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Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO sub x /NO sub x control

Description: The objectives of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temperature range of 200{degrees}F--400{degrees}F. Identify the best NO{sub 2} suppressing additive among the group of ammonia, urea, and activated carbon.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. (Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States). Environmental Services and Technologies Div.) & Beittel, R. (Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geothermal power production: accidental fluid releases, waste disposal, and water use

Description: Environmental problems related to the use and disposal of fluids can accompany the operation of geothermal power plants using hot water resources (temperature > 150/sup 0/C). More than 100 kg of fluids must be extracted, processed, and disposed for each kW.h of electricity generated from a facility relying on a geothermal reservoir with fluids of 150/sup 0/C. The low thermal efficiencies of geothermal power plants result in large requirements for cooling water - over 7.4 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3//MW.y compared with 1.7 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3//MW.y for coal-fired plants. Geothermal fluids can contain as much as 250,000 mg/1 total dissolved solids. Toxic substances like boron and NH/sub 3/ are often present in fluids. This paper focuses on impacts associated with accidental releases of geothermal fluids as well as the disposal of liquid and solid wastes. The consequences of consuming alternative sources of cooling water are also addressed. Inadvertent discharges of fluids are of concern because they could contaminate soils and surface waters, adversely affecting crops and aquatic organisms. The pretreatment of fluids before subsurface injection could lead to solid waste problems - especially when toxic substances are produced. The consumption of alternative cooling waters can pose problems involving the disposal of blowdown from cooling towers. In addition, the toxicity of drift emitted from cooling towers depends on the kind of cooling water used.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Layton, D. W. & Morris, W. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Experience with the shift technical advisor position

Description: The provision of engineering expertise on shift at commercial nuclear power plants has mainly taken the form of the Shift Technical Advisor (STA). This person, acting in a capacity that is part engineer and part operator, is expected to advise the operations crew in the event of an emergency and review plant operating experience during normal circumstances. The position was mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission following the incident at Three Mile Island. This report expands on a growing body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of the STA. The new data presented here come from interviews with plant personnel and utility officials from nine sites. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) interviewed plant personnel, including the STA and immediate management, the shift supervisor and management, the training department, and ancillary staff, all of whom affect the intended performance of the STA. The conclusions of the report are that the design of the STA position results in limited contribution during emergencies; more comprehensive ways should be sought to provide the variety and specificity of engineering expertise needed during such times.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Melber, B.D.; Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E. & Winges, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Optimization of microchannel plate multipliers for tracking minimum-ionizing particles

Description: The progress in development of special Microchannel Plates for particle tracking is reported. The requirements of (1) high spatial resolution; (2) high density of information; and (3) rate capability were found to be satisfied in a thick Microchannel Plate with a CsI coating operating in a focusing magnetic field. The measurements of the Microchannel Plate detection efficiency, gain and noise are presented for several detectors. The pictures of the passage and interaction of the high energy charged particles inside the detector are shown.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Oba, K.; Rehak, P. & Potter, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Statistical methods for including two-body forces in large system calculations

Description: Large systems of interacting particles are often treated by assuming that the effect on any one particle of the remaining N-1 may be approximated by an average potential. This approach reduces the problem to that of finding the bound-state solutions for a particle in a potential; statistical mechanics is then used to obtain the properties of the many-body system. In some physical systems this approach may not be acceptable, because the two-body force component cannot be treated in this one-body limit. A technique for incorporating two-body forces in such calculations in a more realistic fashion is described. 1 figure.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Grimes, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Studies for a fusion Technology Development Facility

Description: We have been studying small, driven fusion reactors as candidates for a Technology Development Facility (TDF) to be used for testing reactor subsystems, components, and materials. Magnetic mirror systems are particularly interesting for this application because of their inherent steady-state operation, potentially high wall loading, and relatively small size. The systems so far studied have 14-MeV neutron wall loads ranging from 1 to 3 MW m/sup -2/ on testing surface areas of 2 to 5 m/sup 2/ with annual fluences as high as 10/sup 21/ neutrons cm/sup -2/. These devices are based on physics and engineering that has been demonstrated or is scheduled for demonstration in the next year.
Date: March 9, 1982
Creator: Doggett, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Operating experience with the ALS linac

Description: The linac injector for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL was recently put into operation. Energy is 50 MeV, frequency 3 GHz. The electron gun delivers up to 6nC in a 3.0-ns bunch at 120 kV. A train of bunches is injected into a 1-Hz booster and accelerated to 1.5 GHz for storage ring injection. A magnetic analysis system is used for optimizing the linac. Measured beam properties from the gun and after acceleration in the linac are described. 9 refs., 3 figs.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Selph, F. & Massoletti, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Environmental Assessment: geothermal direct heat project, Marlin, Texas

