# Search Results

## Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

Description: This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity.
Date: April 30, 1997
Creator: Baker, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Diffusion in phase space

Description: In order to study diffusion in any region of phase space containing nested closed curves we choose action-angle variables, {gamma}, J. the action J labels each closed phase curve and is equal to its area divided by 2{pi}. We can introduce rectangular variables Q,P by the equations Q=(2J){sup 1/2}sin{gamma}, P=(2J){sup 1/2}cos{gamma}, where the angle variable {gamma} is measured clockwise from the P-axis. The phase curves are circles in the Q,P plane with radius (2J){sup 1/2}. We assume that the motion consists of a Hamiltonian motion along a curve of fixed J (in the original coordinate system and in the system Q,P) plus a diffusion and a damping which can change the value of J. Now consider a system of particles described by a density {rho}(J,t), so that the number of particles between the curves J and J+dJ is dN={rho}(J,t)dJ. These cN particles are distributed uniformly in the phase space between the curves J and J+dJ.
Date: April 5, 1993
Creator: Symon, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Idaho National Engineering Laboratory radiological control performance indicator report. Fourth quarterly calendar year 1994

Description: This document provides a report and analysis of the Radiological Control Program through the fourth quarter of calendar year 1994 (CY-1994) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) under the direction of Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO). The Radiological Performance Indicator Report is provided in accordance with Article 133 of the INEL Radiological Control Manual.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Aitken, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Final Report, IUT - B291527, January 1996 - March 1997

Description: The following note investigates scaling the 11.4-GHz TBNLC design of a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator for a 30-GHz, 50-bunch accelerator design. We will refer to this point design as the RK-CLIC. We do not expect that the design will be optimal, but offer it as a starting point for discussions. In this memo, we begin with a general description of the RK-CLIC and drive beam dynamics, discuss required changes to major components, estimate the efficiency of wall plug to microwave power, and estimate costs. To be of interest the design must be such that it: (1) Can be installed at modest cost, (2) Operate with high wall plug to reconversion efficiency, and (3) Have acceptable drive beam dynamics.
Date: April 23, 1996
Creator: Henestroza, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Evaluation of photoneutron production at high energy LINACS

Description: This report describes an estimate of neutron production at a 9 MeV LINAC, and the potential for photoactivation of materials present at the LINAC facility. It was found that only isotopes of U, W, Ta, and Pb had daughters whose activities might be measurable. The LINAC was found to be capable of producing in the neighborhood of 10{sup 10} neutrons/second from these heavy metals, and that subsequent neutron activation might be more of a concern. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport and capture in the concrete and steel found in the LINAC vault indicates that {sup 55}Fe may be produced in measurable quantities.
Date: April 24, 1995
Creator: Bell, Z.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## WRAP 1, operational test report 80X non-destructive examination system

Description: This Operational Test Report was performed to verify the WRAP 1 Facility 80X Non-Destructive Examination systems operate in accordance with the system designs and specifications.
Date: April 14, 1997
Creator: Bottenus, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Effects of minerals on the pyrolysis of Kern River 650 F{sup +} residuum

Description: Kern River 650 F{sup +} residuum (Kern Co, CA) and mixtures of Kern River 650 F{sup +} residuum with solids were examined by micropyrolysis at nominal constant heating rates from 1 to 50 C/min from temperatures of 100 to 700 C to establish evolution behavior, pyrolysate yields, and kinetics of evolution. The profiles for all samples generally exhibited two regimes of evolution: (1) low temperature (due to distillation), and (2) high temperature (due to cracking and distillation). The pyrolysate yields of the residuum alone and residuum with solids exhibited, with increasing sample size, a broad maximum at 0.005 to 0.010 g of {approximately} 1,000 mg pyrolysate/g residuum (relative to Green River oil shale Fischer Assay yield) as well as shifting of distribution from distillation to cracking regime. For kinetic parameters, because much of the low temperature evolving data was due to volatilization and not cracking, determinations were limited mostly to the discrete method. The best fits exhibited very similar parameters for all the samples have principal E{sub discrete} of 50 to 51 kcal/mol (accounting for {approximately}30% of total energy) and A{sub discrete} around 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 13} sec{sup {minus}1}. These results indicate the use of heat carriers, such as alumina or dolomite, in pyrolysis processing of heavy oils may effect the overall yields of the pyrolysate, but will probably not effect the pyrolysis cracking rates.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Reynolds, J.G. & King, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## SMARTARRAY: A C++ class template for self-describing, resizable, error-resistant arrays

