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Large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow using the finite element method

Description: The equations of motion describing turbulent flows (in both the low and high Reynolds-number regimes) are well established. However, present day computers cannot meet the enormous computational requirement for numerically solving the governing equations for common engineering flows in the high Reynolds number turbulent regime. The characteristics that make turbulent, high Reynolds number flows difficult to simulate is the extreme range of time and space scales of motion. Most current engineering calculations are performed using semi-empirical equations, developed in terms of the flow mean (average) properties. These turbulence{open_quote} models{close_quote} (semi-empirical/analytical approximations) do not explicitly account for the eddy structures and thus, the temporal and spatial flow fluctuations are not resolved. In these averaging approaches, it is necessary to approximate all the turbulent structures using semi-empirical relations, and as a result, the turbulence models must be tailored for specific flow conditions and geometries with parameters obtained (usually) from physical experiments. The motivation for this research is the development of a finite element turbulence modeling approach which will ultimately be used to predict the wind flow around buildings. Accurate turbulence models of building flow are needed to predict the dispersion of airborne pollutants. The building flow turbulence models used today are not capable of predicting the three-dimensional separating and reattaching flows without the manipulation of many empirical parameters. These empirical parameters must be set by experimental data and they may vary unpredictably with building geometry, building orientation, and upstream flow conditions.
Date: February 15, 1995
Creator: McCallen, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of the differences in respirator fit factor values between years and masks

Description: The work described in this report was carried out at a national laboratory of the Department of Energy, during the time that the author was engaged in a Department of Energy Industrial Hygiene Graduate Fellowship. The national laboratory had a respiratory protection program with approximately 50 employees participating. The program was in place to protect employees from over-exposure to airborne contaminants while engineering and work practice controls were being installed and implemented. It was also in place to protect workers in situations where engineering and work control practices were not feasible, such as during maintenance and repair work, as well as in situations where engineering and work practice controls were not enough to lower the exposure to or below the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) as set by the Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA) as an eight-hour time weighted average (TWA) or an excursion limit. Respirators were also used for emergencies by the emergency response team.
Date: August 15, 1995
Creator: Longo, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Speciation of Fe in ambient aerosol and cloudwater

Description: Atmospheric iron (Fe) is thought to play an important role in cloudwater chemistry (e.g., S(IV) oxidation, oxidant production, etc.), and is also an important source of Fe to certain regions of the worlds oceans where Fe is believed to be a rate-limiting nutrient for primary productivity. This thesis focuses on understanding the chemistry, speciation and abundance of Fe in cloudwater and aerosol in the troposphere, through observations of Fe speciation in the cloudwater and aerosol samples collected over the continental United States and the Arabian Sea. Different chemical species of atmospheric Fe were measured in aerosol and cloudwater samples to help assess the role of Fe in cloudwater chemistry.
Date: August 15, 1996
Creator: Siefert, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin correlation in t{anti t} production from p{anti p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV

Description: The Standard Model predicts that the lifetime of the top quark is shorter than the typical time scale at which hadronization process occurs, and the spin information at its production is preserved. Spin correlation of the t{anti t} system from p{anti p} collisions at the Tevatron is analyzed using 6 events in the dilepton channels collected using the D0 detector. Spin correlation factor of {kappa} > {minus} 0.25 at 68% CL is obtained from the data.
Date: June 15, 2000
Creator: Choi, Suyong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unsaturated Groundwater Flow Beneath Upper Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Description: Mortandad Canyon is a discharge site for treated industrial effluents containing radionuclides and other chemicals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. This study was conducted to develop an understanding of the unsaturated hydrologic behavior below the canyon floor. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the hypothetical performance of the vadose zone above the water table. Numerical simulations of unsaturated groundwater flow at the site were conducted using the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer (FEHM) code. A two-dimensional cross-section along the canyon's axis was used to model flow between an alluvial groundwater system and the regional aquifer approximately 300 m below. Using recharge estimated from a water budget developed in 1967, the simulations showed waters from the perched water table reaching the regional aquifer in 13.8 years, much faster than previously thought. Additionally, simulations indicate that saturation is occurring in the Guaje pumice bed an d that the Tshirege Unit 1B is near saturation. Lithologic boundaries between the eight materials play an important role in flow and solute transport within the system. Horizontal flow is shown to occur in three thin zones above capillary barriers; however, vertical flow dominates the system. Other simulations were conducted to examine the effects of changing system parameters such as varying recharge inputs, varying the distribution of recharge, and bypassing fast-path fractured basalt of uncertain extent and properties. System sensitivity was also explored by changing model parameters with respect to size and types of grids and domains, and the presence of dipping stratigraphy.
Date: October 15, 1998
Creator: Dander, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extraction of the width of the W boson from a measurement of the ratio of the W and Z cross sections

