This system will be undergoing maintenance May 24th between 8:00AM and 12:00PM CDT.

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

An Evaluation of the Correlation Between Shale Gas Development and Ozone Pollution within the Barnett Shale Region

Description: Presentation for the 2014 Fracturing Impacts and Technologies Conference. This presentation discusses an evaluation of the correlation between shale gas development and ozone pollution within the Barnett Shale region.
Date: September 4, 2014
Creator: Ahmadi, Mahdi & John, Kuruvilla
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences
open access

Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

Description: Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.
Date: June 3, 2011
Creator: Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

Description: This report presents the results of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) follow-on renewable energy (RE) assessment of Fort Hood. Fort Hood receives many solicitations from renewable energy vendors who are interested in doing projects on site. Based on specific requests from Fort Hood staff so they can better understand these proposals, and the results of PNNL's 2008 RE assessment of Fort Hood, the following resources were examined in this assessment: (1) Municipal solid waste (MSW) for waste-to-energy (WTE); (2) Wind; (3) Landfill gas; (4) Solar photovoltaics (PV); and (5) Shale gas. This report also examines the regulatory issues, development options, and environmental impacts for the promising RE resources, and includes a review of the RE market in Texas.
Date: November 14, 2011
Creator: Solana, Amy E.; Warwick, William M.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Parker, Kyle R.; Weimar, Mark R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

Description: This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.
Date: April 30, 2011
Creator: Bruff, Matthew; Godshall, Ned & Evans, Karen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Expertise Revisited: Reflecting on the Intersection of Science and Democracy in the Case of Fracking

Description: This dissertation aims to explain the conditions under which expertise can undermine democratic decision making. I argue that the root of the conflict between expertise and democracy lies in what I call insufficiently “representative” expertise – that is forms of scientific research that are not relevant to the policy questions at hand and that fail to make visible their hidden values dimensions. I claim that the scholarly literature on the problem of expertise fails to recognize and address the issue correctly, because it does not open the black box of scientific methodologies. I maintain that only by making sense of the methodological choices of experts in the context of policy making can we determine the relevance of research and reveal the hidden socio-political values and consequences. Using the case of natural gas fracking, I demonstrate how expert contributions – even though epistemically sound – can muddle democratic policy processes. I present four case studies from controversies about fracking to show how to contextualize scientific methodologies in the pertinent political process. I argue that the common problem across all case studies is the failure of expertise to sufficiently represent stakeholders’ problems and concerns. In this context, “representation” has three criteria: (1) the operational research questions on which the qualified experts work are relevant to stakeholders’ problems and concerns; (2) the non-epistemic values and consequences of epistemic choices of experts are compatible with social and political values and priorities; and (3) hidden values attached to facts are fully transparent and openly debated. In the conclusion, I propose a normative version of this representation theory that can be used to evaluate the appropriateness of expertise for democratic policy making. Instead of the value-free science ideal, I propose a new ideal to legitimately allow non-epistemic values in scientific reasoning without compromising the soundness of …
Date: December 2015
Creator: Ahmadi, Mahdi
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Trip report for field visit to Fayetteville Shale gas wells.

Description: This report describes a visit to several gas well sites in the Fayetteville Shale on August 9, 2007. I met with George Sheffer, Desoto Field Manager for SEECO, Inc. (a large gas producer in Arkansas). We talked in his Conway, Arkansas, office for an hour and a half about the processes and technologies that SEECO uses. We then drove into the field to some of SEECO's properties to see first-hand what the well sites looked like. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) made several funding awards under a program called Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil (LINGO). One of the projects that received an award is 'Probabilistic Risk-Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems'. The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville has the lead on the project, and Argonne National Laboratory is a partner. The goal of the project is to develop a Web-based decision support tool that will be used by mid- and small-sized oil and gas companies as well as environmental regulators and other stakeholders to proactively minimize adverse ecosystem impacts associated with the recovery of gas reserves in sensitive areas. The project focuses on a large new natural gas field called the Fayetteville Shale. Part of the project involves learning how the natural gas operators do business in the area and the technologies they employ. The field trip on August 9 provided an opportunity to do that.
Date: September 30, 2007
Creator: Veil, J. A. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use

