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U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing: Industry Trends, Global Competition, Federal Support

Description: This report looks at the solar photovoltaic manufacturing industry and its supply chain; employment trends; international trade flows; and federal policy efforts aimed at supporting the industry. It does not cover other methods of solar-power generation, such as concentrating solar power plants.
Date: January 27, 2015
Creator: Platzer, Michaela D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing: Industry Trends, Global Competition, Federal Support

Description: The most widely used solar technology involves photovoltaic (PV) solar modules, which draw on semiconducting materials to convert sunlight into electricity. By year-end 2011, the total number of grid-connected PV systems nationwide reached almost 215,000. Domestic demand is met both by imports and by about 100 U.S. manufacturing facilities. The competitiveness of solar PV as a source of electric generation in the United States will likely be adversely affected both by the expiration of tax provisions and by the rapid development of shale gas, which has the potential to lower the cost of gas-fired power generation and reduce the cost-competitiveness of solar power, particularly as an energy source for utilities. In light of these developments, the ability to build a significant U.S. production base for PV equipment is in question.
Date: May 30, 2012
Creator: Platzer, Michaela D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing: Industry Trends, Global Competition, Federal Support

Description: The most widely used solar technology involves photovoltaic (PV) solar modules, which draw on semiconducting materials to convert sunlight into electricity. By year-end 2011, the total number of grid-connected PV systems nationwide reached almost 215,000. Domestic demand is met both by imports and by about 100 U.S. manufacturing facilities. The competitiveness of solar PV as a source of electric generation in the United States will likely be adversely affected both by the expiration of tax provisions and by the rapid development of shale gas, which has the potential to lower the cost of gas-fired power generation and reduce the cost-competitiveness of solar power, particularly as an energy source for utilities. In light of these developments, the ability to build a significant U.S. production base for PV equipment is in question.
Date: April 27, 2012
Creator: Platzer, Michaela D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing: Industry Trends, Global Competition, Federal Support

Description: This report gives an overview of the most widely-used solar technology involving photovoltaic (PV) solar modules, which draw on semiconducting materials to convert sunlight into electricity. The competitiveness of solar PV as a source of electric generation in the United States will likely be adversely affected both by the expiration of tax provisions and by the rapid development of shale gas, which has the potential to lower the cost of gas-fired power generation and reduce the cost-competitiveness of solar power, particularly as an energy source for utilities.
Date: June 13, 2012
Creator: Platzer, Michaela D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling Water Intake Structures: Summary of EPA's Proposed Rule

Description: This report looks at the environmental impact of using water to absorb the heat from thermoelectric generating plants and manufacturing facilities during their industrial processes. The issue for Congress has been whether a stringent and costly environmental mandate could jeopardize reliability of electricity supply in the United States.
Date: June 12, 2012
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar repowering workshop: a summary report

Description: The workshop was divided into two groups. Group A discussed key issues in the demand for solar thermal technologies; Group B discussed key issues in the supply of solar thermal technologies. Discussion questions prepared prior to the workshop are listed and the responses are summarized. The workshop agenda and the list of participants are included. (MHR)
Date: August 2, 1978
Creator: Nordman, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring solar-thermal systems: An outline of methods and procedures

Description: This manual discusses the technical issues associated with monitoring solar-thermal systems. It discusses some successful monitoring programs that have been implemented in the past. It gives the rationale for selecting a program of monitoring and gives guidelines for the design of new programs. In this report, solar thermal monitoring systems are classified into three levels. For each level, the report discusses the kinds of information obtained by monitoring, the effort needed to support the monitoring program, the hardware required, and the costs involved. Ultimately, all monitoring programs share one common requirement: the collection of accurate data that characterize some aspect or aspects of the system under study. This report addresses most of the issues involved with monitoring solar thermal systems. It does not address such topics as design fundamentals of thermal systems or the relative merits of the many different technologies employed for collection of solar energy.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Rosenthal, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study: management of selected aspects of the advanced Solar Thermal Technology Program by a University consortium. Final report, June 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

Description: To increase the involvement of universities and advanced technology industries in task-oriented supporting research for the Solar Thermal Energy System (STES) program, organizational issues are considered. A generic and discipline focused program is considered which could provide applied research capabilities for all elements in the STES program. A management structure is presented which is organized around the management and research capabilities of universities. The proposed organization structure is designed to effectively plan, implement, and manage an applied research program dedicated to providing research support for and in coordination with the STES program. The chief aim is to enhance and expand the involvement of universities in the STES program through one or two university management and through the active participation by other universities and industries in an executive advisory board. A large number of consortia development studies were considered and university and industry views were consolidated. A two university team management approach is believed to have distinct advantages.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Hildebrandt, A.F. & Brown, J.H.U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Line-focus solar central power systems, Phase I. Monthly technical progress report, 28 February 1979-31 March 1979

