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Cover-gas-seal component development: dynamic inflatable-plug seal improvement

Description: This report documents the 1) radial compliance and 2) low friction coating tests conducted on the CRBRP Rotating Plug Inflatable Seals per test plan N707TR810014. Test results show that narrowing the seal blade from 0.25 to 0.12 in. will effectively reduce dynamic drag from 30 to 20 lb/ft under nominal conditions and will increase seal radial compliance from 0.12 to 0.30 in. without an unacceptable rise in dynamic drag. Tests also demonstrated that application of a teflon coating to the seal wear surface reduced breakaway drag by 25% based on results of comparison dwells.
Date: September 15, 1977
Creator: Horton, P.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. Quarterly technical summary report No. 3, January 1--March 31, 1977. [Negative ion formation, electron/slag interaction, and alkali/slag interaction]

Description: The purpose of this contract effort is to understand how nonfuel components of coal will affect the electron and alkali seed chemistry in a high temperature coal combustion system like that envisioned for direct fired MHD generators. Three specific problems are being considered during this contract period. The first problem area is to characterize the formation of negative ions due to electron attachment processes in the combustion flow. While some stable negative ions may be formed from hydrocarbon combustion species (OH/sup -/), the bulk of the stable negative ions are expected to be formed from oxidized inorganic coal slag constituents (BO/sup -//sub 2/, PO/sup -//sub 2/, AlO/sup -//sub 2/, etc). Negative ion formation can reduce the conductivity of the MHD plasma, particularly at the low temperature end of the MHD channel, thus decreasing the efficiency of power generation. The second problem area involves the role slag condensation may play in determining the electron density through recombination, also adversely affecting conductivity in the core flow. The competitive balance between thermionic emission from slag droplets and electron/ion recombination on the droplet surfaces may be severely tipped in favor of electron loss processes, depending on the slag properties. The third problem area is the heterogeneous interaction of alkali seed with particles formed by slag condensation in the generator channel. Alkali seed material can be chemically bound into the molten slag particles tightly enough that seed recovery becomes prohibitively expensive. The loss of significant amounts of alkali seed with the slag could have a serious economic impact on proposed MHD systems. A coupled approach, involving both theoretical modeling and experimental measurements, has been devised to explore the negative ion formation, the electron/slag interaction, and the alkali/slag interaction problems. Research progress is reported.
Date: April 15, 1977
Creator: Kolb, C.E.; Yousefian, V.; Wormhoudt, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, M. & Kerrebrock, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. Quarterly technical summary report No. 2, October 1--December 31, 1976. [Negative ion formation, electron/slag interaction, and alkali/slag interaction]

Description: A study on how nonfuel components of coal will affect the electron and alkali seed chemistry in a high temperature coal combustion system like those envisioned for direct fired MHD generators is described. Three specific problems are being considered. The first problem area is to characterize the formation of negative ions due to electron attachment processes in the combustion flow. While some stable negative ions may be formed from hydrocarbon combustion species (OH, HCO/sup -//sub 3/), the bulk of the stable negative ions are expected to be formed from oxidized inorganic coal slag constituents (CO/sup -//sub 2/, PO/sup -//sub 2/, AlO/sup -//sub 2/, etc). Negative ion formation can reduce the conductivity of the MHD plasma, particularly at the low temperature end of the MHD channel, thus decreasing the efficiency of power generation. This phenomena is expected to be particularly severe in electrode boundary layers, and particular attention will be paid to conditions characteristic of flow along the electrodes. The second problem area involves the role slag condensation may play in determining the electron density through recombination, also adversely affecting conductivity in the core flow. The competitive balance between thermionic emission from slag droplets and electron/ion recombination on the droplet surfaces may be severely tipped in favor of electron loss processes, depending on the slag properties. Also, the heterogeneous interaction of alkali seed with particles formed by slag condensation in the generator channel is studied. Alkali seed material can be chemically bound into the molten slag particles tightly enough that seed recovery becomes prohibitively expensive. The loss of significant amounts of alkali seed with the slag could have a serious economic impact on proposed MHD systems. An approach, involving both theoretical modeling and experimental measurements, has been devised to explore the negative ion formation, the electron/slag interaction, and the alkali/slag interaction ...
Date: January 15, 1977
Creator: Kolb, C.E.; Yousefian, V.; Wormhoudt, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, M. & Kerrebrock, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotopic HCl transfer laser

Description: An HCl laser which uses isotopic V-V energy transfer collisions as a pumping mechanism has been demonstrated. This multiline laser, which utilized an intracavity cold gas isotope filter, increased the energy from the P/sub 1/ lines of H/sup 37/Cl while decreasng the energies of the P/sub 1/ and P/sub 2/ lines of H/sup 35/Cl. Previously unreported lines, including emission from R branch transitions, have also been observed from single-line HCl and HBr lasers.
Date: December 15, 1977
Creator: Badcock, C.C.; Hwang, W.C.; Kalsch, J.F. & Kamada, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal and hydraulic analyses of the System 81 cold traps

