazing-incidence grating spectrograph and new crystal spectrographs. Time- and space-integrated data yielded a qualitative description of the plasma. Line radiation from O, Cr, Fe, and Ni ions was recorded and identified with the aid of ab initio atomic structure calculations. Approximate values of plasma characteristics were obtained from the spectra. A derived electron temperature of 800 eV and electron density of 2 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} are consistent with results from other diagnostics. Spectrometers which will provide time- and space-resolved data are being designed for quantitative rate and transport studies.
Date: May 28, 1982
Creator: Bleach, R.D.; Burkhalter, P.G.; Nagel, D.J. & Rowan, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The first reactor [40th anniversary commemorative edition]

Description: This updated and revised story of the first reactor, or 'pile,' commemorates the 40th anniversary of the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction created by mankind. Enrico Fermi and his team of scientists initiated the reaction on December 2, 1941, underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago. Firsthand accounts of the participants as well as postwar recollections by Enrico and Laura Fermi are included.
Date: December 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)

Description: The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.
Date: March 1982
Creator: Penner, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium Deposition in Pine Trees and Soil from Atmospheric Releases of Molecular Tritium

Description: Much of the tritium found in soil and leaf litter near a chemical separations facility is incorporated into soil organic matter in a stable non-exchangeable form. Formation of this ''bound'' tritium seems to result from the uptake of molecular tritium (HT) by living pine needles. Soil and litter microbes convert HT to HTO more rapidly, but no measurable organic tritium is formed. This report discusses this study.
Date: February 16, 1982
Creator: Murphy, C.E. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nondestructive Assay of Uranium Enrichment with Gamma Rays

Description: An instrument has been developed and tested for nondestructive assay of 235U enrichment of uranium oxide powder contained in sealed 1-gallon cans. A theoretical correlation of enrichment vs. count rate agrees well with the calibration measurements and provides guidelines for applicability. A microcomputer simplifies operator requirements and provides on-line enrichment results.
Date: November 23, 1982
Creator: Winn, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote automatic plasma arc-closure welding of a dry-storage canister for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

Description: A carbon steel storage canister has been designed for the dry encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies or of logs of vitrified high level radioactive waste. The canister design is in conformance with the requirements of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 1 for a Class 3 vessel. The canisters will be loaded and sealed as part of a completely remote process sequence to be performed in the hot bay of an experimental encapsulation facility at the Nevada Test Site. The final closure to be made is a full penetration butt weld between the canister body, a 12.75-in O.D. x 0.25-in wall pipe, and a mating semiellipsoidal closure lid. Due to a combination of design, application and facility constraints, the closure weld must be made in the 2G position (canister vertical). The plasma arc welding system is described, and the final welding procedure is described and discussed in detail. Several aspects and results of the procedure development activity, which are of both specific and general interest, are highlighted; these include: The critical welding torch features which must be exactly controlled to permit reproducible energy input to, and gas stream interaction with, the weld puddle. A comparison of results using automatic arc voltage control with those obtained using a mechanically fixed initial arc gap. The optimization of a keyhole initiation procedure. A comparison of results using an autogenous keyhole closure procedure with those obtained using a filler metal addition. The sensitivity of the welding process and procedure to variations in joint configuration and dimensions and to variations in base metal chemistry. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the plasma arc process for this application are summarized from the current viewpoint, and the applicability of this process to other similar applications is briefly indicated.
Date: December 31, 1982
Creator: Sprecace, R.P. & Blankenship, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage investigations

Description: The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) are part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program being conducted by the Department of Energy. Within the NWTS program, the NNWSI is the component that focuses on siting evaluations on and near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The objectives of the Nevada project include evaluating the suitability of a Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF) site on or near the NTS, evaluating the suitability of a commercial nuclear waste repository site on or near the NTS, and supporting the NWTS program with research that is uniquely possible at NTS. Current engineering studies suggest that TEF and repository surface facilities would need to be located on gently sloping alluvium east of Yucca Mountain. Access from surface facilities to underground waste emplacement areas would be by vertical shafts and horizontal drifts, or possibly by inclined adits. The current NNWSI schedule includes an exploratory shaft location and horizon recommendation in 12/82, with a start of exploratory shaft drilling in 9/83. Because of the complexities of horizon selection, it is possible that the exploratory shaft depth or horizon recommendation may involve the exploration of more than one horizon. Phase I of the exploratory shaft, determination of TEF site suitability, is currently scheduled for 7/85. Phase II of the exploratory shaft, determination of repository site suitability, is currently scheduled for 3/87. This schedule is consistent with the current NWTS TEF and repository site selection schedules.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Lincoln, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reading Interests and Activity of Older Adults and Their Sense of Life Satisfaction