Description: The work performed during the sixth month of the Phase I study of the High Temperature Line-Focus Solar Central Power System is summarized. During the reporting period, subsystem and system parametric analyses were essentially completed. The conceptual design of the system has been initiated. Annual levelized busbar energy costs of 59 mills/kWh are projected for the 80th plant.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Slemmons, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Line-focus solar central power systems, Phase I. Monthly technical progress report, 1 August 1979-31 August 1979

Description: The work performed during the eleventh month of the Phase I study of the Line-Focus Solar Central Power System is summarized. The conceptual design of a 100 MW/sub e/ system was completed during the reporting period. Annual levelized busbar energy costs of 61 mills/kWh are projected for the 80th plant at an average daily capacity factor of 0.6, making the Line-Focus Central Power System plant competitive with nuclear and coal fired plants. Depending on a coal price escalation rate of 8%, it is estimated that there could be as many as 440 100-megawatt solar thermal power plants built in the Western United States by the year 2010. Even higher coal prices could mean a market penetration into other less sunny parts of the United States. Further cost reduction studies proposed should accelerate the realization of electric energy from the sun.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Slemmons, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System performance and cost sensitivity comparisons of stretched membrane heliostat reflectors with current generation glass/metal concepts

Description: Heliostat costs have long been recognized as a major factor in the cost of solar central receiver plants. Research on stretched membrane heliostats has been emphasized because of their potential as a cost-effective alternative to current glass/metal designs. However, the cost and performance potential of stretched membrane heliostats from a system perspective has not been studied until this time. The optical performance of individual heliostats is predicted here using results established in previous structural studies. These performance predictions are used to compare both focused and unfocused stretched membrane heliostats with state-of-the-art glass/metal heliostats from a systems perspective. We investigated the sensitivity of the relative cost and performance of fields of heliostats to a large number of parameter variations, including system size, delivery temperature, heliostat module size, surface specularity, hemispherical reflectance, and macroscopic surface quality. The results indicate that focused stretched membrane systems should have comparable performance levels to those of current glass/metal heliostat systems. Further, because of their relatively lower cost, stretched membrane heliostats should provide an economically attractive alternative to current glass/metal heliostats over essentially the entire range of design parameters studied. Unfocused stretched membrane heliostats may also be attractive for a somewhat more limited range of applications, including the larger plant sizes and lower delivery temperatures.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Murphy, L.M.; Anderson, J.V.; Short, W. & Wendelin, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar-thermal power technical and management support. Program summary report

Description: Support activities described are: preparation of the significant development weekly reports; preparation of briefings for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program; preparation of the Annual Thermal Power Systems Technical Progress Report; Integrated Solar Thermal/Industrial Process Heat Program Plan; review of the Storage Technology Development Program for Thermal Power Systems; and review of the Thermal Power Systems Multiyear Plan. A draft of the Goals and Requirements Section of the Integrated Solar Thermal/Industrial Process Heat Program Plan is included. (LEW)
Date: March 9, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar thermal hydrogen production process: Final report, January 1978-December 1982

Description: Under sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy, Westinghouse Advanced Energy-Systems Division has investigated the potential for using solar thermal energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. A hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical process, known as the Sulfur Cycle, has been the focus of these investigations. Process studies have indicated that, with adequate and ongoing research and development, the Sulfur Cycle can be effectively driven with solar heat. Also, economic analyses have indicated that the cycle has the potential to produce hydrogen in economic competitiveness with conventional methods (e.g. methane/steam reforming) by the turn of the century. A first generation developmental system has been defined along with its critical components, i.e. those components that need substantial engineering development. Designs for those high temperature components that concentrate, vaporize and decompose the process circulating fluid, sulfuric acid, have been prepared. Extensive experimental investigations have been conducted with regard to the selection of construction materials for these components. From these experiments, which included materials endurance tests for corrosion resistance for periods up to 6000 hours, promising materials and catalysts have been identified.
Date: December 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteorological data for SRI study of mesoscale weather effects by pilot plant

Description: The data required to estimate the probability of occurrence of initial meteorological conditions leading to an effect on the weather by the pilot solar thermal electric plant are discussed. No completely appropriate data summaries are available. Vertical atmospheric profiles are the most appropriate source of raw data for a statistical analysis, but these are not available from the pilot plant location either. The available stability data for the pilot plant site are presented. A procedure is outlined to obtain the required estimates of occurrence frequency if desired. However, it is recommended that more substantial effects be demonstrated with a physically realistic model before great effort is expended on data analysis.
Date: May 7, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar energy systems simulation and analysis. 1st quarterly progress report, September 30-December 30, 1979

Description: The primary objective of this contract is to generate User's Guides for several University of Houston developed codes relating to the performance and optimization of solar power tower or solar central receiver systems. Although certain planned generalizations of the codes for a user's version have been delayed until the second quarter, an acceptable outline of the User's Guide has been produced, and documentation is underway. During the second quarter a draft of this user's guide will be prepared, the code generalizations carried to a logical conclusion and preliminary steps in documenting other components of our code library initiated.
Date: January 20, 1980
Creator: Vant-Hull, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Line-focus solar central power systems, Phase I. Monthly technical progress report, 29 September 1978-31 October 1978