Description: The SmartArray class template supports one-dimensional (single index) arrays and provides four major features that make it superior to built-in C++ arrays: a SmartArray is self-describing (both capacity and content), a SmartArray can be dynamically resized, the index supplied to the operator of a SmartArray is bounds checked, and the lower bound of a SmartArray can be chosen by the programmer. Additionally, the SmartArray class provides a full set of traversal functions, an assignment operator, editing functions, and an error handling mechanism-yet remains small, self-contained, portable, efficient, and easy to master. The class template SmartArray <T> requires that T be either a built-in type or a class that provides an assignment operator, a default (no argument) constructor, a copy constructor, and a destructor. If T does not contain any pointers, the compiler-generated versions of these four functions will probably be adequate.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Perano, K.J. & Nielan, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

Description: The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Bibliography of papers, reports, and presentations related to point-sample dimensional measurement methods for machined part evaluation

Description: The Dimensional Inspection Techniques Specification (DITS) Project is an ongoing effort to produce tools and guidelines for optimum sampling and data analysis of machined parts, when measured using point-sample methods of dimensional metrology. This report is a compilation of results of a literature survey, conducted in support of the DITS. Over 160 citations are included, with author abstracts where available.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Baldwin, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## A study of the source materials, depositional environments, mechanisms of generation and migration of oils in the Anadarko, Oklahoma. Progress report, September 15, 1990--September 14, 1991

Description: This report is for the final year of a three-year funded project. A new proposal has been submitted and it is hoped that funding will continue for another three years. It is felt that good progress is being made with our work on studying the oils and source rocks in the Anadarko Basin. Furthermore a number of associated projects have evolved during this period which have also produced many useful results and various analytical methods have been developed. In Appendix I lists of students totally or partially supported by this work plus various publications are given. It is hoped that these will testify to our productivity arising from the DOE support over the past few years.
Date: April 20, 1990
Creator: Philp, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Sold residue treatment, repackaging, and storage

Description: From its founding in 1952 through the cessation of production in 1989, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (now the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site [the Site]) produced components for nuclear weapons. Some of those components were made of plutonium. As a result of the processes used to recover and purify plutonium and manufacture the components, a variety of materials became contaminated with plutonium. If the level of contamination were low, the material was considered waste. However, if the concentration of plutonium in the material exceeded the {open_quotes}economic discard limit,{close_quotes} the materials were classified as {open_quotes}residue{close_quotes} rather than{open_quotes}Waste{close_quotes} and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. While large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, accumulated at the Site in storage. Two important events regarding residues have occurred at the Site since production activities ceased. One event was the end of the Cold War in 1991, which made the return to production of nuclear weapons, with their Rocky Flats-made components, unnecessary. This event led to DOE`s decision to permanently cease production at the Site, clean up and remove radioactive and chemical contamination at the Site, and find alternative uses for the Site. This document describes methods for processing of the wastes for safe interim storage. Environmental impacts from the processing and storage are discussed.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, July--December 1995

Description: Digests and indexes for issuances of the NRC, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: (1) case name, (2) full text reference, (3) issuance number, (4) issued raised by appellants, (5) legal citations, (6) name of facility and Docket number, (7) subject matter, (8) type of hearing, and (9) type of issuance.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Productivity and Injectivity of Horizontal Wells