Description: This study addresses the problem of reading among older adults and the relation of such reading to their sense of life satisfaction. The study also considers the relation between reading interests and activity of older adults and the availability to them of library materials and services.
Date: May 1982
Creator: Grubb, Elizabeth Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

Solvent-extraction studies of coprocessing flowsheets: results from campaigns 1 and 2 of the Solvent-Extraction Test Facility (SETF)

Description: The Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) was installed in one of the heavily shielded cells of the Transuranium Processing Plant during 1978. This facility contains dissolution, feed preparation, solvent extraction (three 16-stage mixer-settlers), and plutonium product handling equipment, as well as waste solution tanks. Irradiated fuel from the H.B. Robinson-2 Pressurized Water Reactor was processed in the first two campaigns of experimental work, which were completed in 1979. The objective was to test a variety of coprocessing flowsheets. Areas of the solvent extraction process that received special attention included (1) crud formation, particularly in the extraction contactor; (2) uranium and plutonium losses in the extraction raffinate; (3) fission product decontamination; (4) reduction of tetravalent plutonium, particularly by means of hydroxylamine nitrate or nitrous acid; (5) costripping of uranium and plutonium; (6) partial partitioning; and (7) solvent degradation.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Collins, E.D.; Benker, D.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Lloyd, M.H.; King, L.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

Description: This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, {sup 85}Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas {sup 137}Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less {sup 137}Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 {mu}m and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10{sup -3} m/s were calculated from the core measurements.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E. & Vandergraaf, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumentation report 1: specification, design, calibration, and installation of instrumentation for an experimental, high-level, nuclear waste storage facility

Description: The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is being conducted 420 m underground at the Nevada Test Site under the auspices of the US Department of Energy. The test facility houses 11 spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor and numerous other thermal sources used to simulate the near-field effects of a large repository. We developed a large-scale instrumentation plan to ensure that a sufficient quality and quantity of data were acquired during the three- to five-year test. These data help satisfy scientific, operational, and radiation safety objectives. Over 800 data channels are being scanned to measure temperature, electrical power, radiation, air flow, dew point, stress, displacement, and equipment operation status (on/off). This document details the criteria, design, specifications, installation, calibration, and current performance of the entire instrumentation package.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Brough, W.G. & Patrick, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Issues related to field testing in tuff

Description: This paper has brought out the unique properties of tuffs and related them to needs associated with their use as a host rock for a high level nuclear waste repository. Major issues of temperature, pore water, joints, and depositional patterns have been identified and related responses and impacts outlined in Table 1. Planned experiments have been outlined and their relationships to the rock mechanics issues summarized in Table 2. The conclusions from this paper are: (1) tuff is a complex rock and basic phenomenological understanding is incomplete; and (2) available field test facilities will be used for a series of experiments designed to improve phenomenological understanding and support repository design efforts.
Date: December 31, 1982
Creator: Zimmerman, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent fuel test. Climax data acquisition system integration report

Description: The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear reactor fuel in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with 6 electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. This multi-year duration test is located in a remote area and is unattended much of the time. An extensive array of radiological safety and geotechnical instrumentation is deployed to monitor the test performance. A dual minicomputer-based data acquisition system collects and processes data from more than 900 analog instruments. This report documents the design and functions of the hardware and software elements of the Data Acquisition System and describes the supporting facilities which include environmental enclosures, heating/air-conditioning/humidity systems, power distribution systems, fire suppression systems, remote terminal stations, telephone/modem communications, and workshop areas. 9 figures.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Nyholm, R.A.; Brough, W.G. & Rector, N.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department