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Deep drilling phase of the Pen Brand Fault Program

Description: This deep drilling activity is one element of the Pen Branch Fault Program at Savannah River Site (SRS). The effort will consist of three tasks: the extension of wells PBF-7 and PBF-8 into crystalline basement, geologic and drilling oversight during drilling operations, and the lithologic description and analysis of the recovered core. The drilling program addresses the association of the Pen Branch fault with order fault systems such as the fault that formed the Bunbarton basin in the Triassic.
Date: May 15, 1991
Creator: Stieve, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Space nuclear power requirements for ozone layer modification

Description: This work estimates the power requirements for using photochemical processes driven by space nuclear power to counteract the Earth's ozone layer depletion. The total quantity of ozone (O{sub 3}) in the Earth's atmosphere is estimated to be about 4.7 {times} 10{sup 37} molecules. The ozone production and destruction rates in the stratosphere are both on the order of 4.9 {times} 10{sup 31} molecules/s, differing by a small fraction so that the net depletion rate is about 0.16 to 0.26% per year. The delivered optical power requirement for offsetting this depletion is estimated to be on the order of 3 GW. If the power were produced by satellite reactors at 800 km altitude (orbit decay time {approximately} 300 years), some means of efficient power beaming would be needed to deliver the power to stratospheric levels (10--50 km). Ultraviolet radiation at 140--150 nm could have higher absorption rates in O{sub 2} (leading to production of atomic oxygen, which can combine with O{sub 2} to form O{sub 3}) than in ozone (leading to photodissociation of O{sub 3}). Potential radiation sources include H{sub 2} lasers and direct nuclear pumping of ultraviolet fluorescers. 5 refs.
Date: October 15, 1991
Creator: Dolan, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transport of radon and thoron at the earth's surface

Description: This report covers progress under the current funding period Jan. 1, 1991 to Jan. 1, 1992 and presents the continuation proposal for Jan. 1, 1992 to Jan. 1, 1993. The previous progress report was submitted in May 1990, so activities during the last half of 1990 will also be included. Major activities over the last year have centered on the study of disequilibrium of radon progeny near the earth's surface and the sources of thoron in indoor air. In addition, we have carried out supplemental measurements of radon sorption coefficients in porous materials focusing on the physical mechanism of sorption.
Date: June 15, 1991
Creator: Schery, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of a naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound

Description: The goal is to synthesize a new naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound for use in coal combustion studies. This effort will also require the development of a synthetic procedure to synthesize this compound since it is unreported. Our synthesis efforts have resulted in the preparation of a number of potential precursors and intermediates. These compounds were submitted to the Organic Chemistry Research Area's Analytical Section for characterization and identification. The synthesis of the pre-Bakelite intermediate has continued to be the focus of our efforts. We first modified the target intermediate slightly to allow this compound to be obtained by a more direct route, using commercially available materials. Since then, we have further simplified intermediate to expedite our evaluation of the feasibility of the Bakelite process for the final polymerization, the key step of our suggested scheme.
Date: January 15, 1991
Creator: Kwong, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quaternary investigation

Description: The primary purpose of the Quaternary investigation is to provide information on the location and age of Quaternary deposits for use in evaluating the presence or absence of neotectonic deformation or paleoliquefaction features within the Savannah River Site (SRS) region. The investigation will provide a basis for evaluating the potential for capable faults and associated deformation in the SRS vicinity. Particular attention will be paid to the Pen Branch fault.
Date: May 15, 1991
Creator: Stieve, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PDS SHRINK. PDS SHRINK

Description: This code enables one to display, take line-outs on, and perform various transformations on an image created by an array of integer*2 data. Uncompressed eight-bit TIFF files created on either the Macintosh or the IBM PC may also be read in and converted to a 16 bit signed integer image. This code is designed to handle all the formats used for PDS (photo-densitometer) files at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These formats are all explained by the application code. The image may be zoomed infinitely and the gray scale mapping can be easily changed. Line-outs may be horizontal or vertical with arbitrary width, angled with arbitrary end points, or taken along any path. This code is usually used to examine spectrograph data. Spectral lines may be identified and a polynomial fit from position to wavelength may be found. The image array can be remapped so that the pixels all have the same change of lambda width. It is not necessary to do this, however. Lineouts may be printed, saved as Cricket tab-delimited files, or saved as PICT2 files. The plots may be linear, semilog, or logarithmic with nice values and proper scientific notation. Typically, spectral lines are curved.
Date: December 15, 1991
Creator: Phillion, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microwave Sintering of Nanophase Ceramics Without Concomitant Grain Growth

Description: A method of sintering nanocrystalline material is disclosed wherein the nanocrystalline material is microwaved to heat the material to a temperature less than about 70% of the melting point of the nanocrystalline material expressed in degrees K. This method produces sintered nanocrystalline material having a density greater than about 95% of theoretical and an average grain size not more than about 3 times the average grain size of the nanocrystalline material before sintering. Rutile TiO{sub 2} as well as various other ceramics have been prepared. Grain growth of as little as 1.67 times has resulted with densities of about 90% of theoretical.
Date: April 15, 1991
Creator: Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Sickafus, Kurt E. & Katz, Joel D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Varied line-space gratings and applications