Description: The objectives of this contract are to provide a conceptual design of a commercial High Temperature Line-Focus 100 MWe Central Power Plant that can produce low cost electricity. To achieve this objective, parametric analyses of the subsystems will be performed to optimize the system. The cost of the optimized plant and its cost of electricity will be used to make an assessment of its potential for commercialization. Progress is reported.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Slemmons, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SOLSTEP: a computer model for predicting the thermodynamic and economic performance of solar thermal power plants

Description: A thermodynamic and economic performance analysis code, SOLSTEP, was developed to facilitate the evaluation of solar thermal power plant designs. The code conducts a time step simulation of the plant thermodynamic performance using actual recorded meteorological and insolation data. Each analysis case provides capacity factor and levelized energy cost results for several plant configurations using various combinations of collector field size and storage capacity. The code has been used to analyze a variety of solar thermal generic concepts involving several collector types and energy conversion and storage subsystems.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Bird, S. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Georgia Tech 400 KWth Solar Thermal Test Facility

Description: Georgia Tech is constructing a 400 KWth solar test facility for high temperature solar energy research and development. Designed by Francia, it is an enlarged version of a central receiver facility developed near Genoa, Italy. The Georgia Tech facility utilizes 550 round mirrors, 111 centimeters in diameter which may be operated flat or focused to provide radiant heat fluxes from 25 to 200 W/cm/sup 2/ to a test area centrally located above the mirror field. Scheduled to be completed in January 1977, it will be used first to heat a boiler-superheater to deliver 365 Kg/hr of steam at 150 atmospheres and 600/sup 0/C. Other uses include evaluation of experimental receivers utilizing such heat transfer fluids as steam, air, helium, oil, molten salts, and liquid metals, and basic research in the areas of metals, ceramics and coatings.
Date: August 15, 1976
Creator: Walton, Jr., J. D.; Bomar, Jr., S. H. & Poulos, N. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central receiver solar thermal system. Phase 1, CDRL item 10. Second quarterly technical progress report

Description: Results of analysis and design efforts are summarized. This is the second quarterly technical progress report published on the Phase 1 Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System contract. The dominant activities during the reporting period have involved the detailed definition of the subsystem research experiments and the design of the test articles and test facilities. Summaries of these activities are presented. Design changes to the 10-MWe pilot plant preliminary design baseline which have occurred during the report period are also described.
Date: April 1, 1976
Creator: Hallet, Jr., R. W. & Gervais, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OTEC support services. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, 15 May 1982-14 August 1982

Description: Progress relative to accomplishments and relative to meetings, conferences, etc. are reported in the areas of OTEC commercialization support, program technical engineering and instrumentation analysis, technical and management services, OTEC system integration, and transmission subsystem considerations. (LEW)
Date: August 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parabolic Trough Solar Power for Competitive U.S. Markets

Description: Nine parabolic trough power plants located in the California Mojave Desert represent the only commercial development of large-scale solar power plants to date. Although all nine plants continue to operate today, no new solar power plants have been completed since 1990. Over the last several years, the parabolic trough industry has focused much of its efforts on international market opportunities. Although the power market in developing countries appears to offer a number of opportunities for parabolic trough technologies due to high growth and the availability of special financial incentives for renewables, these markets are also plagued with many difficulties for developers. In recent years, there has been some renewed interest in the U.S. domestic power market as a result of an emerging green market and green pricing incentives. Unfortunately, many of these market opportunities and incentives focus on smaller, more modular technologies (such as photovoltaics or wind power), and as a result they tend to exclude or are of minimum long-term benefit to large-scale concentrating solar power technologies. This paper looks at what is necessary for large-scale parabolic trough solar power plants to compete with state-of-the-art fossil power technology in a competitive U.S. power market.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Price, Henry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar-Electric Dish Stirling System Development

Description: Electrical power generated with the heat from the sun, called solar thermal power, is produced with three types of concentrating solar systems - trough or line-focus systems; power towers in which a centrally-located thermal receiver is illuminated with a large field of sun-tracking heliostats; and dish/engine systems. A special case of the third type of system, a dish/Stirling system, is the subject of this paper. A dish/Stirling system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, a thermal receiver, and a Stirling engine/generator located at the focus of the dish. Several different dish/Stirling systems have been built and operated during the past 15 years. One system claims the world record for net conversion of solar energy to electric power of 29.4%; and two different company`s systems have accumulated thousands of hours of on-sun operation. Due to de-regulation and intense competition in global energy markets as well as the immaturity of the technology, dish/Stirling systems have not yet found their way into the marketplace. This situation is changing as solar technologies become more mature and manufacturers identify high-value niche markets for their products. In this paper, I review the history of dish/Stirling system development with an emphasis on technical and other issues that directly impact the Stirling engine. I also try to provide some insight to the opportunities and barriers confronting the application of dish/Stirling in power generation markets.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Mancini, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department