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Thermal analysis of NNWSI conceptual waste package designs

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in the design and testing of high-level nuclear waste packages. Many of the aspects of waste package design and testing (e.g., corrosion and leaching) depend in part on the temperature history of the emplaced packages. This report discusses thermal modeling and analysis of various emplaced waste package conceptual designs including the models used, the assumptions and approximations made, and the results obtained. 16 references.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Stein, W.; Hockman, J.N. & O`Neal, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of tuff waste package components on release from 76-68 simulated waste glass: Final report

Description: An experimental matrix has been conducted that will allow evaluation of the effects of waste package constituents on the waste form release behavior in a tuff repository environment. Tuff rock and groundwater were used along with 304L, 316, and 1020M ferrous metals to evaluate release from uranium-doped MCC 76-68 simulated waste glass. One of the major findings was that in the absence of 1020M mild steel, tuff rock powder dominates the system. However, when 1020M mild steel is present, it appears to dominate the system. The rock-dominated system results in suppressed glass-water reaction and leaching while the 1020M-dominated system results in enhanced leaching - but the metal effectively scavenges uranium from solution. The 300-series stainless steels play no significant role in affecting glass leaching characteristics. 6 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: McVay, G.L. & Robinson, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EQ3/6 geochemical modeling task plan for Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI)

Description: This task plan outlines work needed to upgrade the EQ3/6 geochemical code and expand the supporting data bases to allow the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) to model chemical processes important to the storage of nuclear waste in a tuff repository in the unsaturated zone. The plan covers the fiscal years 1984 to 1988. The scope of work includes the development of sub-models in the EQ3/6 code package for studying the effects of sorption, precipitation kinetics, redox disequilibrium, and radiolysis on radionuclide speciation and solubility. The work also includes a glass/water interactions model and a geochemical flow model which will allow us to study waste form leaching and reactions involving the waste package. A special emphasis is placed on verification of new capabilities as they are developed and code documentation to meet NRC requirements. Data base expansion includes the addition of elements and associated aqueous species and solid phases that are specific to nuclear waste (e.g., actinides and fission products) and the upgrading and documentation of the thermodynamic data for other species of interest.
Date: April 10, 1984
Creator: Isherwood, D. & Wolery, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory and field studies related to the radionuclide migration project. Progress report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

Description: The FY 1983 laboratory and field studies related to the Radionuclide Migration project are described. Results are presented for radiochemical analyses of water samples collected from the RNM-1 well and the RNM-2S satellite well at the Cambric site. Data are included for tritium, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs. Preliminary results from water collection at the Cheshire site are reported. Laboratory studies emphasize the sorptive behavior of tuff and its dependence on mineralogy. 18 references, 7 figures, 13 tables.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Daniels, W.R. & Thompson, J.L. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The American Telephone and Telegraph Divestiture: Background, Provisions, and Restructuring

Description: On January 1, 1984, The American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) divested itself of a major portion of its organizational structure and functions. Under the post-divestiture environment the once fully-integrated Bell System is now reorganized into the "new" AT&T and seven Ladependent regional holding companies -- American Information Technologies Corp., 3ell Atlantic Corp., 3ell- South Corp., NYNEX Corp., Pacific Telesis Group., Southwestern Bell Corp., and U.S. West, Inc. The following analysis provides an overview of the pre- and post-divestiture organizational structure and details the evolution of the antitrust action which resulted in this divestiture.
Date: April 11, 1984
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compensation for Crime Victims

Description: This report discusses the growing interest in recent years in providing compensation for the innocent victims of violent crime through programs financed by the Federal and/or State Governments. At issue have been the general propriety, desirability, and feasibility, as well as the cost, of Federal support of such programs.
Date: April 27, 1984
Creator: Cavanagh, M. Suzanne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Infant Formula: National Problems

Description: This report discusses congressional concerns regarding infant formula that was deficient in a required nutrient.
Date: April 27, 1984
Creator: Porter, Donna V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal potential along the Balcones/Ouachita trend, central Texas: ongoing assessment and selected case studies

