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Identification of Distillable Tar Acids and Tar Bases from a Low-Temperature Bituminous Coal Tar

Description: From Summary and Introduction: "Descriptions are presented for the synthesis of authentic specimens of tar acids and tar bases. An appendix contains the ultraviolet and infrared spectra of 189 individual tar acids and tar bases."
Date: 1961
Creator: Karr, Clarence, Jr.; Estep, Patricia A.; Chang, Ta-Chuang Lo & Comberiati, Joseph R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the Resin Fraction from Various Low-Temperature Tar Pitches

Description: From Introduction: "In connection with the overall research by the Bureau of Mines on the nature of coal and its products, and extensive investigation was conducted on the composition of the resins from pitch of low-temperature tar. The pitch resin is that material in pitch or tar that is insoluble in saturated hydrocarbon solvents. It varies in appearance from a dark brown semisolid to a black, granular solid."
Date: unknown
Creator: Karr, Clarence, Jr. & Comberiati, Joseph R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Temperature Lignite Tar: Processing and Utilization

Description: From Introduction: "The first part of the report describes methods that were used to separate various constituents from the distillable portion of low-temperature tar and techniques for upgrading them into more valuable products."
Date: unknown
Creator: Berber, John S.; Rice, Richard L. & Spencer, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Properties of Low-Temperature Tar

Description: From Summary: "This report summarizes the general knowledge of low-temperature tar and traces the character of coal tar from incipient formation, through the condensation of the tar vapors, to the subsequent alteration of tar products resulting from further heating."
Date: 1958
Creator: Gomez, Manuel; Goodman, John B. & Parry, V. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation and Uses of Tar and its Simple Crude Derivatives

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies of coal tars. As stated in the introduction, "this paper discusses the uses to which some of the various tars are put and shows briefly the usual methods of working up tar into some of its simple or easily prepared derivatives, for which a market can generally be found" (p. 5). This paper includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: February 1922
Creator: Odell, W. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential Hydrologic Impacts of a Tar-Sand Industry in 11 Special Tar Sand Areas in Eastern Utah

Description: From purpose and scope: This report summarizes the hydrology in and near the 11 Special Tar Sand Areas which were designated by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The 11 areas are in eastern Utah where normal annual precipitation generally ranges from less than 6 to about 20 inches and runoff is minimal.
Date: 1983
Creator: Lindskov, K. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

German Low-Temperature Coal-Tar Industry

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing a low-temperature coal-tar industry in Germany. As stated in the Purpose and Scope of the Investigation, "the primary purpose of the investigation covered by this report was to determine to what extent the production and use of low-temperature tar in Germany had advanced during the 10-year period prior to the close of the last war" (p. 7). This report includes tables, illustrations, and a photograph.
Date: February 1949
Creator: Rhodes, E. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E. & Jewett, Kenneth L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P. & Fox, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The potential for contamination of groundwater by organic pollutants leached from in-situ spent shale was studied in a series of laboratory leaching experiments. Both batch-mode and continuous-flow column experiments were conducted to study the leaching phenomenon. Experimental variables included retorting characteristics of spent shale, leaching time, initial quality of leach water, temperature of leach water, and particle size of spent shale. Several unique samples of spent shale were examined during the eaching experiments, including spent shale samples produced during combustion retorting, inert gas retorting, and combustion retorting employing recycle gas. The solid-phase organic carbon content of spent shale samples ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 percent by weight. Leachate derived from the batch-mode experiments was analyzed for organic carbon, organic nitrogen, phenols, and acid/base/netral fractions. The highest levels of organic carbon were detected in leachate derived from spent shale produced during either inert gas retorting or combstion retorting using recycle gas. The highest levels of phenols were observed in leachate obtained from spent shale produced during inert gas retorting; significant levels of organic nitrogen were also detected in various leachate samples. The most predominant organic fraction measured in leachate samples was the neutral fraction associated with spent shale produced during inert gas retorting. Batch-mode experimental results describing equilibrium conditions were analyzed according to the Freundlich and langmuir isotherm models. Those models were found to be appropriate for describing equilibrium relationships between leachate and spent shale produced during inert gas retorting. To a somewhat lesser extent, these same models were found to be appropriate for modeling equilibrium relationships involving combustion-retorted spent shale. A kinetic analysis of results derived from the continuous-flow column experiments was conducted in an attempt to identify a rate-controlling mass transfer mechanism. Internal diffusion appeared to be the most likely rate-limiting mechanism for leaching from combustion-retorted spent shale. In ...
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Amy, Gary L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integration of Water Resource Models with Fayetteville Shale Decision Support and Information System