Description: The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and envi-ronmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pre-treatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations. The TDS cutoff for consideration in this project is < 35,000 {approx} 45,000 ppm, which is the typical limit for economic water recovery employing reverse osmosis (RO) type membrane desalination processes. The ultimate objective is the production of clean, reclaimed water suitable for re-use in hydrofracturing operations. The team successfully compiled data on flowback composition and other attributes across multiple shale plays, identified the likely applicability of membrane treatment processes in those shales, and expanded the proposed product portfolio to include four options suitable for various reuse or discharge applications. Pretreatment technologies were evaluated at the lab scale and down-selected based upon their efficacy in removing key contaminants. The chosen technologies were further validated by performing membrane fouling studies with treated flowback water to demonstrate the technical feasibility of flowback treatment with RO membranes. Process flow schemes were constructed for each of the four product options based on experimental performance data from actual flowback water treatment studies. For the products requiring membrane treatment, membrane system model-ing software was used to create designs for enhanced water recovery beyond the typical seawater desalination benchmark. System costs based upon vendor and internal cost information for all process flow schemes were generated and are below target and in line with customer expectations. Finally, to account for temporal and geographic variability in flowback characteristics as well as local disposal costs and regulations, a parametric value assessment tool was created to assess the economic attractiveness of a given flowback …
Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Henderson, Claire; Acharya, Harish; Matis, Hope; Kommepalli, Hareesh; Moore, Brian & Wang, Hua
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

Description: Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.
Date: July 30, 2010
Creator: Veil, J. A. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Natural Gas Vehicles : Status, Barriers, and Opportunities.

Description: In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.
Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M. & Systems, Energy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Ozone Pollution of Shale Gas Activities in North Texas

Description: The effect of shale gas activities on ground-level ozone pollution in the Dallas-Fort Worth area is studied in detail here. Ozone is a highly reactive species with harmful effects on human and environment. Shale gas development, or fracking, involves activities such as hydraulic fracturing, drilling, fluid mixing, and trucks idling that are sources of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), two of the most important precursors of ozone. In this study two independent approaches have been applied in evaluating the influences on ozone concentrations. In the first approach, the influence of meteorology were removed from ozone time series through the application of Kolmogorov-Zurbenko low-pass filter, logarithmic transformation, and subsequent multi-linear regression. Ozone measurement data were acquired from Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) monitoring stations for 14 years. The comparison between ozone trends in non-shale gas region and shale gas region shows increasing ozone trends at the monitoring stations in close proximity to the Barnett Shale activities. In the second approach, the CAMx photochemical model was used to assess the sensitivity of ozone to the NOX and VOC sources associated with shale oil and gas activities. Brute force method was applied on Barnett Shale and Haynesville Shale emission sources to generate four hypothetical scenarios. Ozone sensitivity analysis was performed for a future year of 2018 and it was based on the photochemical simulation that TCEQ had developed for demonstrating ozone attainment under the State Implementation Plan (SIP). Results showed various level of ozone impact at different locations within the DFW region attributed to area and point sources of emissions in the shale region. Maximum ozone impact due to shale gas activities is expected to be in the order of several parts per billion, while lower impacts on design values were predicted. The results from the photochemical modeling can …
Date: May 2016
Creator: Ahmadi, Mahdi
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Life-Cycle Analysis of Shale Gas and Natural Gas.

Description: The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.
Date: January 27, 2012
Creator: Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems) & EVS), (
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

Description: The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 …
Date: March 31, 2007
Creator: Newell, K. David & Carr, Timothy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report

Description: In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Locke, C. D. & Salamy, S. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Neural network accuracy measures and data transforms applied to the seismic parameter estimation problem

Description: The accuracy of an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm is a crucial issue in the estimation of an oil field reservoir`s properties from remotely sensed seismic data. This paper demonstrates the use of the k-fold cross validation technique to obtain confidence bounds on an ANN`s accuracy statistic from a finite sample set. In addition, we also show that an ANN`s classification accuracy is dramatically improved by transforming the ANN`s input feature space to a dimensionally smaller, new input space. The new input space represents a feature space that maximizes the linear separation between classes. Thus, the ANN`s convergence time and accuracy are improved because the ANN must merely find nonlinear perturbations to the starting linear decision boundaries. These techniques for estimating ANN accuracy bounds and feature space transformations are demonstrated on the problem of estimating the sand thickness in an oil field reservoir based only on remotely sensed seismic data.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Glover, C. W.; Barhen, J.; Aminzadeh, F. & Toomarian, N. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Annual Energy Outlook 2011 with Projections to 2035