Description: A synopsis of the geologic conditions along the Balcones/Ouachita trend is presented. The problems in defining low-temperature resources and in recognizing anomalies are addressed. Local geologic and hydrologic conditions are assayed in terms of ambient thermal regimes, and hypotheses are presented for the origin of thermal waters.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Macpherson, G.L.; Gever, C.; Caran, S.C. & El Shazly, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal resource assessment for North Dakota. Final report

Description: Temperatures in four geothermal aquifers, Inyan Kara (Cretaceous), Mission Canyon (Mississippian), Duperow (Devonian), and Red River (Ordovician) are in the range for low and moderate temperature geothermal resources within an area of about 130,000 km/sup 2/ in North Dakota. The accessible resource base is 13,500 x 10/sup 18/ J., which, assuming a recovery factor of 0.001, may represent a greater quantity of recoverable energy than is present in the basin in the form of petroleum. A synthesis of heat flow, thermal conductivity, and stratigraphic data was found to be significantly more accurate in determining formation temperatures than the use of linear temperature gradients derived from bottom hole temperature data. The thermal structure of the Williston Basin is determined by the thermal conductivities of four principal lithologies: Tertiary silts and sands (1.6 W/m/K), Mesozoic shales (1.2 W/m/K), Paleozoic limestones (3.2 W/m/K), and Paleozoic dolomites (3.5 W/m/K). The stratigraphic placement of these lithologies leads to a complex, multicomponent geothermal gradient which precludes use of any single component gradient for accurate determination of subsurface temperatures.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Gosnold, W.D. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lineaments of Texas - possible surface expressions of deep-seated phenomena. Final report

Description: Lineaments were identified on 51 Landsat images covering Texas and parts of adjacent states in Mexico and the United States. A method of identifying lineaments was designed so that the findings would be consistent, uncomplicated, objective, and reproducible. Lineaments denoted on the Landsat images were traced onto 1:250,000-scale work maps and then rendered cartographically on maps representing each of the 51 Landsat images at a scale of 1:500,000. At this stage more than 31,000 lineaments were identified. It included significant areas outside of Texas. In preparing the final lineament map of Texas at 1:1,000,000-scale from the 1:500,000-scale maps, all features that lay outside Texas and repetition among features perceived by individual workers were eliminated. Cultural features were checked for before reducing and cartographically fitting the mosaic of 51 individual map sheets to a single map base. Lineaments that were partly colinear but with different end points were modified into a single lineament trace with the combined length of the two or more colinear lineaments. Each lineament was checked to determine its validity according to our definition. The features were edited again to eliminate processing artifacts within the image itself, as well as representations of cultural features (fencelines, roads, and the like) and geomorphic patterns unrelated to bedrock structure. Thus the more than 31,000 lineaments originally perceived were reduced to the approximately 15,000 presented on the 1:1,000,000 map. Interpretations of the lineaments are presented.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Woodruff, C.M. Jr. & Caran, S.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. Final report. [Sulfide capacity of various slags in given temperature range]

Description: Significant progress has been achieved in the development of a desulfurizing coal combustion process by the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) in a research program funded by the United States Department of Energy. Conceptually, high sulfur coal is burned with additives in a staged cyclone combustor, such that sufficient sulfur to obviate products of combustion (POC) scrubbing is retained in the slag by-product. Bench scale studies conducted during the program have shown that 70% of the sulfur (2.65% sulfur coal) reports to the slag at equilibrium through a 25% addition of iron ore to the coal. Results obtained correlate with published data for similar slag at higher temperatures. In pilot scale combustion tests, equilibrium levels of coal sulfur were retained by the slag (11 to 14%). Equilibrium sulfur capture was limited by low particulate retention and operating temperature higher than optimal. Cost estimates for implementation of the process are included in this report. 28 references, 39 figures, 58 tables.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Stewart, D.L. Jr.; Dastolfo, L.E. Jr. & DeYoung, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Mexico State University Campus geothermal demonstration project