Description: This dissertation reports on measurements of inclusive cross sections times branching fractions into electrons for W and Z bosons produced in p{anti p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. From an integrated luminosity of 84.5 pb{sup {minus}1} recorded in 1994--1995 by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron {Lambda} the cross sections are measured to be {sigma}p{anti p} {r_arrow} W + X {center_dot} B(W {r_arrow} e{nu}) = 2,310 {+-} 10 (stat) {+-} 50 (Syst) {+-} 100 (lum) pb and {sigma}(p{anti p} {r_arrow} Z + X) {center_dot} B(Z {r_arrow} ee) = 221 {+-} 3 (stat) {+-} 4 (Syst) {+-} 10 (lum) pb. The cross section ratio R is determined to be {sigma}(p{anti p} {r_arrow} W + X) {center_dot} B(W {r_arrow} e{nu})/{sigma}(p{bar p} {r_arrow} Z + X) {center_dot} B(Z {r_arrow} ee) = 10.43 {+-} 0.15 (stat) {+-} 0.20 (syst) {+-} 0.10 (NLO){Lambda} and R is used to determine B(W {r_arrow} e{nu}) = 0.1044 {+-} 0.0015 (stat) {+-} 0.0020 (syst) {+-} 0.0017 (theory) {+-} 0.0010 (NLO){Lambda} and {Lambda}{sub W} = 2.169 {+-} 0.031 (stat) {+-} 0.042 (syst) {+-} 0.041 (theory) {+-} 0.022 (NLO) GeV. The latter is used to set a 95% confidence level upper limit on the partial decay width of the W boson into non-standard model final states {Lambda}{Lambda}{sub W}{sup inv}{Lambda} of 0.213 GeV.
Date: June 15, 2000
Creator: Gomez, Gervasio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for single top production with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

Description: We attempt to identify a single top signal in the muon + jets data collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.8 TeV from 1992-96. The data corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 103.7 pb{sup -1}. While resolving a signal has proved impossible, we are able to place an upper limit on the production cross section for single top events using these data. The cross section for production of single top via 95% p{bar p} {yields} tb and p{bar p} {yields} qtb is less than 78 pb at the 95% confidence level based on muon + jets data only.
Date: June 15, 2000
Creator: McDonald, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reaction selectivity studies on nanolithographically-fabricated platinum model catalyst arrays

Description: In an effort to understand the molecular ingredients of catalytic activity and selectivity toward the end of tuning a catalyst for 100% selectivity, advanced nanolithography techniques were developed and utilized to fabricate well-ordered two-dimensional model catalyst arrays of metal nanostructures on an oxide support for the investigation of reaction selectivity. In-situ and ex-situ surface science techniques were coupled with catalytic reaction data to characterize the molecular structure of the catalyst systems and gain insight into hydrocarbon conversion in heterogeneous catalysis. Through systematic variation of catalyst parameters (size, spacing, structure, and oxide support) and catalytic reaction conditions (hydrocarbon chain length, temperature, pressures, and gas composition), the data presented in this dissertation demonstrate the ability to direct a reaction by rationally adjusting, through precise control, the design of the catalyst system. Electron beam lithography (EBL) was employed to create platinum nanoparticles on an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) support. The Pt nanoparticle spacing (100-150-nm interparticle distance) was varied in these samples, and they were characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), both before and after reactions. The TEM studies showed the 28-nm Pt nanoparticles with 100 and 150-nm interparticle spacing on alumina to be polycrystalline in nature, with crystalline sizes of 3-5 nm. The nanoparticle crystallites increased significantly after heat treatment. The nanoparticles were still mostly polycrystalline in nature, with 2-3 domains. The 28-nm Pt nanoparticles deposited on alumina were removed by the AFM tip in contact mode with a normal force of approximately 30 nN. After heat treatment at 500 C in vacuum for 3 hours, the AFM tip, even at 4000 nN, could not remove the platinum nanoparticles. The increase of adhesion upon heat treatment indicates stronger bonding between the Pt and the support at the metal-oxide interface.
Date: May 15, 2004
Creator: Grunes, Jeffrey Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalyzed hydrogenation of nitrogen and ethylene on metal (Fe, Pt) single crystal surfaces and effects of coadsorption: A sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy study

