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A Parent Questionnaire Examining Learning Disabled and Non-Learning Disabled Children's Spatial Skills

Description: Investigations of children's spatial ability have typically looked at performance on laboratory tasks, and none have examined differences between learning disabled and non-learning disabled children. The present study surveyed sixty-seven parents of third and sixth grade children about the types of spatial activities children engage in everyday. Parents of learning disabled and non-learning disabled children were included. Results provided information about the types of spatial activities children engage in and the relationships between participation and performance. Major findings included differences between learning disabled and non-learning disabled children in navigational ability and in the strategies employed in difficult or ambiguous spatial situations. Findings were discussed in terms of the influence learning disabled children's negative self evaluations have on their performance.
Date: May 1987
Creator: Felini-Smith, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries

Social Skills Training with Verbal Autistic Adolescents: A Case Study Approach

Description: Autistic adolescents need direct, systematic training of social skills since major difficulties in communication, lack of empathy, and various changes during adolescence present major roadblocks to the acquisition of normal peer relationships and increasing independence. A case study approach was utilized to examine treatment effects of a social skills training program implemented with four autistic adolescent boys in a naturalistic setting. Findings based on objective measures and subjective reports indicated that each subject made gains in targeted social skills over the course of treatment. Treatment strategies such as modeling, coaching, roleplaying, one to one instruction, and in vivo procedures were found to be effective teaching techniques. Major benefits and limitations of the study were discussed.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Nichols, Jill Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries

Attributional Style of Adult Children of Alcoholics

Description: 115 undergraduate students were surveyed to see if attributional style would be different for individuals with alcoholic parents, depressed parents, or neither factor. Subjects were sorted into the three groups based on their responses to a family history questionnaire. Each subject filled out two attributional style questionnaires, the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and the Attributional Style Assessment Test (ASAT-II). The three groups did not differ on attributional style for interpersonal, noninter- personal, or general situations. Within the adult children of alcoholics group, subjects reported that their successes in interpersonal situations were due to their strategy and effort, rather than ability, more so than for noninterpersonal successes.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Coxsey, Stephen Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Parental Substance Abuse on the Behavior of School Children

Description: The purpose of the present archival study was to investigate the relationship between parental substance abuse and the risk for maladjustment and psychopathology in children in a clinic sample. Children of alcoholic parents and children of drug-dependent parents were compared to children of non-substance abusing parents. The subjects were 83 boys age 6 to 12. Children of substance abuse parents had lower levels of adaptive functioning and higher levels of school behavioral problems. Although previous studies have reported a strong association between an adverse family environment and the risk of child maladjustment, the present study did not find that the addition of an adverse family environment increased the risk for maladjustment or school behavioral problems in children of substance abusers.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Prelow, Hazel (Hazel M.)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Validity of Two Childhood Autism Rating Instruments for Use with Autistic Adolescents

Description: It is now known that autism is a lifelong handicapping condition. While some of the characteristic behaviors of autistic children remain unchanged in adolescence and adulthood, there is evidence that other behaviors change as a function of development. Assessment instruments for identifying autism are generally intended for use with. young children and may not accurately assess autism in adolescents. Two studies compared autistic adolescents with matched autistic children and nonautistic adolescents on two autism rating scales. The validity of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale for use with adolescents was supported while the validity of the Prescreening Checklist was questioned. The findings were discussed in relation to the age-related changes which occur in autistic adolescents.
Date: May 1986
Creator: McCallon, Denise
Partner: UNT Libraries

Criteria and Assessment Measures for Diagnosing Learning Disabled Children

Description: A total of 60 school psychologists and educational diagnosticians across Texas completed a survey to identify the instruments used to screen and diagnose learning disabled (LD) students, and to identify the criteria on which the final diagnosis and placement of LD or non-LD is made. The results of this survey indicate that consistent methods and criteria are not being used for identifying children as LD within the state. Many of the instruments currently used may not be technically adequate for use with a LD population. Implications of the use of inconsistent criteria, inadequate screening and assessment measures are discussed.
Date: May 1986
Creator: Moyer, Melynda Karol
Partner: UNT Libraries