Description: The Federal action addressed by this Environmental Assessment (EA) is joint funding the retrofitting of a heating and hot water system in a hospital at Marlin, Texas, with a geothermal preheat system. The project will be located within the existing hospital boiler room. One supply well was drilled in an existing adjacent parking lot. It was necessary to drill the well prior to completion of this environmental assessment in order to confirm the reservoir and to obtain fluids for analysis in order to assess the environmental effects of fluid disposal. Fluid from operation will be disposed of by discharging it directly into existing street drains, which will carry the fluid to Park Lake and eventually the Brazos River. Fluid disposal activities are regulated by the Texas Railroad Commission. The local geology is determined by past displacements in the East Texas Basin. Boundaries are marked by the Balcones and the Mexia-Talco fault systems. All important water-bearing formations are in the cretaceous sedimentary rocks and are slightly to highly saline. Geothermal fluids are produced from the Trinity Group; they range from approximately 3600 to 4000 ppM TDS. Temperatures are expected to be above 64/sup 0/C (147/sup 0/F). Surface water flows southeastward as a part of the Brazos River Basin. The nearest perennial stream is the Brazos River 5.6 km (3.5 miles) away, to which surface fluids will eventually discharge. Environmental impacts of construction were small because of the existing structures and paved areas. Construction run-off and geothermal flow-test fluid passed through a small pond in the city park, lowering its water quality, at least temporarily. Construction noise was not out of character with existing noises around the hospital.
Date: August 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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State-of-the-art for evaluating the potential effects of erosion and deposition on a radioactive waste repository. Final report

Description: The potential impact of future geologic processes on the integrity of a deep, high-level radioactive-waste repository is evaluated. The following study identifies the potential consequences of surface erosion and deposition on sub-surface repository containment characteristics and assesses the ability to measure and predict quantitatively the rates and corresponding extent of these processes in the long term. Numerous studies of the magnitudes and rates of surficial erosion and deposition that have been used to determine the minimum allowable depth for a geologic repository (300 m - NRC Code of Federal Regulations, Part 60.122, Draft 10) are cited in this report. Measurement and interpretation of potential rates and extent of surficial processes in these studies involved considerable uncertainty, and the implications of this uncertainty on presently proposed repository siting criteria are addressed herein. Important concepts that should be considered when developing siting criteria to protect against deleterious effects arising from future erosion or deposition are highlighted. Erosion agents that could affect deep repositories are distinguished in this report so that their individual and combined impacts may be examined. This approach is recommended when evaluating potential repository sites in diverse environments that are susceptible to different agents of erosion. In contrast, agents of sedimentation are not differentiated in this report because of their relatively minor impact on a deep repository.
Date: July 16, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Condensation in a two-phase pool

Description: We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Duffey, R.B. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)) & Hughes, E.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Quark deconfinement and high energy nuclear collisions

Description: Statistical QCD predicts that with increasing density, strongly interacting matter will undergo a transition to a plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons. High energy heavy ion collisions are expected to permit experimental studies of this transition and of the predicted new state of matter. 22 refs., 6 figs.
Date: July 1, 1986
Creator: Satz, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Feasibility Studies of in-Situ Coal Gasification in the Warrior Coal Field. Quarterly Report

Description: Studies in support of in-situ gasification involved experiments in bench-scale combustors where three parameters were varied independently: initial fuel bed temperature, applied air flow and water vapor influx rate. Methods for measuring the thermal conductivity of solids at high temperatures were evaluated and measurements of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were made over a temperature range for several samples of coke. (LTN)
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Douglas, George W. & McKinley, Marvin D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High beta studies on ISX-B with neutral beam injection

Description: Injection of H/sup 0/ into D/sup +/ plasmas with beam power P/sub b/ of up to 1.7 MW has produced rms betas of approx. 4%, volume-averaged betas of approx. 3%, and central betas of approx. 10% in the ISX-B tokamak. Although theoretical calculations indicate that the observed equilibria may be unstable to ballooning modes, no catastrophic loss of confinement has been observed, and beta continues to increase with injection power. In these beam-dominated high-beta discharges the electron and ion energy confinement times are still similar to those obtained with ohmic heating: ion energy confinement is neoclassical within a factor of approx. 2, and electron energy confinement follows the usual Alcator scaling. In high-power injection discharges the character of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior changes, the particle confinement time decreases, and the inward impurity transport appears to be inhibited. These effects, however, may not be linked directly to beta.
Date: September 1980
Creator: Sheffield, J.; Bates, S.C. & Bush, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Ca' d'Oro Stairway]

Description: Photograph of a stairway in the Ca' d'Oro of Venice, Italy. A brick courtyard is visible in the foreground. The stairway curves around the courtyard up to the second story.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design
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SNAP 2 REACTOR PUMP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (RADIAL GAP PERMANENT-MAGNET PUMP)