Description: High-pressure catalytic reactions and associated processes, such as adsorption have been studied on a molecular level on single crystal surfaces. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy together with Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Gas Chromatography (GC) were used to investigate the nature of species on catalytic surfaces and to measure the catalytic reaction rates. Special attention has been directed at studying high-pressure reactions and in particular, ammonia synthesis in order to identify reaction intermediates and the influence of adsorbates on the surface during reaction conditions. The adsorption of gases N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} that play a role in ammonia synthesis have been studied on the Fe(111) crystal surface by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy using an integrated Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV)/high-pressure system. SFG spectra are presented for the dissociation intermediates, NH{sub 2} ({approx}3325 cm{sup -1}) and NH ({approx}3235 cm{sup -1}) under high pressure of ammonia (200 Torr) on the clean Fe(111) surface. Addition of 0.5 Torr of oxygen to 200 Torr of ammonia does not significantly change the bonding of dissociation intermediates to the surface. However, it leads to a phase change of nearly 180{sup o} between the resonant and non-resonant second order non-linear susceptibility of the surface, demonstrated by the reversal of the SFG spectral features. Heating the surface in the presence of 200 Torr ammonia and 0.5 Torr oxygen reduces the oxygen coverage, which can be seen from the SFG spectra as another relative phase change of 180{sup o}. The reduction of the oxide is also supported by Auger electron spectroscopy. The result suggests that the phase change of the spectral features could serve as a sensitive indicator of the chemical environment of the adsorbates.
Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Westerberg, Staffan Per Gustav
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

Description: To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.
Date: December 15, 2003
Creator: Li, Sonny X.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of processing conditions and ambient environment on the microstructure and fracture strength of copper/niobium/copper interlayer joints for alumina

Description: Partial transient liquid phase (PTLP) bonding is a technique which can be used to join ceramics with metals and is used to form niobium-based joints for alumina. The principal advantage to PTLP bonding is that it enables refractory joints to be fabricated at temperatures below those typically required by solid state diffusion bonding. A thorough review of the important parameters (chemical compatibility, thermal expansion match, sufficient wettability of the liquid phase on the solid phases) in choosing a joining material for ceramics by the PTLP method is provided. As in conventional PTLP joining, the current study uses thin (=3 (mu)m) copper layers sandwiched between the alumina (bulk) and niobium (127 (mu)m). However, unlike the case of copper/nickel/copper obium is limited. Consequently, the copper is not entirely dissolved in the process, resulting in a two phase (copper-rich and niobium-rich phases) microstructure. Different processing conditions (temperature and applied load) result in different morphologies of the copper-rich and niobium-rich phases at the interface. These different microstructures exhibit distinct strength characteristics. Extended annealing of as-processed joints can influence the strengths differently depending on the ambient partial oxygen pressure at the annealing temperature. The focus of this work is to correlate processing conditions, microstructure, and resulting joint strength. Under optimum processing conditions (1400 degrees C, 2.2 MPa), joints with strengths in excess of 200 MPa at 1200 degrees C are fabricated.
Date: December 15, 1999
Creator: Marks, Robert Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Differential geometry on Hopf algebras and quantum groups