Models of Consultation, Referral Problems and the Perceived Effectiveness of Parent and Teacher Consultation

Description: This study evaluated the school psychologist's perception of effective models of consultation based upon referral problem and parent, teacher, and student response to treatment. Analyses of covariance determined that (a) parents' receptivity and total number of teacher contacts significantly influenced the parents' response to treatment; (b) teacher receptivity and total number of parent contacts significantly affected teachers' response to treatment; (c) students' response to treatment was significantly affected by the model of teacher consultation and the average number of minutes spent with the school psychologists; and (d) students in a Mental Health consultation group responded significantly more favorably than s tudents in Behavioral or Collaborative consultation groups.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Epperson, Sidney Reins
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Academic Behavior Among Students at an Alternative High School

Description: For many years, educators and psychologists have attempted to define the strength of the relationship between self-concept and school performance., A productive approach may be to investigate academic self-efficacy. In the present study, data were collected for students at an alternative high school on the Measure of Academic Self-Efficacy (MASE), Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire (IAR), number of weeks spent in the program, and various descriptive and behavioral measures. Correlations were computed to attempt to demonstrate that participation in an alternative program analogous to participant modeling is associated with increases in academic self-efficacy and internal attributions for educational events, and that these gains are associated with improved academic outcomes.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Matthews, Catherine Henson
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship of Bender-Gestalt Signs to Acting-Out Behavior in an Educational Program for Troubled Adolescents

Description: The present study investigated the relationship between indicators on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and acting-out behavior shown by 58 male and 40 female adolescents in a behaviorally oriented, alternative educational program, Acting-out behavior was measured by assessing the number of timeouts students received during their first 25 days in the program. Two Bender composite indexes were calculated--l0 emotional indicators recommended by Koppitz and 12 indicators believed related to acting-out behavior or control problems. Results found that the index of Bender acting-out indicators correlated with number of timeouts. The Koppitz index did not correlate with timeouts, suggesting lack of internal consistency. Five individual indicators correlated with number of timeouts.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Caudle, Richard John
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationship Between Reported Exposure to Racial Discrimination and Level of Self-Esteem and Trust of Whites

Description: This study investigated the level of trust of whites and self-esteem as a function of reported exposure to racial discrimination. It was hypothesized that participants reporting high levels of racial discrimination would be less trusting of whites and have lower self concepts than those reporting low levels of exposure to racism. A total of 84 undergraduates were administered three measures designed to assess the amount of exposure to racial discrimination, self-esteem and cultural mistrust. No relationship was found between extent of exposure to racial discrimination and level of self concept. However, mistrust of whites among blacks was found to be related to frequency of exposure to racial discrimination.
Date: May 1984
Creator: Robinson, Deborah L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Analysis and Comparison of a Developmental Task Scale on Differing Adolescent Populations

Description: The following research questions were investigated: (a) Can the age-mates scales from the Dales developmental task scales be used with southwestern-urban adolescent populations? (b) Are there any systematic differences between northeastern-nonurban and southwestern-urban subject populations on the response to these scales? The subjects consisted of 884 adolescents, 11 through 15 years, evenly divided by sex. Subject responses were analyzed by sex and age groups using Guttman scalogram analysis. Goodman's test of significance revealed that the results could have occurred by chance (p > .05). The instrument in its present form was not found useful'-for an urban population. Lack of reproducibility made comparison of the performance of urban and nonurban adolescents unjustified.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Barton, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Premenstrual Syndrome in Teachers and Reported Classroom Misbehavior

Description: Periodic fluctuations in women's emotions during the menstrual cycle have been a continuing topic of research and discussion. The current study was designed to determine if premenstrual syndrome conditions in female teachers have any effect on reported classroom misbehavior and infractions. Subjects were twenty-one faculty members presently employed in the capacity of teachers in a public middle school. By utilizing a teacher's daily behavioral checklist, along with student misconduct reports, the changes in teachers' moods and behavioral symptoms over the menstrual cycle were studied in relation to reported student infractions. Based on the results of this study, it appears that menstrual cycle fluctuations have no recognizable impact upon a female's classroom demeanor and her ability to discipline in a professional manner.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Kerr, Jacqueline Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Locus of Control and Soluble Discrimination Problems on Intelligence Test Performance