Description: This report presents the design, construction highlights, and performance of the New Mexico State University Campus Geothermal Demonstration Project at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Construction started in July 1981, first system use was January 1982, and the system was dedicated on April 21, 1982. Included herein are summary observations after two years of use. The geothermal hot water from New Mexico State University wells is used to heat potable water, which in turn provides 83 percent of the domestic hot water on the New Mexico State University campus, as well as space heat to two buildings, and for two heated swimming pools. The original system is providing service to 30 total buildings, with two additional buildings (150,000 square feet) in process of geothermal conversion.) The system overall performance has been excellent, except for geothermal well pump problems. In terms of operating efficiency, the system has exceeded the design parameters. In spite of abnormally high costs for well and pump repairs, the system has shown a positive cost avoidance of more than $118,000 for the first year of operation. For the first two full years of operation, the system has produced a net positive cost avoidance of more than $200,000. Payback on the total investment of $1,670,000 is projected to be 6 to 10 years, depending on the future prices of natural gas and electricity.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Cuniff, R.A.; Fisher, K.P. & Chintawongvanich, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of Turbulent Wind Velocities Using a Rotating Boom Apparatus

Description: The present report covers both the development of a rotating-boom facility and the evaluation of the spectral energy of the turbulence measured relative to the rotating boom. The rotating boom is composed of a helicopter blade driven through a pulley speed reducer by a variable speed motor. The boom is mounted on a semiportable tower that can be raised to provide various ratios of hub height to rotor diameter. The boom can be mounted to rotate in either the vertical or horizontal plane. Probes that measure the three components of turbulence can be mounted at any location along the radius of the boom. Special hot-film sensors measured two components of the turbulence at a point directly in front of the rotating blade. By using the probe rotated 90/sup 0/ about its axis, the third turbulent velocity component was measured. Evaluation of the spectral energy distributions for the three components of velocity indicates a large concentration of energy at the rotational frequency. At frequencies slightly below the rotational frequency, the spectral energy is greatly reduced over that measured for the nonrotating case measurements. Peaks in the energy at frequencies that are multiples of the rotation frequency were also observed. We conclude that the rotating boom apparatus is suitable and ready to be used in experiments for developing and testing sensors for rotational measurement of wind velocity from wind turbine rotors. It also can be used to accurately measure turbulent wind for testing theories of rotationally sampled wind velocity.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Sandborn, V. A. & Connell, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Muon SR Newsletter, No. 29, April 5, 1984

Description: Muon SR stands for Muon Spin Relaxation, Rotation, Resonance, Research, or what have you. The intention of the mnemonic acronym is to draw attention to the analogy with NMR and ESR, the range of whose applications is well known. Any study of the interactions of the muon spin by virtue of the asymmetric decay is considered ..mu..SR, but this definition is not intended to exclude any peripherally related phenomena, especially if relevant to the use of the muon's mganetic moment as a delicate probe of matter. Abstracts of individual items from this issue were prepared separately for the data base.
Date: April 5, 1984
Creator: Crowe, K.M.; Portis, A.M. & Yamazaki, T. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report

Description: A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Starr, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Battery charger and state of charge indicator. Final report

Description: The battery charger has a full-wave rectifier in series with a transformer isolated 20 kHz dc-dc converter with high frequency switches which are programmed to actively shape the input ac line current to be a mirror image of the ac line voltage. The power circuit is capable of operating at 2 kW peak and 1 kW average power. The BC/SCI has two major subsystems: (1) the battery charger power electronics with its controls; and (2) a microcomputer subsystem which is used to acquire battery terminal data and exercise the state-of-charge software programs. The state-of-charge definition employed is the energy remaining in the battery when extracted at a 10 kW rate divided by the energy capacity of a fully charged new battery. The battery charger circuit is an isolated boost converter operating at an internal frequency of 20 kHz. The switches selected for the battery charger are the single most important item in determining its efficiency. The combination of voltage and current requirements dictated the use of high power NPN Darlington switching transistors. The power circuit topology developed is a three switch design utilizing a power FET on the center tap of the isolation transformer and the power Darlingtons on each of the two ends. An analog control system is employed to accomplish active input current waveshaping as well as the necessary regulation.
Date: April 15, 1984
Creator: Latos, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium mill tailings remedial action program. Radiological survey of Shiprock vicinity property SH03, Shiprock, NM, July-November 1982