Description: A general wellbore flow model is presented to incorporate not only frictional, accelerational and gravitational pressure drops, but also the pressure drop caused by inflow. Influence of inflow or outflow on the wellbore pressure drop is analyzed. New friction factor correlations accounting for both inflow and outflow are also developed. The greatest source of uncertainty is reservoir description and how it is used in simulators. Integration of data through geostatistical techniques leads to multiple descriptions that all honor available data. The reality is never known. The only way to reduce this uncertainty is to use more data from geological studies, formation evaluation, high resolution seismic, well tests and production history to constrain stochastic images. Even with a perfect knowledge about reservoir geology, current models cannot do routine simulations at a fine enough scale. Furthermore, we normally don't know what scale is fine enough. Upscaling introduces errors and masks some of the physical phenomenon that we are trying to model. The scale at which upscaling is robust is not known and it is probably smaller in most cases than the scale actually used for predicting performance. Uncertainties in the well index can cause errors in predictions that are of the same magnitude as those caused by reservoir heterogeneities. Simplified semi-analytical models for cresting behavior and productivity predictions can be very misleading.
Date: April 29, 1997
Creator: Aziz, Khalid; Arababi, Sepehr & Hewett, Thomas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Ranking of Texas reservoirs for application of carbon dioxide miscible displacement

Description: Of the 431 reservoirs screened, 211 projected revenue that exceeded cost, ie, were profitable. Only the top 154 reservoirs, however, showed a profit greater than 30%. The top 10 reservoirs predicted a profit of at least 80%. Six of the top ten were Gulf Coast sandstones. The reservoirs are representative of the most productive discoveries in Texas; they account for about 72% of the recorded 52 billion barrels oil production in the State. Preliminary evaluation in this study implied that potential production from CO{sub 2}-EOR could be as much as 4 billion barrels. In order to enhance the chances of achieving this, DOE should consider a targeted outreach program to the specific independent operators controlling the leases. Development of ownership/technical potential maps and an outreach program should be initiated to aid this identification.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Ham, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

Description: The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Cole, Andrew G.; Asquith, George B.; Guzman, Jose I.; Barton, Mark D.; Malik, Mohammad A.; Dutton, Shirley P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Fast events in protein folding

Description: The primary objective of this work was to develop a molecular understanding of how proteins achieve their native three-dimensional (folded) structures. This requires the identification and characterization of intermediates in the protein folding process on all relevant timescales, from picoseconds to seconds. The short timescale events in protein folding have been entirely unknown. Prior to this work, state-of-the-art experimental approaches were limited to milliseconds or longer, when much of the folding process is already over. The gap between theory and experiment is enormous: current theoretical and computational methods cannot realistically model folding processes with lifetimes longer than one nanosecond. This unique approach to employ laser pump-probe techniques that combine novel methods of laser flash photolysis with time-resolved vibrational spectroscopic probes of protein transients. In this scheme, a short (picosecond to nanosecond) laser photolysis pulse was used to produce an instantaneous pH or temperature jump, thereby initiating a protein folding or unfolding reaction. Structure-specific, time-resolved vibrational probes were then used to identify and characterize protein folding intermediates.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Woodruff, W.; Callender, R.; Causgrove, T.; Dyer, R. & Williams, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Sorption and desorption of cesium and strontium on TA-2 and TA-41 soils and sediments

Description: Current environmental monitoring has detected radioactive contaminants in alluvial groundwater, soils, and sediments in the TA-2 and TA-41 areas along the north central edge of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Because of this contamination, this study was initiated. The objective of this study is to quantify the sorptivity of cesium and strontium onto TA-2 and TA-41 site specific soil samples under a controlled environment in the laboratory. The purposes of this work are to determine cesium and strontium sorption coefficient for these sit specific soils and to evaluate the potential transport of cesium and strontium. Based on this information, a risk assessment and remediation strategy can be developed.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Kung, K. Stephen; Li, Benjamin W.; Longmire, P.A. & Fowler, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Measurement of Downhole Steam Quality and Total Energy by Optical Methods

Description: Initial steps have been taken to measure the mass of water in vapor and liquid phases downhole in a steam injection heavy oil recovery system. A suitable portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been identified over which the presence of liquid water and vapor can be separated. This is in the near infrared and extends from ~900 nm to 1.8 Âµm region. A high pressure and high temperature cell has been constructed and tested for stagnant transmissions. Pitting of the optical ports due to the presence of high-pressure (8.5 MPA) and high temperature (300C) water has lead to a redesign of the optical ports, these modifications will be incorporated in the next quarter. The actual determination of the mass of water, either in liquid or vapor, has not been reliably determined, due in part to the pitting problems being addressed in the modification. However, qualitative data has been recorded clearly showing an increase in absorption with increasing number of absorbing molecules, i.e. mass of water.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Donaldson, A. B. & Allen, Graham R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## General features of Hugoniots