Description: This paper presents a straightforward analytical and numerical method for the design of a specific type of varied line-space grating system. The mathematical development will assume plane or nearly-plane spherical gratings which are illuminated by convergent light, which covers many interesting cases for synchrotron radiation. The gratings discussed will have straight grooves whose spacing varies across the principal plane of the grating. Focal relationships and formulae for the optical grating-pole-to-exist-slit distance and grating radius previously presented by other authors will be derived with a symbolic algebra system. It is intended to provide the optical designer with the tools necessary to design such a system properly. Finally, some possible advantages and disadvantages for application to synchrotron to synchrotron radiation beamlines will be discussed.
Date: July 15, 1991
Creator: McKinney, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

Description: Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.
Date: December 15, 1991
Creator: Shugart, L.R.; D'Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C. & Greeley, M.S. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature creep of refractory bricks. Final report

Description: The uniaxial compressive creep of the 13 high chromia-commercial refractories that are candidate materials for lining coal gasification vessels was studied using stresses from 50 to 1500 psi (0.34 MPa to 10.3 MPa) and temperature from 1900{degrees}F to 2600{degrees}F (1038{degrees} to 1427{degrees}C). The regimes to stress and temperature in which creep was active varied widely, depending on impurities and microstructure, not chromia content, and was active at lower stresses and temperatures than would be expected from hot strength data. The creep was always primary, going through steady state to failure as a transient phase. One specimen with a liquid phase at temperature gave a longer steady-state region. The primary creep time exponent varied from 0.4 to nearly one. It was smaller at low stresses and temperatures, but was often a linear function of stress. Activation enthalpies were less for refractories containing a significant liquid phase at temperature, and were in the range expected for cation diffusion. Current theoretical models to not fit these systems. Two models are suggested to explain the primary creep regime. More research to correlate primary creep with microstructure is needed.
Date: May 15, 1991
Creator: McGee, T. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A remote telepresence robotic system for inspection and maintenance of a nuclear power plant. DOE/NE program in robotics for advanced reactors: Annual research status report, 1991

Description: This annual report details the activities of the University of Florida research on the robotic system for inspection and maintenance of nuclear power plants. (FI)
Date: December 15, 1991
Creator: Crane, C. D. III & Tulenko, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis and analysis of novel polymers with high permselectivity and permeability in gas separation applications

Description: We have synthesized and completed characterization of permeability and selectivity properties of a group of polysulfones and polyether ketones with the potential for higher use temperatures, as well as members of a series of polyesters derived from spirobiindane bisphenol monomer in conjunction with meta and para substituted diacid chlorides. We have also synthesized and characterized the gas transport and thermal properties of diphenyl substituted polyphenylene oxide. The diphenyl substituted material has a potential for higher temperature applications than the standard dimethyl substituted polymer. The temperature dependence of the gas transport properties for the oxygen/nitrogen system was characterized over the range from 35 to 65{degree}C for both of these analog materials.
Date: November 15, 1991
Creator: Koros, W.J. & Paul, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of innovative applicatiions of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process

Description: The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.
Date: May 15, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of innovative applications of technology for cost reductions to the CT-121 FGD process

Description: The objective of this project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale several innovative applications of cost-reducing technology to the Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 (CT-121) process. CT-121 is a second generation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process which is considered by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Southern Company Services (SCS) to be one of the most reliable and lowest cost FGD options for high-sulfur coal-fired utility boiler applications. Demonstrations of the innovative design approaches will further reduce the cost and provide a clear advantage to CT121 relative to competing technology.
Date: February 15, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining desorption pre-exponential factors from temperature-programmed desorption spectra when the surface is nonuniform

Description: To find desorption pre-exponential factors from temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectra, we develop procedures using both the TPD spectra and their derivatives. First, an approximate method is derived using peak temperatures. This method is formally identical with one used for determining pre-exponential factors and desorption activation energies when desorptions are energetically uniform. The method can be used when the pre-exponential factor is constant. We next develop an iterative process that also uses peak temperatures, and again is usable when the pre-exponential factor is constant. This iterative approach should give more exact values of pre-exponential factors than the approximate approach. Using the first derivatives of TPD spectra over the entire range of temperatures leads to a second iterative process. This last procedure allows determination of energy-dependent pre-exponential factors. 8 refs., 13 figs.
Date: March 15, 1991
Creator: Brown, L.F. & Chemburkar, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of a naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound

Description: The objective of this contract is the synthesis of a new naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound for coal combustion studies. This effort also requires the development of a synthetic procedure for this compound since it has not been reported before. We can only report that we are still unable to provide the target polymer or even any of the key intermediates leading to this target Dr. Rao has been informed of our progress (or lack of progress), and he has suggested that we begin to design other alternative compounds which contain the functionalities required by the target compound. In response to this suggestion, we have quickly designed the potential targets shown in Scheme VIL We are currently evaluating the schemes further and we will continue designing routes to the other analogous compounds.
Date: April 15, 1991
Creator: Kwong, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of spherical geometry finite element transport solutions in the thick diffusion limit