Description: Thermal and hydraulic analyses of the System 81 Type I and II cold traps were completed except for thermal transients analysis. Results are evaluated, discussed, and reported. Analytical models were developed to determine the physical dimensions of the cold traps and to predict the performance. The FFTF cold trap crystallizer performances were simulated using the thermal model. This simulation shows that the analytical model developed predicts reasonably conservative temperatures. Pressure drop and sodium residence time calculations indicate that the present design will meet the requirements specified in the E-Specification. Steady state temperature data for the critical regions were generated to assess the magnitude of the thermal stress.
Date: June 15, 1977
Creator: Kim, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alloy evaluation for fossil fuel process plants (liquefaction). Quarterly report for April 1--June 30, 1977

Description: ASTM mechanical property specification verification tests have been conducted on the 2 /sup 1///sub 4/ Cr-1 Mo steel. The base properties have been determined for the steel and calibrations on the thermal expansivity of both the 2 /sup 1///sub 4/ Cr-1 Mo steel and 316 SS for use as loading rings have been completed.
Date: July 15, 1977
Creator: Woods, C.M. & Scott, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design description 3000-kWe subsea nuclear power plant

Description: This report describes the conceptual design and performance of a subsea nuclear power system for application in offshore oil and gas production. The system can be designed and built with minimum additional development, based on space nuclear power technology, components, and systems completed during the past 20 years. The concept is particularly well suited to meet the requirements of the offshore oil application for adequate safety, high reliability, and acceptable costs. The system is designed to provide 3000 kWe power to oil pumps, at 4160 V, and 60 Hz, for a period of 4 years, in an automatic, unattended mode. At the end of this period, the system is returned to a refurbishment center, where the reactor core is replaced and other parts of the systems are inspected, refurbished, or replaced, as required. With this periodic refueling and maintenance, the total system design life is 20 years. The nuclear power system is largely contained within two separate pressure vessels, connected by an enclosed pipe chase. One vessel contains the reactor and liquid metal primary coolant system, while the other contains the organic Rankine power conversion systems. These modules are mounted on a barge which provides both a means to transport the system and a mounting structure for the sea floor installation. A waste heat exchanger is mounted on the deck of the barge. The nuclear power system is designed for unattended operations. It can be operated automatically in a load-following mode, or controlled remotely with the use of supervisory and instrumentation circuits.
Date: April 15, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of effects of impurities intentionally incorporated into silicon. Final report, Feburary 1, 1977--December 1, 1977

Description: A methodology has been developed and implemented to allow silicon samples containing intentionally incorporated impurities to be fabricated into finished solar cells under carefully controlled conditions. The electrical and spectral properties were then measured for each group processed, and this data, along with all the material, (cells and scrap) were delivered to JPL for further analysis. All 33 lots of Group ''C'', 14 lots of Group ''CM'' and 16 lots of Group ''F'' have been fabricated into cells, tested and delivered to JPL.
Date: December 15, 1977
Creator: Uno, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a practical photochemical energy storage system. Quarterly report. [Interconversion between norbornadiene and quadricyclene for thermochemical heat storage]

Description: Research on polymeric organic sensitizers and polymeric inorganic sensitizers for the conversion of norbornadine to quadricyclene and catalysts for the conversion of quadricyclene to norbornadine is described. The interconversion of norbornadine and quadricyclene is studied for its possible use for thermochemical solar energy storage. (WHK)
Date: June 15, 1977
Creator: Hautala, R. R. & Kutal, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-euclidean simplex optimization. [Application to potentiometric titration of Pu]

Description: Geometric optimization techniques useful for studying chemical equilibrium traditionally rely upon principles of euclidean geometry, but such algorithms may also be based upon principles of a non-euclidean geometry. The sequential simplex method is adapted to the hyperbolic plane, and application of optimization to problems such as the potentiometric titration of plutonium is suggested.
Date: August 15, 1977
Creator: Silver, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report of the compressive creep properties of irradiated and unirradiated molybdenum. [Fast neutrons]

Description: Compressive creep tests were performed on molybenum samples exposed to four different pre-test conditions: (1) annealed; (2) annealed and neutron irradiated at 480/sup 0/C to a fluence of 5 x 10/sup 19/ n cm/sup -2/ (E > 1 MeV); (3) stress-relieved; and (4) stress-relieved and neutron irradiated at reactor ambient temperature to a fluence of 1 x 10/sup 19/ n cm/sup -2/ (E > 1 MeV). The tests were performed in the temperature range of 600 to 900/sup 0/C with an initial applied stress of 176.5 MPa. Both pre- and post-test specimens were examined using electron microscopy and the relationship between substructure and mechanical properties is discussed. Possible controlling mechanisms of deformation are proposed and activation energies for creep are determined.
Date: April 15, 1977
Creator: Zielinski, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar pilot plant, phase I. Quarterly report No. 4, July--September 1976

Description: The technical and economic feasibility of generating electricity from solar energy is being studied. Collector experiments included heliostat tests. Hardware preparation and assembly constituted the steam generator work. The thermal storage subsystem research experiment, which featured thermal energy storage in a sodium nitrite/sodium hydroxide phase-change mixture, was discontinued. Analytical and design work on the electrical generation subsystem and plant integration progressed satisfactorily. (MHR)
Date: January 15, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Filament power regulator for thermal ionization mass spectrometry