Description: This study investigated the possible differential effects of a series of soluble discrimination problems on internal versus external locus of control subjects. It was hypothesized that externals exposed to a series of discrimination problems would perform better on a test task than external controls, while internals exposed to the same problems would not perform better on the test task relative to their controls. As anticipated, the internals were not affected by the discrimination problems. However, contrary to expectations, the externals were not facilitated by exposure to the soluble problems. Since many external subjects failed to solve all of the soluble problems, a facilitative effect may depend upon the problems being solved.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Smith, Alvin, active 1976-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Family Structure and Self-Esteem of Elementary School Children

Description: Maternal or paternal absence in one- or two-parent families, the presence of stepparents, and reasons for the disruption of the original family were analyzed in relation to the self-esteem of 501 males and females in grades 3-6 as measured by Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory. The study provided a review of the broken-home literature followed by the methodology, results, and conclusions pertinent to the investigation. A step-wise multiple regression analysis and two-way and three-way factorial analyses of variance revealed no significant differences in the self esteem levels of children from intact or disrupted families. Conclusions suggested that children from all family structures may have experienced both debilitating and nurturing environments. Recommendations supported parent training.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Anderson, Judy Novak
Partner: UNT Libraries

Educable Mentally Retarded: Classification of Students and Texas State Guidelines

Description: In Texas, placement of educable mentally retarded (EMR) students has required three factors-- intellectual assessment, educational appraisal, and adaptive behavior. This study examined 28 reclassified EMR students to determine which assessment factor is least stable in defining EMR and to determine significance of change in assessment scores. Data were secured from school records. Type of intellectual assessment test used varied greatly and was found to be the most inconsistent placement factor. However, educational appraisal scores contributed to over half the reclassifications. Adaptive behavior did not contribute to any reclassification. Due to limited sampling and variety of assessment tests, significance of change in scores was not determined. Generally, on retest,performance IQ scores were elevated while verbal IQ scores remained the same.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Bonner, Angela Denise
Partner: UNT Libraries

Learned Helplessness: Disconfirming Specific Task-Induced Expectancies of Control and the Immunization Phenomenon

Description: To test the hypothesis that a discrepancy between expectation and experience with regard to the controllability of outcomes would produce the greatest effect on later task behavior, 70 undergraduate volunteers were directed individually in a multiphase experiment. The first phase was designed to induce expectations of control or lack of control over outcomes. The second phase was designed to confirm or not to confirm the expectations induced. The third phase tested for the effects on later task behavior. The results indicated that the first phase procedure failed to induce the required expectancies, thus preventing a test of the experimental hypothesis. Possible procedural changes were discussed.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Taylor, Jerral DeWayne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Peer Acceptance, Mathematics Achievement, and Birth Order Among Fifth-Grade Students

Description: This study investigated relationships involving peer acceptance, mathematics achievement, and birth order among 74 fifth-grade students. The children were administered a standardized achievement test and a sociometric measurement in one sitting. They were then listed in rank order on the basis of number of choices received for each of two areas-- Social- and Work-acceptance. A comparison of High and Low Social- and Work-acceptance groups in terms of mean mathematics-achievement scores indicated a significant positive interaction between peer acceptance and mathematics achievement. No significant difference was evidenced between mean mathematics-achievement scores of males and females. As expected, birth order was not shown to interact significantly with Social- or Work-acceptance for either sex. Results indicate the importance of utilizing various techniques such as sociometrically determined work groups and seating arrangements in order to improve the peer climate of the classroom.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Gerhardt, Vicki
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Cloze Ability in Deficient and Non-Deficient Readers Matched According to Verbal Ability

Description: The present study was designed to investigate whether a good reader, by the fifth grade, will have attained sufficient knowledge of the language structure to enable him to more exactly and more appropriately reconstruct mutilated texts than a poor reader, matched for verbal intelligence level. Four 250-word cloze-treated passages were administered to twelve deficient and twelve non-deficient sixth grade readers, matched according to sex and the verbal portion of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Analyses of variance failed to show any significant differences between good and poor readers except for a weak indication that good readers produced more exact replacements.
Date: May 1974
Creator: Berrier, Helen Victoria
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of the Scores on the WISC and WISC-R