Description: An asymptotic analysis if performed on a family of discontinuous finite element methods (DFEMs) for spherical geometry transport. It is found that transport methods of this type transition into discrete versions of the spherical geometry diffusion equation in the thick diffusion limit with boundary conditions that may, in general, be inaccurate. A linear DFEM method has been designed such that its asymptotic diffusion boundary conditions are accurate. In a related development, the asymptotic diffusion equation is used to accelerate the transport calculation and the iterative scheme is fully described. The results of the analysis are confirmed by numerical testing of the specific case of linear elements. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 15, 1991
Creator: Palmer, T.S. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering) & Adams, M.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diagnostic beam line for a third generation storage ring

Description: A knowledge of the position, size, and stability of the source and the angle of emission of synchrotron radiation (SR) from the storage ring are essential for optimizing the operation of storage ring, insertion device and monochromators. Berkeley's Advanced Light Source (ALS) has a natural emittance of 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m-rad, and has beam sizes {sigma}{sub h} and {sigma}{sub v} (assuming a 10% emittance ratio into the vertical direction) in bending magnet 1 (BM1) of 44 {mu}m and 83 {mu}m respectively. Simple diffractive optical calculations show that imaging this beam using visible light optics is not feasible and imaging must be performed using photon energies greater than 50 eV. This will be the same for all third generation low emittance storage rings. The synchrotron radiation diagnostics at ALS will consist of an imaging system for 200 eV photons and a white beam'' port with a streak camera to obtain the timing information. The imaging system will employ two crossed spherical mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration, to eliminate astigmatism. Use of 1:1 imaging will eliminate coma, resulting in an image of the source which is only limited by the residual aberrations of the optics. Real time imaging of the beam is deemed feasible by the use of a high resolution CCD, and the associated electronics necessary to read the CCD. The design of the imaging system of the diagnostic beam line for ALS and the detection system will be discussed with a view toward applications in other third generation SR sources. 6 refs.
Date: May 15, 1991
Creator: Perera, R.C.C.; Melczer, M.E.; Warwick, A.; Jackson, A. & Kincaid, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 emissions control system

Description: This project's goal is to demonstrate the removal up to 70% of the NO{sub x} and 70% of the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired utility boilers. It will establish an alternative emissions control technology integrating a combination of several processes, while minimizing capital expenditures and limiting waste production to dry solids that are handled with conventional ash removal equipment. These processes include low-NO{sub x} burners, NO{sub x} ports and urea injection for NO{sub x} control, sodium or calcium based sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control, and flue gas humidification to enhance the reactivity of the SO{sub 2} control compound.
Date: October 15, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam and viewing dump positioning inside TFTR for CTS alpha-particle diagnostics

Description: A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic system for localized measurement of energetic ions is being developed for TFTR. This system will use a 200KW, 56GHz gyrotron and a sensitive heterodyne receiver. In addition, a key element of this system will be beam and viewing dumps which are needed to minimize detection of stray gyrotron and ECE background radiation by the receiver system. It is the purpose of this study to determine the size and location of these dumps inside TFTR taking into account beam refraction and launch and receiver antenna optics scanning. The beam dump must cover all the area in the vacuum chamber where the beam is expected to impinge, and the viewing dump must cover all the areas within the direct line of sight of the receiver antenna. The beam launch system and the receiver antenna are to be placed nearly symmetrically above and below the midplane of the tokamak vacuum vessel, respectively. The beam dump is to be placed at the bottom inside of the vacuum vessel to absorb the gyrotron beam which will be launched from a top port. The viewing dump is expected to be placed symmetrically at the top inside of the vacuum vessel, and therefore a detailed analysis of only the beam dump is required here. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Date: July 15, 1991
Creator: Rhee, D.Y.; Woskov, P.P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center); Ellis, R. & Park, H. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts

Description: The primary objective of the project is to examine the relations between the catalytic and magnetic properties of the copper-cobalt higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. We have undertaken to investigate the magnetic character by studying the Nuclear Quadrupole resonance of copper and (Zerofield) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of cobalt in copper cobalt catalysts.
Date: July 15, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microwave sintering of nanophase ceramics without concomitant grain growth

Description: A method of sintering nanocrystalline material is disclosed wherein the nanocrystalline material is microwaved to heat the material to a temperature less than about 70% of the melting point of the nanocrystalline material expressed in degrees K. This method produces sintered nanocrystalline material having a density greater than about 95% of theoretical and an average grain size not more than about 3 times the average grain size of the nanocrystalline material before sintering. Rutile TiO[sub 2] as well as various other ceramics have been prepared. Grain growth of as little as 1.67 times has resulted with densities of about 90% of theoretical.
Date: April 15, 1991
Creator: Eastman, J.A.; Sickafus, K.E. & Katz, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch

Description: The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butytl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; (2) addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and, (3) addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.
Date: October 15, 1991
Creator: Marcelin, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department