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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

Description: U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties. The congressional-executive agreement has been the vehicle for implementing Congress's long-standing policy of seeking trade benefits for the United States through reciprocal trade negotiations. This report discusses this topic in brief.
Date: January 19, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Committee Hearings: Witness Testimony

Description: This report briefly discusses the witness testimony process in House of Representatives committee hearings.
Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Rules and Precedents Affecting Committee Markup Procedures

Description: Markup procedure in standing committee of the House of Representatives generally conform to guidelines the House follows when it conducts business on the floor under a set of procedures known as consideration by the "House as in Committee of the Whole." This report briefly discusses these procedures as they relate to legislative business conducted on the floor and in committee.
Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Offset Amendments to Appropriations Bills: Procedural Considerations

Description: This report is an introduction to selected House rules and practices governing the consideration of offset amendments to appropriations measures considered in the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union (or Committee of the Whole).
Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

Description: This report discusses the U.S. trade deficit in light of the 2008 global financial crisis, with emphasis on international trade and U.S. trade policy, most recent developments in trade of goods and service, trade forecasts for the future, and how issues such as the U.S. trade deficit and international trade, particularly with China, are commonly perceived.
Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Nanto, Dick K. & Donnelly, J. Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program. Under current Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and Navy plans, the number of BMD-capable Navy Aegis ships is schedule to grow from 20 at the end of FY2010 to 38 at the end of FY2015. This report discusses the concerns some have over BMD expansion, as well as BMD funding issues.
Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy LPD-17 Amphibious Ship Procurement: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: The Navy's FY2011-FY2015 shipbuilding plan calls for procuring an 11th and final San Antonio (LPD-17) class amphibious ship in FY2012. This report discusses the procurement cost estimates of this ship, as well as related issues for Congress.
Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations

Description: Continuing appropriations acts, commonly known as continuing resolutions (CRs), have been an integral component of the annual appropriations process for decades. When Congress and the President do not reach final decisions about one or more regular appropriations acts, they often negotiate and enact a CR. One type of CR used is an "interim" CR, which provides agencies with stopgap funding for a period of time until final appropriations decisions are made, or until enactment of another interm CR. This report analyzes three major potential impacts that interim CRs might have on agency operations.
Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislation to Approve the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Hydrocarbons Agreement

Description: This report discusses the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Hydrocarbons Agreement and analyzes relevant legislative initiatives (S. 812 and H.R. 1613) and other legislative action surrounding Congress's approval of the Agreement (P.L. 113-67).
Date: June 19, 2014
Creator: Hagerty, Curry L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pesticide Use and Water Quality: Are the Laws Complementary or in Conflict?

Description: This report provides background on the conflict over interpretation and implementation of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). A brief discussion of the two laws is followed by a review of the major litigation of interest.
Date: March 19, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress

Description: This report discusses the Civil Service Retirement Act of 1920 (P.L. 66-215) that established a pension system for federal employees in the executive branch of government.
Date: March 19, 2014
Creator: Isaacs, Katelin P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visa Waiver Program

Description: This report discusses the visa waiver program (VWP), which allows foreign visitors to bypass the first, screening step for admissibility to enter the United States. Some policymakers are concerned that this waiver allows terrorists to more easily enter the country. The report provides waiver-related statistics and related legislation.
Date: March 19, 2014
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Frequency Trading: Background, Concerns, and Regulatory Developments

Description: This report provides an overview of high-frequency trading (HFT) in the equities and derivatives markets regulated by the SEC and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). It also examines the Flash Crash of 2010 and the role that HFT may have played, as well as recent regulatory developments.
Date: June 19, 2014
Creator: Shorter, Gary & Miller, Rena S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Domestic Human Trafficking Legislation in the 113th Congress

Description: This report discusses domestic human-trafficking-related issues that have received legislative action or are of significant congressional interest in the 113th Congress.
Date: May 19, 2014
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Defense Production Act of 1950: History, Authorities, and Reauthorization

Description: This report examines some of the history of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (DPA), focusing primarily on its creation and most recent legislative reauthorization. It also discusses the foremost active authorities of the DPA.
Date: June 19, 2014
Creator: Brown, Jared T. & Else, Daniel H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Membership in the United Nations and Its Specialized Agencies

Description: This report highlights key steps in the process for attaining membership in the United Nations and its specialized agencies. It discusses the capacities associated with U.N. membership and observer status, as well as criteria for and implications of membership. It also examines related U.S. legislation and recent congressional and Obama Administration actions
Date: June 19, 2014
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa & Browne, Marjorie Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report looks at the relationship between the U.S. and Thailand, in particular, recent rivalries between populist political forces, nepotism in government, and Thai relationships with neighboring countries.
Date: June 19, 2014
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma & Dolven, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues

Description: This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. It includes information on the President's request and the congressional response, as well as congressional initiatives during this legislative process. Basic information is provided to help the reader understand this process.
Date: May 19, 2010
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann & Nakamura, Kennon H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Development Administration: A Review of Elements of Its Statutory History

Description: This report discusses the Economic Development Administration, which was created with the enactment of the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 and has a 45-year history of supporting job creation and long-term economic recovery efforts in the nation's economically distressed areas.
Date: May 19, 2010
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Premium Tax Credits and Federal Health Insurance Exchanges: Questions and Answers

Description: Legal challenges that may have a substantial impact on the implementation and operation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) concern whether premium tax credits are available for millions of individuals participating in federally administered health insurance exchanges. The Supreme Court has decided to weigh in on this issue in King v. Burwell. This report provides background on provisions of ACA relevant to this issue. It then answers questions concerning the legal challenges and potential implications of the Court's decision in King.
Date: December 19, 2014
Creator: Staman, Jennifer A.; Lunder, Erika K. & Shedd, Daniel T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Description: This report discusses some factors taken into account when considering whether biopower is carbon neutral. It does not discuss carbon accounting for other bioenergy pathways.
Date: February 19, 2015
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Future of NASA: Space Policy Issues Facing Congress

Description: This report analyzes questions regarding space policy challenges and gives some possible answers. It also addresses a number of cross-cutting issues, such as NASA's interactions with other federal agencies and the growing role of the commercial space industry.
Date: April 19, 2010
Creator: Morgan, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Tax Incentives: Measuring Value Across Different Types of Energy Resources

Description: This report presents a comparison of the cost of tax incentives associated with fossil and renewable energy resources, relative to amount of energy produced using each type of resource. The report also reviews other analyses that compare the cost of energy tax incentives relative to production, across different types of energy technologies.
Date: March 19, 2015
Creator: Sherlock, Molly F. & Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Political Status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress

Description: This report discusses the current U.S.-Puerto Rico relationship, the history of said relationship, and the current political state of Puerto Rico, as well as relevant pieces of U.S. Congressional legislation concerning Puerto Rico.
Date: May 19, 2010
Creator: Bea, Keith & Garrett, R. Sam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department