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The President Pro Tempore of the Senate: History and Authority of the Office

Description: This report traces the constitutional origins and development of the office of President pro tempore of the Senate, reviews its current role and authority, and provides information on Senators who have held this office -- and the more recently-created subsidiary offices -- over the past two centuries.
Date: July 26, 2004
Creator: Sachs, Richard C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Senate Leadership: Whip Organization

Description: The whip system performs two primary functions: to take responsibility for the mobilization of party Members for key votes and to serve as a conduit for information between party leaders and party Members.
Date: December 7, 2006
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutional Points of Order in the Senate

Description: This report explains Senate rules, precedents, and practices in regard to constitutional points of order that are not ruled on by the presiding officer but is instead submitted to the Senate for its decision, including an analysis of recent cases in which such a point of order has been raised, and will be updated as events warrant. The report identifies 16 constitutional points of order that have been raised and received a Senate vote since 1989. Ten of these cases were disposed of negatively.
Date: November 12, 2014
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutional Points of Order in the Senate

Description: In general, the Senate's presiding officer does not take the initiative in enforcing Senate rules and precedents. Instead, a Senator may raise a point of order if he or she believes the Senate is taking (or is about to take) an action that violates the rules. In most circumstances, the presiding officer rules on the point of order on advice of the Parliamentarian; that ruling is typically subject to an appeal on which the Senate votes (unless the appeal is tabled or withdrawn). Pursuant to Rule XX, however, in certain circumstances a point of order is not ruled on by the presiding officer but is instead submitted to the Senate for its decision. A point of order that a pending matter (a bill or amendment, for example) violates the U.S. Constitution presents one such circumstance. This report explains Senate rules, precedents, and practices in regard to these constitutional points of order, including an analysis of recent cases in which such a point of order has been raised, and will be updated as events warrant.
Date: December 17, 2014
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Senate Rules Affecting Committees

Description: This report identifies and summarizes the provisions of the Senate's standing rules, standing orders, precedents, and other directives that relate to legislative activity in the Senate's standing committees. It covers four main issues: committee organization, committee meetings, hearings, and reporting.
Date: March 24, 2015
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Senate Rules for Committee Markups

Description: This report discusses the committee rules for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee which stipulates that, insofar as practicable, “proceedings of the Committee will be conducted without resort to the formalities of parliamentary procedure.”
Date: February 20, 2001
Creator: Oleszek, Walter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Senate Rule XIV Procedures for Placing Measures Directly on the Senate Calendar

Description: When a Senator introduces a bill or joint resolution, the measure is usually referred to committee, pursuant to provisions of Senate Rules XIV, XVII, and XXV. This report describes the Senate Rule XIV, para. 2, which requires that bills and resolutions have three readings before passage, and that they be read twice before being referred to committee.
Date: November 30, 2009
Creator: Koempel, Michael L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Senate Rule XIV Procedures for Placing Measures Directly on the Senate Calendar

Description: When a Senator introduces a bill or joint resolution, the measure is usually referred to committee, pursuant to provisions of Senate Rules XIV, XVII, and XXV. This report describes the Senate Rule XIV, para. 2, which requires that bills and resolutions have three readings before passage, and that they be read twice before being referred to committee.
Date: February 20, 2007
Creator: Koempel, Michael L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calling Up Business on the Senate Floor

Description: This report outlines processes or customs most often used by the Senate and then discusses some procedures less often used to call up business. The Senate takes up measures and matters under procedures set in Senate rules and by long-standing customs, thereby giving it flexibility in setting its floor agenda.
Date: April 1, 2016
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Senate Committee Rules in the 112th Congress: A Comparison of Key Provisions

Description: This report reviews the requirements contained in Senate rules pertaining to committees; it then explores how each Senate committee addresses 11 specific issues: meeting day, hearing and meeting notice requirements, scheduling of witnesses, hearing quorum, business quorum, amendment filing requirements, proxy voting, polling, nominations, investigations, and subpoenas. In addition, the report looks at the unique provisions some committees have included in their rules in the miscellaneous category.
Date: February 17, 2012
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Points of Order, Rulings, and Appeals in the Senate

Description: The Senate’s presiding officer typically does not have responsibility for pro-actively ensuring that matters under consideration comply with the rules. Instead, Senators may enforce the Senate’s legislative rules and precedents by making points of order whenever they believe that one of those rules or precedents is, or is about to be, violated. This report briefly discusses the process by which a point of order is raised and ruled upon.
Date: September 29, 2006
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Senate Rules Affecting Committees

Description: This report identifies and summarizes the provisions of the Senate's standing rules, standing orders, precedents, and other directives that relate to legislative activity in the Senate's standing committees. It covers four main issues: committee organization, committee meetings, hearings, and reporting.
Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Bach, Stanley & Palmer, Betsy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department