Description: Significant issues can arise with the timing, location, and volume of surface water withdrawals associated with hydraulic fracturing of gas shale reservoirs as impacted watersheds may be sensitive, especially in drought years, during low flow periods, or during periods of the year when activities such as irrigation place additional demands on the surface supply of water. Significant energy production and associated water withdrawals may have a cumulative impact to watersheds over the short-term. Hence, hydraulic fracturing based on water withdrawal could potentially create shifts in the timing and magnitude of low or high flow events or change the magnitude of river flow at daily, monthly, seasonal, or yearly time scales. These changes in flow regimes can result in dramatically altered river systems. Currently little is known about the impact of fracturing on stream flow behavior. Within this context the objective of this study is to assess the impact of the hydraulic fracturing on the water balance of the Fayetteville Shale play area and examine the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on river flow regime at subbasin scale. This project addressed that need with four unique but integrated research and development efforts: 1) Evaluate the predictive reliability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model based at a variety of scales (Task/Section 3.5). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate the across-scale water balance and the respective impact of hydraulic fracturing. A second hypothetical scenario was designed to assess the current and future impacts of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing on the flow regime and on the environmental flow components (EFCs) of the river. The shifting of these components, which present critical elements to water supply and water quality, could influence the ecological dynamics of river systems. For this purpose, we combined the use of ...
Date: June 30, 2013
Creator: Cothren, Jackson; Thoma, Greg; DiLuzio, Mauro & Limp, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

Description: For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.
Date: September 1, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

Description: Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.
Date: December 31, 2010
Creator: Ruple, John & Keiter, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

Description: There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (❍m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Lin, Chen-Luh & Miller, Jan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomistic Modeling of Oil Shale Kerogens and Asphaltenes Along With Their Interactions With the Inorganic Mineral Matrix

Description: The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.
Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Facelli, Julio; Pugmire, Ronald & Pimienta, Ian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of CFD-Based Simulation Tools for In-Situ Thermal Processing of Oil Shale/Sands

Description: In our research, we are taking the novel approach of developing and applying high performance computing, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulation tools to a modified in-situ process for production of oil from oil shale. The simulation tools being developed capture the relevant physical processes and data from a large-scale system. The modified in-situ application is a pilot-scale heat transfer process inside Red Leaf Resources’ EcoShale capsule. We demonstrate the need to understand fluid flow behavior in the convective channels of the rubblized shale bed as convective heating greatly decreases the time required to heat the oil shale to the production temperature when compared with conductive heating alone. We have developed and implemented a geometry creation strategy for a representative section of the EcoShale capsule, developed a meshing approach to deal with the complicated geometry and produce a well-behaved mesh, analyzed the effects of boundary conditions on the simulation results, and devised a new operator splitting solution algorithm that reduces computational costs by taking advantage of the differing convective and conductive time scales occurring in the simulation. These simulation tools can be applied to a wide range of processes involving convective fluid flow heating in rubblized beds.
Date: April 30, 2012
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In-Situ Thermal Technologies

Description: Utah is home to oil shale resources containing roughly 1.3 trillion barrels of oil equivalent and our nation’s richest oil sands resources. If economically feasible and environmentally responsible means of tapping these resources can be developed, these resources could provide a safe and stable domestic energy source for decades to come. In Utah, oil shale and oil sands resources underlay a patchwork of federal, state, private, and tribal lands that are subject to different regulatory schemes and conflicting management objectives. Evaluating the development potential of Utah’s oil shale and oil sands resources requires an understanding of jurisdictional issues and the challenges they present to deployment and efficient utilization of emerging technologies. The jurisdictional patchwork and divergent management requirements inhibit efficient, economic, and environmentally sustainable development. This report examines these barriers to resource development, methods of obtaining access to landlocked resources, and options for consolidating resource ownership. This report also examines recent legislative efforts to wrest control of western public lands from the federal government. If successful, these efforts could dramatically reshape resource control and access, though these efforts appear to fall far short of their stated goals. The unintended consequences of adversarial approaches to obtaining resource access may outweigh their benefits, hardening positions and increasing tensions to the detriment of overall coordination between resource managers. Federal land exchanges represent a more efficient and mutually beneficial means of consolidating management control and improving management efficiency. Independent of exchange proposals, resource managers must improve coordination, moving beyond mere consultation with neighboring landowners and sister agencies to coordinating actions with them.
Date: February 28, 2011
Creator: Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John; Tanana, Heather & Kline, Michelle
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lands With Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges: Cross-Jurisdictional Management and Impacts on Unconventional Fuel Development in Utah’S Uinta Basin

Description: Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued Secretarial Order 3310, Protecting Wilderness Characteristics on Lands Managed by the ...
Date: October 1, 2012
Creator: Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John; Holt, Rebecca; Tanana, Heather; McNeally, Phoebe & Tribby, Clavin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toluol Recovery

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Standards over toluol-recovery, known as light oil. The methods used in the toluol-recovery are presented and discussed. This paper includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: December 19, 1918
Creator: McBride, R. S.; Reinicker, C. E. & Dunkley, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative Yields of Light Oil, Tar, and Constituents from Carbonization Tests at 800 Degrees, 900 Degrees, and 1,000 Degrees Celsius

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on testing done on a variety of American coals collected from 32 coal beds across the country. The carbonizing properties of samples tested at 3 different temperatures are presented. This report includes tables, and graphs.
Date: March 1943
Creator: Holmes, C. R.; Wilson, J. E. & Davis, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

Description: The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and visualization techniques of the Piceance Basin ...
Date: September 30, 2012
Creator: Zhou, Wei (Wendy); Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle & Mattson, Earl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department