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Partnerships for technology introduction -- Putting the technologies of tomorrow into the marketplace of today. Report to Congress on Sections 127 and 128 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992

Description: This report to Congress was prepared on behalf of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to Sections 127 and 128 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), Pub. L. 102-486. In preparing the report to the Congress, DOE has assessed the national and regional energy savings potential of products already on the market and those that will be available to consumers by the late 1990s. The Department has also examined the present cost-effectiveness of these emerging appliances as mature technologies. To help in its assessment, DOE organized eight workshops at which representatives from manufacturing and building industries, utilities, retailers and wholesalers, public interest groups and Federal and state government agencies could express their views. The information derived from these workshops was key to the formulation of the report`s general and specific recommendations. DOE has concluded that the Federal Government can effectively stimulate the market for emerging technologies by forming partnerships with the appliance industry and other interested parties promoting the use of highly efficient appliances. Based on the interaction with industry at the eight workshops and through direct contact, DOE has concluded that Federal action and technical assistance is not only desired by industry, but crucial to the expansion of these markets. Section 128 of EPAct requires an assessment of the energy savings and environmental benefits of replacing older, less efficient appliances with more efficient products than currently required by Federal law. Since early replacement of appliances is but one possible market-stimulating action, DOE has elected to include its discussion as part of the overall report to the Congress.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In AreCommercial Buildings?

Description: Evidenceof electric plug loads in commercial buildings isvisible everyday: space heaters, portable fans, and the IT technician'stwo monitors connected to one PC. The Energy Information Administrationestimates that office and miscellaneous equipment together will consume2.18 quads in 2006, nearly 50 percent of U.S. commercial electricity use.Although the importance of commercial plug loads is documented, its verynature (diverse product types, products not installed when buildinginitially constructed, and products often hidden in closets) makes itdifficult to accurately count and categorize the end use.We auditedsixteen buildings in three cities (San Francisco, Atlanta, Pittsburgh)including office, medical and education building types. We inventoriedthe number and types of office and miscellaneous electric equipment aswell as estimated total energy consumption due to these product types. Intotal, we audited approximately 4,000 units of office equipment and 6,000units of miscellaneous equipment and covered a diverse range of productsranging from electric pencil sharpeners with a unit energy consumption(UEC) of 1 kWh/yr to a kiln with a UEC of 7,000 kWh/yr. Our paperpresents a summary of the density and type of plug load equipment foundas well as the estimated total energy consumption of the equipment.Additionally, we present equipment trends observed and provide insightsto how policy makers can target energy efficiency for this growing enduse.
Date: February 28, 2007
Creator: Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret & Roberson, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Church fire]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story.
Date: March 4, 1979, 5:30 p.m.
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Combustion Equipment Safety; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

Description: Combustion appliances that use fuels like natural gas, propane, oil, kerosene, or wood can be more efficient and effective at heating than electricity. However, careful installation is required to ensure safe and efficient operation. This fact sheet addresses problems posed by combustion equipment and provides suggestions for furnaces and water heaters, unvented space heaters and fireplaces, and stoves and ovens. Installation, combustion closet design, causes of and prevention of backdrafting are also covered.
Date: November 7, 2000
Creator: Institute, Southface Energy & Tromly, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Heat Alternative]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about heat alternatives to keeping the house warm showing people using oven fires and an interview with a woman about the alternatives. This story aired at 10pm.
Date: December 23, 1989
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Fire Safety]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story by Sherry Woodard about fire safety during the winter, discussing the various types of ways people try to keep warm that could be dangerous and cause a fire or poisoning. This story aired at 10pm.
Date: December 15, 1989
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

Description: There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmental Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G. & Chang, G.-M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

Description: The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.
Date: May 18, 2009
Creator: Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A. & Zhou, Nan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project

Description: Interim results are presented from testing and analytical activities for establishing the current level of emissions from existing equipment. Cost estimates for conversions or replacements are included. A public relations effort has been defined to inform the citizens of Krakow about the project and provide the means for public attitudes to be measured and incorporated into project decision-making.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Pierce, B. L. & Butcher, T. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of polish home stoves

Description: Most of the city of Krakow, Poland is heated by either the central district heating system or single-building boilers, gas or coal-fired. In addition, concentrated in the older, central part of the city, there are many traditional, coal-fired tile stoves. It is currently estimated that there are 100,000 such stoves in Krakow with an annual coal consumption of 130,000 metric tons. These are felt to be important contributors to Krakow`s air quality problems. It his been estimated that there are about 7 million of these stoves throughout the country of Poland.These are very large masonry stoves with ornate file exterior. They are built in place by specialized craftsmen and often two or more stoves will be used to heat a single flat. During the heating season these stoves are fired once or twice each day. For each firing the owner will carry a bucket of coal up from a basement storage area. light a new fire, and then tend it occasionally for about one hour. During this time the masonry is heated and this stored heat keeps the flat warm for the next 12 hours. A testing effort on these tile stoves has been conducted as part of the Krakow lean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program, sponsored by the US Government through the Agency for International Development (AID) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). One of the objectives of this testing program was to provide baseline thermal efficiency and emissions data as input to evaluations of costs and benefits of alternative options for heating these flats. The second Primary objective was to provide at least a preliminary assessment of the possibility of reducing emissions by using improved fuels in these stoves.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Jaszczur, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Szewczyk, W.; Zaczkowski, A. & Butcher, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of a Diesel Engine Based Micro-CHP System