Description: A comprehensive survey of the vicinity property designated as SH03 was conducted on an intermittent basis from July 26 to November 11, 1982. At the time of the survey, three structures were located on the property - a residential trailer, the main structure, and an old gas pump housing. The lands surrounding the structures were either sparsely covered with arid vegetation or paved. The assessment activities included determination of indoor and outdoor surface radiation levels, for both fixed and removable contamination, through direct instrument and smear (indoor only) surveys; measurement of ambient external penetrating radiation levels at 1-meter heights; and analyses of air, soil, and other material samples. No evidence of radioactive contamination was found inside the trailer. However, the results of the radiological assessment did indicate the occurrence of elevated levels of gamma, surface alpha, and radon daughter radioactivity within the main structure. The short-term radon daughter measurements exceeded the limit of 0.02 Working Level for average annual concentration including background. The assessment also indicated elevated levels of radioactivity in the outdoor environs, encompassing about 32,000 ft/sup 2/ of the grounds adjacent to and surrounding the main structure on the east, south, and west sides. The contamination appeared to be due to the presence of unprocessed uranium ore. Analysis of surface soil samples collected from the environs indicated radium concentrations in excess of the limit of 5 pCi/g above background specified in the EPA Standard. Subsurface soil sampling was not conducted, and thus the vertical extent of the radiological contamination is not known. Since the surface soil contamination levels exceeded the limits specified in the EPA Standard, remedial action for this vicinity site should be considered.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Flynn, K F; Justus, A L; Sholeen, C M; Smith, W H & Wynveen, R A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Communication across 300 generations: deterring human interference with waste deposit sites

Description: The conditions attendant on the deep land burial of nuclear waste products raise a number of possible scenarios to cover the necessary 10,000 years of burial. However, no matter what kind of futuristic scenario obtains, it is desirable to develop an information system indicating the locale and nature of the deposit site and the types of materials stored, along with forewarnings not to interefere with the sites. A variety of such informational sites are suggested. Attention then turns to the recipients of such messages, recognizing from the outset that the psychological/perceptual makeup of individuals across the next 300 or so generations is virtually impossible to predict, particularly since new technologies may well alter that makeup in the furture. Nevertheless, current evidence suggests that certain human characteristics may be considered universal, and that these suggest the incorporation of selected sign signification into the message system. There are other such characteristics that, while probably not intrinsic, can probably be acquired with a minimum of formal training. That still leaves much of the message content to be deliberately created and, hence, learned. The common trefoil or other developed biohazardous signs emerge as the best candidates for a generic base symbol for the buried material.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Tannenbaum, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Communication measures to bridge ten millennia. [Contains glossary]

Description: The Department of Energy created the Human Interference Task Force (HITF) in 1980 to investigate the problems connected with the postclosure, final marking of a filled nuclear waste repository. The task of the HITF is to devise a method of warning future generations not to mine or drill at that site unless they are aware of the consequences of their actions. Since the likelihood of human interference should be minimized for 10,000 years, an effective and long-lasting warning system must be designed. This report is a semiotic analysis of the problem, examining it in terms of the science or theory of messages and symbols. Because of the long period of time involved, the report recommends that a relay system of recoding messages be initiated; that the messages contain a mixture of iconic, indexical, and symbolic elements; and that a high degree of redundancy of messages be employed.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Sebeok, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear analysis and performance of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core power operation at Shippingport

Description: This report presents the nuclear analysis and discusses the performance of the LWBR core at Shippingport during power operation from initial startup through end-of-life at 28,730 EFPH. Core follow depletion calculations confirmed that the reactivity bias and power distributions were well within the uncertainty allowances used in the design and safety analysis of LWBR. The magnitude of the core follow reactivity bias has shown that the calculational models used can predict the behavior of U/sup 233/-Th systems with closely spaced fuel rod lattices and movable fuel. In addition, the calculated final fissile loading is sufficiently greater than the initial fissile inventory that the measurements to be performed for proof-of-breeding evaluations are expected to confirm that breeding has occurred.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Hecker, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of tracer and steam tests on the Western Research Institute 150-ton retort

Description: Gas tracer and steam front velocities in addition to flow model calculations are used to characterize rubble bed structure in an oil shale retort. The gas tracer method is shown to have superior resolution to the steam front method in detecting rubble bed variations. The tracer method is potentially less expensive. Recommendations for further research are made.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.; Merriam, N.W. & Covell, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

Description: The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M. & Kamber, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

Description: Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B. & Van Heuvelen, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department