Description: The present study evaluated two hypotheses concerning the comparability of scores of the WISC and WISC-R through correlation of obtained scores on both scales. Forty subjects, representing 10 age levels, constituted the experimental sample. Each subject was administered the WISC, followed in 28 days by the WISC-R. Data analysis revealed significant (.05) correlations between scores on comparable WISC and WISC-R subtests except Arithmetic and Coding. The Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores correlated .5468, .5773, and .6240 respectively (p < .01). Conclusions were drawn that caution should be taken in comparison and interpretation of scores on the two scales due to several low correlation coefficients obtained as well as numerous changes between the scales. Further study is recommended.
Date: May 1975
Creator: Pristo, Larry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Selected Variables, Including a Course of Study, to Attitude Change of School Bus Drivers

Description: The effect of selected driver and instructional variables on attitude change of school bus drivers was examined. A total of 113 male and 69 female in-service Texas school bus drivers participated. The course of instruction, totaling 20 classroom hours, consisted of 11 units related to driving efficiency. Driver attitude was measured by a multiple-choice check list, administered prior to and following the course of instruction. A significant positive change occurred in those variables related to driver age, educational attainment, and number of classroom participants. Those variables involving course participation status and sex difference resulted in no significant positive attitude change. These findings may prove helpful in designing training programs for school bus drivers.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Crews, James T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sexual Preferences in Play Among Infants in a Day-Care Setting

Description: This study investigates (1) whether infants in a day-care setting exhibit sexual preferences in the choice of a playmate, and (2) whether males exhibit more overt acts in play than do females. Eight male and eight female infants, attending a day-care center, paired by age (ages twelve to twenty-four months), were selected as subjects. Each of the sixteen children was observed for a ten-minute period on four separate days, over a two-week period, a total of forty minutes' observation time per child. No significant differences were found between male and female infants involving the preference of the sex of a playmate, or between male and female overt behaviors.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Bulino, Andrew W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of a Natural Disaster on Academic Abilities and Social Behavior of School Children

Description: Although most research has focused on adults, studies indicate that children also experience detrimental psychological effects as the result of natural disasters. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the tornado which struck Wichita Falls,, Texas, on April 10, 1979, had any negative effects on the academic performance or social behavior of school children. Three groups of students were studied: (a) victims of the tornado who suffered a significant loss, (b) observers of the disaster who did not suffer a significant loss, and (c) newcomers who arrived after the disaster. Achievement test scores, grades, and attendance over a 4-year period were studied. The overall results do not indicate significant differences among the three groups.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Little, Brenda Stephens
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of the Validity and Predictive Value of the NPSDE, a Preschool Assessment Device

Description: The problem under investigation was the predictive value of a preschool screen. The subjects were 111 kindergartners. First, the need for a preschool screen was established. Second, the literature concerning other preschool devices was reviewed. Third, a specific screen was assessed in terms of validity. Fourth, a consideration of the predictive value of this screen in relation to scholastic achievement as indicated by the Metropolitan Readiness Test was made. A multiple regression analysis was performed, and the cross-validation of a number of prediction equations and cutoff scores was significant. Although statistical significance was achieved, high-risk youngsters could not be accurately identified. This research indicated that the instrument evaluated shows promise if refined by additional research.
Date: August 1974
Creator: Moore, Glenn F.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Internal-External Locus of Control, Perception of Teacher Intermittency of Reinforcement and Achievement

Description: This study measured the relationships between locus of control, students' perception of the schedule of teacher reinforcement, and academic achievement. The Intellectual Achievement Responsibility questionnaire, Perception of Teacher Reinforcement scale, and Wide Range Achievement Test were used to measure these variables. All subscores of the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility questionnaire correlated significantly with achievement for the females, but no relationships were found for the males. Perception of the teacher as partially rewarding was significantly correlated with reading, spelling, and total achievement for the males and with reading and arithmetic achievement for the females. Perception of the teacher as partially punishing was significantly correlated with arithmetic achievement for the males, but was not related to achievement for the females.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Welch, Linda N.
Partner: UNT Libraries