Description: The projections in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2011 (AEO2011) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2011 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies. But AEO2011 is not limited to the Reference case. It also includes 57 sensitivity cases (see Appendix E, Table E1), which explore important areas of uncertainty for markets, technologies, and policies in the U.S. energy economy. Key results highlighted in AEO2011 include strong growth in shale gas production, growing use of natural gas and renewables in electric power generation, declining reliance on imported liquid fuels, and projected slow growth in energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions even in the absence of new policies designed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. AEO2011 also includes in-depth discussions on topics of special interest that may affect the energy outlook. They include: impacts of the continuing renewal and updating of Federal and State laws and regulations; discussion of world oil supply and price trends shaped by changes in demand from countries outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or in supply available from the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries; an examination of the potential impacts of proposed revisions to Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for light-duty vehicles and proposed new standards for heavy-duty vehicles; the impact of a series of updates to appliance standard alone or in combination with revised building codes; the potential impact on natural gas and crude oil production of an expanded offshore resource base; prospects for …
Date: April 1, 2011
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Oil shale oxidation at subretorting temperatures

Description: Green River oil shale was air oxidized at subretorting temperatures. Off gases consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water were monitored and quantitatively determined. A mathematical model of the oxidation reactions based on a shrinking core model has been developed. This model incorporates the chemical reaction of oxygen and the organic material in the oil shale as well as the diffusivity of the oxygen into the shale particle. Diffusivity appears to be rate limiting for the oxidation. Arrhenius type equations, which include a term for oil shale grade, have been derived for both the chemical reaction and the diffusivity.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Jacobson, I.A. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Relationship between photolineaments and Devonian shale gas well productivity; with application to testing of DuPont EL-836 explosive

Description: An analysis of the relationship between Devonian Shale gas well productivity in Putnam County, WV and the orientation of, distance to, and density of the nearest photolineament (at scales of 1:32000 and 1:86000) was performed using primarily nonparametric statistical techniques. The results indicate that production is higher within 1300 feet of a low altitude photolineament. There is no association between the orientation of the lineament and productivity. Results on photolineament density are inconclusive. These results appear to be confirmed by the analysis of the DuPont EL-836 explosive tests, which also indicate a statistically significant increase in open flow over conventional shooting.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Seskus, A.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements

Description: In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Locke, C. D. & Salamy, S. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Gas Research Institute improved fracturing. Unconventional natural gas program, eastern devonian shales diagnostic program: Black No. 1 well experiment results. Third quarterly report, October 1979-December 1979

Description: During the last quarter of 1979, Sandia National Laboratories participated in an experiment with Thurlow Weed and Associates and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. This Devonian Shale gas stimulation experiment was conducted in an area north of Columbus, Ohio. One purpose of the experiment was to apply the diagnostic instrumentation that is available for fracture mapping and characterization to increase our understanding of the stimulation technique. The induced fracture apparently followed a pre-existing fracture vertically from the borehole with an orientation of the N 62/sup 0/ E and in the latter stages of the stimulation turned into a shallower horizontal fracture. This fracture behavior was confirmed by several diagnostic analyses and demonstrates the insight that can be gained by fully instrumented stimulation experiments.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Schuster, C.L. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1978-1979

Description: This report is written to document progress made during the third year of our study for the Eastern Gas Shales (EGSP) Project, and it is organized to meet the needs of readers who have a variety of interests in the project. This first portion of Volume 1 includes the Executive Summary which gives a general overview highlighting the progress made over this contract year. The second portion of Volume 1 includes task reports written by the specific task investigators, and it is written primarily for scientists interested in a technical overview of the third year's work.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Negus-de Wys, J. N.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Rauch, H. W.; Ruotsala, J. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Back to Top of Screen