Description: A compact electromagnetic pump utilizing a rotating permanent magnet with radial gap was developed for possible application to the SNAP 2 reactor coolant system. The pump was designed for circulation of NaK at 1000 deg F and 11.2 gpm with a developed pressure of 3 psi, operation at 40,000 rpm, minimum weight and size, and high reliability. The performance characteristics of four developmental pump models were measured in a 1000 deg F NaK test loop and compared with design predictions. The capability of the pump design concept was demonstrated, though further development work is needed to meet the SNAP 2 pump requirements. A flow capacity of 6.8 gpm of NaK at 1000 deg F with a developed head of 3 psi with attained at a magnet rotor speed of 40,000 rpm. The weight of this pump is 3 pounds. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the actual pump characteristics and the design predictions. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1961
Creator: Sudar, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Stirling total energy systems study. Final report, May 15, 1976--June 13, 1977

Description: The application of Stirling cycle prime movers to total energy power generation systems was investigated. Electrical, heating, and cooling demand profiles for a typical residential complex, hospital, and office building were studied, and alternative Stirling total energy systems were conceptualized for each site. These were analyzed in detail and contrasted with purchased-power systems for these sites to determine fuel-energy savings and investment attractiveness. The residential complex and hospital would be excellent candidates for total energy systems, and prime movers in the 1000 kW output range would be required. Stirling engines with so large an output have not been built to date, although there would be no fundamental technical barrier to prevent this. However, careful consideration must be given to the following technological decision areas before arriving at a final design, if its potential is to be realized: engine configuration, hotside heat exchange interface, engine control system, internal gas seals, and advanced coal combustion technology. The principal advantage of a Stirling prime mover in this application, in view of national concern over present and future dependence on oil, is that it could utilize low-grade liquid fuels and coal.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Lehrfeld, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Phoenix I energy extraction experiment

Description: Energy extraction experiments are reported for the Phoenix I amplifier driven by a discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system operating on mixtures of either SF/sub 6/-HI or SF/sub 6/-C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and an electron-beam-initiated intermediate amplifer (lambda-3) fueled with H/sub 2/ and F/sub 2/ mixtures. When the oscillator-preamplifier system operated with mixtures of SF/sub 6/-HI the input spectrum to the Phoenix I amplifier contained approx. 28 P-branch vibrational-rotational lines which were almost identical to the input spectrum from the H/sub 2/-F/sub 2/ fueled oscillator. In this case the energy extraction measurements were essentially the same as the results obtained with the spectrum produced using H/sub 2/ and F/sub 2/ mixtures. For an input intensity of 10/sup 7/ W/cm/sup 2/, 170 J were extracted from the amplifier. With the SF/sub 6/-C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ spectrum, extraction was only obtained from the first three excited vibrational levels. This result indicates that most of the energy in the amplifier could be extracted on the first three excited vibrational levels. It is shown that the extraction results can be fit with a simple two level model. The radius of curvature of the beam was estimated using a lateral shearing interferometer. It was found that the Phoenix I amplifier altered the radius of curvature.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Hoffman, J. M.; Patterson, E. L.; Tisone, G. C. & Moreno, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Compositional analysis technique for HNS/Kel-F 800

Description: A compositional analysis procedure for the plastic-bonded explosive consisting of HNS and Kel-F 800 is presented. The Kel-F is determined gravimetrically after extraction of the HNS with fuming nitric acid. The HNS content is calculated by difference.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Sandoval, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A study of tau decays of the W boson at CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab)

Description: A report is given of a search for tau decays of the W boson in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV using the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). A description of a hardware trigger specifically designed to enhance the number of events with tau decays is presented along with the results of a preliminary analysis of data taken during the 1988--89 run of CDF. 10 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 3, 1990
Creator: Gladney, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solar Index generation and delivery

Description: The Solar Index, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978 with direction from a US Government interoffice agency committee which was headed by the Department of Energy. The purpose was to enhance public awareness of solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80-gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which in addition to solar service hot water systems, has the ability to estimate thermal performance of space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems. It also supplies economic analyses for these solar energy systems. The Index is generated daily for most large metropolitan locations in the country. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time, and a plan for the future are presented. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST Program), and future efforts.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Lantz, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Transient thermal analysis of three fast-charging latent heat storage configurations for a space-based power system

Description: A space-based thermal storage application must accept large quantities of heat in a short period of time at an elevated temperature. A model of a lithium hydride phase change energy storage system was used to estimate reasonable physical dimensions for this application which included the use of a liquid metal heat transfer fluid. A finite difference computer code was developed and used to evaluate three methods of enhancing heat transfer in the PCM energy storage system. None of these three methods, inserting thin fins, reticulated nickel, or liquid lithium, significantly improved the system performance. The use of a 95% void fraction reticulated nickel insert was found to increase the storage capacity (total energy stored) of the system slightly with only a small decrease in the system energy density (energy storage/system mass). The addition of 10% liquid lithium was found to cause minor increases in both storage density and storage capacity with the added benefit of reducing the hydrogen pressure of the lithium hydride. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Stovall, T. K. & Arimilli, R. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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