Description: This project, funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Agency (NYSERDA), investigated the potential for an oil-fired combined heat and power system (micro-CHP system) for potential use in residences that use oil to heat their homes. Obviously, this requires the power source to be one that uses heating oil (diesel). The work consisted of an experimental study using a diesel engine and an analytical study that examined potential energy savings and benefits of micro-CHP systems for 'typical' locations in New York State. A search for a small diesel engine disclosed that no such engines were manufactured in the U.S. A single cylinder engine manufactured in Germany driving an electric generator was purchased for the experimental work. The engine was tested using on-road diesel fuel (15 ppm sulfur), and biodiesel blends. One of the main objectives was to demonstrate the possibility of operation in the so-called HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) mode. The HCCI mode of operation of engines is being explored as a way to reduce the emission of smoke, and NOx significantly without exhaust treatment. This is being done primarily in the context of engines used in transportation applications. However, it is felt that in a micro-CHP application using a single cylinder engine, such an approach would confer those emission benefits and would be much easier to implement. This was demonstrated successfully by injecting the fuel into the engine air intake using a heated atomizer made by Econox Technologies LLC to promote significant vaporization before entering the cylinder. Efficiency and emission measurements were made under different electrical loads provided by two space heaters connected to the generator in normal and HCCI modes of operation. The goals of the analytical work were to characterize, from the published literature, the prime-movers for micro-CHP applications, quantify parametrically the expected energy ...
Date: August 31, 2010
Creator: Krishna, C.R.; Andrews, J.; Tutu, N. & Butcher, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utility and performance relative to consumer-product energy-efficiency standards

Description: This interim report summarizes work done under the third of six tasks of an investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Task III consisted of developing definitions and methods for quantifying utility and performance based on interviews of people within the energy efficiency standards program and reviews of Federal Register notices and public comments on the program. The definition of utility recommended for use in the standards program is: utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of a capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Energy efficiency and product performance as well as purely subjective factors can affect the consumer's perception of the product's utility. Utility can be measured using consumer surveys based on statistical methods. Performance is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input, the product does its intended job. Measures of performance include capacity and quality. Capacity can be stated in terms of thermal flux (in units such as Btu/hour) and storage or working volume. Quality is a measure of the consistency (with time), uniformity (in space), or thoroughness with which the product does its job. Performance can be measured by prescribed test procedures.
Date: July 12, 1979
Creator: Coggins, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

Description: The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well a previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--1992 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space hearing systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impacts of changing residential oil burner technology

Description: This paper presents trends in oil-fired residential heating appliance design that take advantage of recent research which promises significantly lower pollutant emissions, improved performance, and efficiency.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y. & Andrews, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary market analysis for customer side of the meter thermal-energy storage

Description: An examination is made of the potential market size for thermal energy storage space heating, water heating, and air conditioning in the residential and commercial sector. It is concluded that a significant market for TES could develop over the next 20 years; the analysis considers the electric utility perspective, the perspective, and the expected market in detail. (MCW)
Date: December 31, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct efficiency measurement and characterization of residential heating equipment. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

Description: Preliminary characterization results for hydronic (hot water) oil-fired systems are presented along with the results of other work conducted to fulfill commitments made under an earlier phase of the project. The first results from the fully operational warm air furnace test facility are included with a brief description of the equipment and the technique used in measuring furnace efficiencies. The laboratory data are then used to determine annual fuel consumption and fuel-weighted seasonal efficiency for each heating unit based on typical operating parameters (size of residence, geographic location, and usage). The results of the study include the evaluation of a wide range of hydronic burner-boiler systems. The combination of direct, accurate efficiency measurement and calculation of annual fuel use provides a standard method for comparison of individual heating units and retrofit modifications on a common and realistic basis.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Krajewski, R.F.; McDonald, R.J. & Milau, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The development of an ultra-low-emission gas-fired combustor for space heaters

Description: An ultra-low-emission as-fired combustor has been developed for relatively low-temperature direct-air heating applications. High-lean premixed cyclonic combustion with a flame stabilizer is employed to achieve ultra-low emissions and high turndown operation. On the basis of analytical studies and cold modeling a 350-kW test combustor was designed and successfully tested. Experimental results obtained using natural gas and ambient air demonstrated that the test combustor can operate steadily at high excess air up to 80% to 100% over a large turndown range up to 40:1. At design operating conditions, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.6 vppm and CO and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions below 3 vppm were achieved. Over the full operating range, NO{sub x} emissions from 0.3 to 1.0 vppm and CO and THC emissions below 4 vppm were demonstrated. In all tests, concentrations of NO{sub 2} were less than 40% of the total NO{sub 2} emissions from combustion processes required for good indoor air quality (0.5 vppm). This paper presents the concept of high-lean premixed ultra-low-emission cyclonic combustion, design specifications for the combustion system, and the major experimental results, including flame stability, emissions, and turndown performance. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Xiong, Tian-yu; Khinkis, M.J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)) & Coppin, W.P. (Maxon Corp., Muncie, IN (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 1. Executive summary

Description: Information obtained from residential customers with individually metered electric service within each of the 4 states (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana) and 4 climate zones is summarized. Detailed findings of the data obtained from the 4030 personal interviews are presented in 7 chapters: Demographic and Family Characteristics; Dwelling Characteristics; Weatherization; Heating and Air Conditioning Systems; Water Heating; Presence and Use of Major Appliances; and Characteristics of Customers with Various Consumption Patterns. Electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil consumption data were appended to the survey data collected so that these characteristics could be related to the amount of electricity or natural gas consumed. In the appendix, comments about sampling errors are given. (MCW)
Date: August 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department