Description: The differential geometry on a Hopf algebra is constructed, by using the basic axioms of Hopf algebras and noncommutative differential geometry. The space of generalized derivations on a Hopf algebra of functions is presented via the smash product, and used to define and discuss quantum Lie algebras and their properties. The Cartan calculus of the exterior derivative, Lie derivative, and inner derivation is found for both the universal and general differential calculi of an arbitrary Hopf algebra, and, by restricting to the quasitriangular case and using the numerical R-matrix formalism, the aforementioned structures for quantum groups are determined.
Date: December 15, 1994
Creator: Watts, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sum frequency generation (SFQ) vibrational spectroscopy studies of combustion reactions on platinum single crystal surfaces

Description: We have studied the dissociation of CO catalyzed by platinum single crystals. At 40 torr of CO, the Pt(111) crystal dissociates CO at 673 K. Under the same conditions, Pt(100) dissociates CO at 500 K, and Pt(557) dissociates CO at 548 K. Hence, the CO dissociation reaction is a structure sensitive reaction. SFG was used to monitor the CO top site resonance as the platinum crystals were heated to the dissociation temperature when exposed to 40 torr of CO. In all three systems, the CO resonance shifts to lower frequency as the platinum crystal is heated. However, the frequency of the CO resonance at the dissociation frequency is lower on the (100) and (111) crystal faces than on the Pt(557) crystal. We believe that the (111) and (100) crystal faces must undergo roughening to expose step or kink sites in order to facilitate the dissociation reaction. This is supported by UHV studies of CO dissociation catalyzed by platinum crystals. These studies observe dissociation only when step or kink sites are present. Since the Pt(111) surface is very stable, it needs to be heated to 673 K to produce the low coordination number sites needed for CO dissociation. Since the Pt(100) surface easily reconstructs, it is able to form the active sites for CO dissociation at relatively low temperatures. The SFG spectra support our conclusion that the CO molecules are sitting on low coordination number platinum atoms at the dissociation temperature. Since the Pt(557) surface already has step sites, the dissociation reaction can take place without further roughening of the surface. The CO resonance on the (557) crystal face at the dissociation temperature is at a very similar frequency to CO molecules adsorbed on only the step sites of the crystal. Further studies showed that the dissociation reaction takes place on ...
Date: January 15, 2004
Creator: Gaughan, Jessica S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrasonic Concentration in a Line-Driven Cylindrical Tube

Description: The fractionation of particles from their suspending fluid or noninvasive micromanipulation of particles in suspension has many applications ranging from the recovery of valuable reagents from process flows to the fabrication of microelectromechanical devices. Techniques based on size, density, solubility, or electromagnetic properties exist for fulfilling these needs, but many particles have traits that preclude their use such as small size, neutral buoyancy, or uniform electromagnetic characteristics. While separation by those techniques may not be possible, often compressibility differences exist between the particle and fluid that would allow fractionation by acoustic forces. The potential of acoustic separation is known, but due to inherent difficulties in achieving and maintaining accurate alignment of the transduction system, it is rarely utilized. The objective of this project is to investigate the use of structural excitation as a potentially efficient concentration/fractionation method for particles in suspension. It is demonstrated that structural excitation of a cylindrically symmetric cavity, such as a tube, allows non-invasive, fast, and low power concentration of particles suspended in a fluid. The inherent symmetry of the system eliminates the need for careful alignment inherent in current acoustic concentration devices. Structural excitation distributes the acoustic field throughout the volume of the cavity, which also significantly reduces temperature gradients and acoustic streaming in the fluid; cavitation is no longer an issue. The lowest-order coupled modes of a long cylindrical glass tube and fluid-filled cavity, driven by a line contact, are tuned, via material properties and aspect ratio, to achieve a coupled dipolar vibration of the system, shown to generate efficient concentration of particles to the central axis of the tube. A two dimensional elastodynamic model of the system was developed and subsequently utilized to optimize particle concentration within the system. The effects of tubing, fluid, and particle material properties, tube geometry, fluid flow, and ...
Date: December 15, 2004
Creator: Goddard, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

Description: The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.
Date: August 15, 2002
Creator: Soto, Koji
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