Description: From thermodynamics and the Hugoniot jump relations I derive a simple algebraic equation among the Grueneisen constant {gamma}, bulk modulus B{sub s}, pressure P, particle velocity U{sub p}, and slope s and intercept c of the tangent line to the U{sub s}-U{sub p} Hugoniot at U{sub p}. At U{sub p}=0, s is simple related to {partial_derivative}B{sub s} / {partial_derivative}P{sub s} and for 10 km/s {approx_lt} U{sub p} {approx_lt} 100--200 km/s there is a very linear region in the U{sub s}-U{sub p} curve. When dP / d{rho} = {infinity}, s and the curvature are directly given by P, B{sub s} and {gamma}. I end with the excellent confirmation of the linear region in data and with a discussion of shell structure.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Johnson, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report ending March 31, 1996

Description: This document contains a progress report for the Project Description of Grant No. DE-FG01-94CE15612, {open_quotes}Develop a Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste with Oil Shale in Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes}, dated September 2, 1994. The Project Description lists and describes six tasks, four of which are complete, and two others nearing completion. A summary of progress on each task is presented in this report.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Alkali deposits found in biomass power plants: A preliminary investigation of their extent and nature. Volume 1

Description: Alkali in the ash of annual crop biomass fuels creates serious fouling and slagging in conventional boilers. Even with the use of sorbents and other additives, power plants can only fire limited amounts of these fuels in combination with wood. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), US Department of Energy, and the biomass power industry carried out eight full-scale firing tests and several laboratory experiments to study the nature and occurrence of deposits with the goal of increasing the quantities of these biofuels that can be used. This report describes the results of the laboratory and power plant tests that included: tracking and analyzing fuels and deposits by various methods; recording operating conditions; and extensive laboratory testing. The paper describes the occurrence of deposits, fuel and deposit analyses, boiler design and operation, fouling and slagging indicators, and recommendations. 37 refs., 41 figs., 17 tabs.
Date: April 15, 1995
Creator: Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Baxter, L.L.; Bryers, R.W.; Jenkins, B.M. & Oden, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## The Bayo Canyon/radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) program

Description: LANL conducted 254 radioactive lanthanum (RaLa) implosion experiments Sept. 1944-March 1962, in order to test implosion designs for nuclear weapons. High explosives surrounding common metals (surrogates for Pu) and a radioactive source containing up to several thousand curies of La, were involved in each experiment. The resulting cloud was deposited as fallout, often to distances of several miles. This report was prepared to summarize existing records as an aid in evaluating the off-site impact, if any, of this 18-year program. The report provides a historical setting for the program, which was conducted in Technical Area 10, Bayo Canyon about 3 miles east of Los Alamos. A description of the site is followed by a discussion of collateral experiments conducted in 1950 by US Air Force for developing an airborne detector for tracking atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. All known off-site data from the RaLa program are tabulated and discussed. Besides the radiolanthanum, other potential trace radioactive material that may have been present in the fallout is discussed and amounts estimated. Off-site safety considerations are discussed; a preliminary off-site dose assessment is made. Bibliographical data on 33 persons important to the program are presented as footnotes.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Dummer, J. E.; Taschner, J. C. & Courtright, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

## Decomposition of PCBs in oils using gamma radiolysis: A treatability study. Final report

Description: This report presents the results of a treatability study of radiologically and PCB contaminated waste hydraulic oils at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The goal of the study was to demonstrate that PCBs could be selectively removed from the contaminated oils. The PCBs were selectively decomposed in an in-situ fashion via gamma-ray radiolysis. The gamma-ray source was spent nuclear fuel at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) canal at the Test Reactor Area (TRA), of the INEL. Exposure to gamma-rays does not induce radioactivity in the exposed solutions. The treatability study was the culmination of five years of research concerning PCB radiolysis conducted at INEL which investigated the mechanism and kinetics of the reaction in several solvents. The major findings of this research are summarized here. Based upon these findings three INEL waste streams were selected for testing of the process. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) treatment standard of 2 mg/kg was successfully achieved in all waste streams. The interference of contaminants other than PCBs is discussed.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Mincher, B.J. & Arbon, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department