Description: A device has been developed that will control the filament temperature in a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. The arrangement is superior to past methods to control this critical parameter. The operating principle lies in the feature of filament power control as contrasted with the formerly used voltage or current controls. Reproducibility and stability of ion beams showed great improvement. The mass spectrometer was developed to analyze for parts-per-billion concentrations of uranium in water samples.
Date: September 15, 1977
Creator: Rogers, E. R. & Ferguson, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer simulation of the Charpy V-notch toughness test

Description: The dynamic Charpy V-notch test was simulated on a computer. The calculational models (for A-533 Grade B class 1 steel) used both a rounded and a flat-tipped striker. The notch stress/strain state was found to be independent of the three-point loading type and was most strongly correlated with notch-opening displacement. The dynamic stress/strain state at the time of fracture initiation was obtained by comparing the calculated deformed shape with that obtained in interrupted Charpy V-notch tests where cracking had started. The calculation was also compared with stress/strain states calculated in other geometries at failure. The distribution and partition of specimen energy was calculated and adiabatic heating and strain rate are discussed.
Date: August 15, 1977
Creator: Norris, D. M. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monthly highlights for Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research Programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, March 1977

Description: Highlights of technical progress during March 1977 are presented for thirteen separate program activities which comprise the ORNL research program for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research's Division of Reactor Safety Research.
Date: April 15, 1977
Creator: Fee, G. G. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inference of core barrel motion from neutron noise spectral density. [PWR]

Description: A method was developed for inference of core barrel motion from the following statistical descriptors: cross-power spectral density, autopower spectral density, and amplitude probability density. To quantify the core barrel motion in a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR), a scale factor was calculated in both one- and two-dimensional geometries using forward, variational, and perturbation methods of discrete ordinates neutron transport. A procedure for selection of the proper frequency band limits for the statistical descriptors was developed. It was found that although perturbation theory is adequate for the calculation of the scale factor, two-dimensional geometric effects are important enough to rule out the use of a one-dimensional approximation for all but the crudest calculations. It was also found that contributions of gamma rays can be ignored and that the results are relatively insensitive to the cross-section set employed. The proper frequency band for the statistical descriptors is conveniently determined from the coherence and phase information from two ex-core power range neutron monitors positioned diametrically across the reactor vessel. Core barrel motion can then be quantified from the integral of the band-limited cross-power spectral density of two diametrically opposed ex-core monitors or, if the coherence between the pair is greater than or equal to 0.7, from a properly band-limited amplitude probability density function. Wide-band amplitude probability density functions were demonstrated to yield erroneous estimates for the magnitude of core barrel motion.
Date: March 15, 1977
Creator: Robinson, J. C.; Shahrokhi, F. & Kryter, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a practical photochemical energy storage system. Quarterly report. [Interconversion between norbornadiene and quadricyclene for thermochemical heat storage]

Description: Research on polymer organic sensitizers and polymer inorganic sensitizers for the conversion of norbornadiene to quadricyclene for thermochemical storage of solar heat is described. Also, research on the catalysis of the conversion of quadricyclane to norbornadiene is described. Polymer-anchored cobalt(II) porphyrin catalysts, polymer-anchored palladium(II) phosphine catalysts, and triphenylcyclopropenyl nickel complexes as catalysts were studied, and results are discussed. (WHK)
Date: March 15, 1977
Creator: Hautala, R. R. & Kutal, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large area silicon sheet by EFG. First quarterly report, January 1, 1977--March 31, 1977

Description: Work on an existing multiple growth furnace has begun with the aim of achieving growth of 5, 2'' wide ribbons simultaneously at a rate of 3 in./min. The equipment and the initial experiments carried out are described. Also starting is a task aiming to bring the 5 ribbons under automatic control, equally using pre-existing equipment and designs. Furthermore, the effort to characterize the EFG (edge-defined film-fed growth) materials produced is increased and particular emphasis is placed on measuring and analyzing their solar cell performance. Data are presented on defect densities in various EFG grown ribbons. It is demonstrated that the diffusion length is larger under AM1 than under ''dark'' conditions, and results are shown on electrical inhomogeneities in the ribbon cells. Many of these results are interpreted in terms of defect-impurity interactions which are believed to be the main impediment to better solar cell performance at the present time. However, data are reported on an EFG solar cell of 12% AM1 efficiency, and on several 1'' x 4'' EFG cells of efficiencies between 9 and 11%. In the single ribbon resistance heated crystal growth station, a major effort is made to identify the sources of impurities introduced during growth by testing a variety of machine components and designs. Also work is being started to evaluate how 3'' wide ribbons with low grown-in stress may be produced at rates of up to 3 in./min. These efforts are described in some detail.
Date: March 15, 1977
Creator: Mackintosh, B. H.; Morrison, A. D.; Rao, C. V. H. N.; Ravi, K. V.; Serreze, H. B.; Surek, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department