Description: Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to the surface in order to minimize the total surface energy. With an understanding of the structural and environmental parameters which govern polymer surface ...
Date: May 15, 2004
Creator: Koffas, Telly Stelianos
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Mass-Spectrometric Investigation of Sulfur Vapor as a Function of Temperature

Description: A mass-spectrometric investigation was performed on sulfur vapor in equilibrium with the condensed phase at 120 to 210 gas-cooled C. It was found that, in this temperature range, equilibrium sulfur vapor contains appreciable quantities of S/sub 8/, S/sub 7/, S/sub 6/, and S/sub 5/ only. The sulfur vapor emanated as a small well-collimated molecular beam from a specially constructed source into an ionization chamber which was designed to exclude from analysis any sulfur vapor that had impinged on the walls or the hot electron filament. Essential identical ionization potentials were determined for S/sub 8/ , S/sub 7/, S/sub 6/, and S/sub 5/ of 9.8 0.4 ev. The heat of vaporizati on of S/sub 7/ was calculated to be approximately 2.5 kcal greater than that of S/ sub 8/. Upper limits for S/sub 8/ and S/sub 7/ composition in S vapor at 120 gas- cooled C were determined to be 86% and 14%, respectively. It is proposed thst S/sub 8/ is the vaporizing species, that S/sub 7/, S/sub 6/, and S/sub 5/ result from dissociation of S/sub 8/. and that all four molecules have a ring configuration. (auth)
Date: June 15, 1960
Creator: Zietz, M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Antiproton-Proton Cross Sections at 1.0, 1.25, and 2.0 BeV

Description: The antiproton--proton interaction was studied at three energies, 2.0, 1.25, and 0.98 Bev. Antiprotons produced internally in the Revatron and channeled externally by a system of bending magnets and quadrupoles were selected from background particles by using a gas Cherenkov counter and scintillation counters. At the two lower energies, an electrostatic-magnetic velocity spectrometer was used to reject background particles. A liquidhydrogen target was completely surrounded by scintillation counters so that all charged secondaries from the antiproton--proion interactions could be detected. With the information obtained from these counters, the --p-bar--p total, elastic, inelastic, and charge-exchange cross sections and the angular distribution of the elastic scatterings were obtained at each energy. The total cross section was found to be 80, 89, and 100 mb at 2.0 1.25. and 0.98 Bev. respeclively. The inelastic cross section was about twothirds of ihe total cross section at each energy. It was found that each of the partial cross sections was dropping off slowly with energy. The results were fitted by an optic al-model c alculation. (auth)
Date: March 15, 1960
Creator: Coombes, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magneto-optical study of the intermediate state in type-I superconductors: Effects of sample shape and applied current

Description: The magnetic flux structures in the intermediate state of bulk, pinning-free Type-I superconductors are studied using a high resolution magneto-optical imaging technique. Unlike most previous studies, this work focuses on the pattern formation of the coexisting normal and superconducting phases in the intermediate state. The influence of various parameters such as sample shape, structure defects (pinning) and applied current are discussed in relation to two distinct topologies: flux tubes (closed topology) and laminar (open topology). Imaging and magnetization measurements performed on samples of different shapes (cones, hemispheres and slabs), show that contrary to previous beliefs, the tubular structure is the equilibrium topology, but it is unstable toward defects and flux motion. Moreover, the application of current into a sample with the geometric barrier can replace an established laminar structure with flux tubes. At very high currents, however, there exists a laminar 'stripe pattern.' Quantitative analysis of the mean tube diameter is shown to be in good agreement with the prediction proposed by Goren and Tinkham. This is the first time that this model has been confirmed experimentally. Further research into the flux tube phase shows a direct correlation with the current loop model proposed in the 1990's by Goldstein, Jackson and Dorsey. There also appears a range of flux tube density that results in a suprafroth structure, a well-formed polygonal mesh, which behaves according to the physics of foams, following standard statistical laws such as von Neumann and Lewis. The reaction of flux structures to a fast-ramped magnetic field was also studied. This provided an alignment of the structure not normally observed at slow ramp rates.
Date: August 15, 2008
Creator: Hoberg, Jacob
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amorphous and nanocrystalline phase formation in highly-driven Al-based binary alloys

Description: Remarkable advances have been made since rapid solidification was first introduced to the field of materials science and technology. New types of materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructure materials have been developed as a result of rapid solidification techniques. While these advances are, in many respects, ground breaking, much remains to be discerned concerning the fundamental relationships that exist between a liquid and a rapidly solidified solid. The scope of the current dissertation involves an extensive set of experimental, analytical, and computational studies designed to increase the overall understanding of morphological selection, phase competition, and structural hierarchy that occurs under far-from equilibrium conditions. High pressure gas atomization and Cu-block melt-spinning are the two different rapid solidification techniques applied in this study. The research is mainly focused on Al-Si and Al-Sm alloy systems. Silicon and samarium produce different, yet favorable, systems for exploration when alloyed with aluminum under far-from equilibrium conditions. One of the main differences comes from the positions of their respective T{sub 0} curves, which makes Al-Si a good candidate for solubility extension while the plunging T{sub 0} line in Al-Sm promotes glass formation. The rapidly solidified gas-atomized Al-Si powders within a composition range of 15 to 50 wt% Si are examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The non-equilibrium partitioning and morphological selection observed by examining powders at different size classes are described via a microstructure map. The interface velocities and the amount of undercooling present in the powders are estimated from measured eutectic spacings based on Jackson-Hunt (JH) and Trivedi-Magnin-Kurz (TMK) models, which permit a direct comparison of theoretical predictions. For an average particle size of 10 {micro}m with a Peclet number of {approx}0.2, JH and TMK deviate from each other. This deviation indicates an adiabatic type solidification path where heat of fusion is reabsorbed. It ...
Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Kalay, Yunus Eren
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of a single-molecule detection in early disease diagnosis and enzymatic reaction study

Description: Various single-molecule techniques were utilized for ultra-sensitive early diagnosis of viral DNA and antigen and basic mechanism study of enzymatic reactions. DNA of human papilloma virus (HPV) served as the screening target in a flow system. Alexa Fluor 532 (AF532) labeled single-stranded DNA probes were hybridized to the target HPV-16 DNA in solution. The individual hybridized molecules were imaged with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) in two ways. In the single-color mode, target molecules were detected via fluorescence from hybridized probes only. This system could detect HPV-16 DNA in the presence of human genomic DNA down to 0.7 copy/cell and had a linear dynamic range of over 6 orders of magnitude. In the dual-color mode, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was employed to achieve zero false-positive count. We also showed that DNA extracts from Pap test specimens did not interfere with the system. A surface-based method was used to improve the throughput of the flow system. HPV-16 DNA was hybridized to probes on a glass surface and detected with a total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope. In the single-probe mode, the whole genome and target DNA were fluorescently labeled before hybridization, and the detection limit is similar to the flow system. In the dual-probe mode, a second probe was introduced. The linear dynamic range covers 1.44-7000 copies/cell, which is typical of early infection to near-cancer stages. The dual-probe method was tested with a crudely prepared sample. Even with reduced hybridization efficiency caused by the interference of cellular materials, we were still able to differentiate infected cells from healthy cells. Detection and quantification of viral antigen with a novel single-molecule immunosorbent assay (SMISA) was achieved. Antigen from human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) was chosen to be the target in this study. The target was sandwiched between a monoclonal capture antibody and ...
Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Li, Jiangwei
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and synthesis of mixed oxides nanoparticles for biofuel applications

Description: The work in this dissertation presents the synthesis of two mixed metal oxides for biofuel applications and NMR characterization of silica materials. In the chapter 2, high catalytic efficiency of calcium silicate is synthesized for transesterfication of soybean oil to biodisels. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of a new Rh based catalyst on mesoporous manganese oxides. The new catalyst is found to have higher activity and selectivity towards ethanol. Chapter 4 demonstrates the applications of solid-state Si NMR in the silica materials.
Date: May 15, 2010
Creator: Chen, Senniang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department