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The Effect of Trait Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Autogenic Training on Measures of Electromyography, Skin Temperature, and State Anxiety

Description: Twelve trait anxious male, federal prisoners with high self-esteem and twelve trait anxious male, federal prisoners with low self-esteem participated in the study. Subjects were selected from among those volunteering to participate and who met the scoring criteria on the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire and on the Self-Esteem Scale from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory II. Each volunteer participated in one session of approximately 50 minutes in length. Each subject was asked to respond to a medical/psychological interview, after which he was asked to listen to and follow a series of instructions (autogenic training). Throughout the session electromyographic and skin temperature measurements were taken from each subject's dominant forearm and non-dominant middle finger, respectively. At the end of the session each volunteer was asked to complete the STAI-State Scale. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of self-esteem as a moderator of trait anxiety. In addition, the study was designed to assess the effectiveness of autogenic training with this population. Results indicate no significant difference between high and low self-esteem subjects on measurements of electromyography/ F (1, 22) = .63, p > .05 or peripheral skin temperature F (1, 22) = .20 p > .05. However, a significant difference was found between high and low self-esteem subjects on the STAI-State Scale, F (22) = 4.45 p < .05. High self-esteem subjects obtained significantly lower raw scores than low self-esteem subjects on the state anxiety measurement. A significant difference was also found for the block of trial factor (baseline/relaxation periods) for the electromyography F (6, 132) = 3.43, p < .01, and peripheral skin temperature F (6, 132) = 6.32, p < .001 measurements. Results present partial support for the role of self-esteem as a moderating variable in trait anxious subjects. Self-esteem is conceptualized as a form of ...
Date: August 1992
Creator: Milan, Maritza J., 1958-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Down Syndrome and Self-esteem: the Media's Portrayal of Self-esteem in Characters Who Have Down Syndrome

Description: Representations of people with a developmental disability are virtually not covered in the media. Although there is little coverage of people with developmental disabilities in the media, there are a few entertainment television characters who have Down syndrome and are represented in the media. This study will take a look at the history of how people with disabilities were represented in the media and examine how two television characters with Down syndrome were portrayed on the shows by examining their self-esteem. This study seeks to focus on portrayal of people with Down Syndrome because the physical features that people with Down Syndrome possess are easy to identify. Specifically, the study examines the portrayal of self-esteem in two television characters, Corky Thatcher (Life Goes On) and Becky Faye Jackson (Glee). The researcher will also examine how the portrayal of self-esteem in the two characters is similar or different in people who have Down Syndrome. In the study the researcher found that the representation of the character Corky was different from the character Becky. But both characters tackled issues that affected the Down Syndrome community and it affected their self-esteem. Corky and Becky were different from the interviewees in the way they realized their competencies. Although the interviewees who have Down Syndrome and the television characters used self-evaluation differently to evaluate one's own self-esteem, they all seem to exhibit a positive level of self-esteem.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Gee, Courtney
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of a High School Teaching Unit on Adolescent Self-Esteem

Description: The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a teaching unit for improving self-esteem in high school students. To measure the level of self-esteem, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was chosen. The data were compiled from twenty-one high school students in a rural Texas high school. The female level of self-esteem was significantly lower than the male self-esteem level prior to studying the class unit. There were no significant differences in levels of self-esteem on the pretest and post test, although there was a slight improvement in the female level.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Tatum, Carol Baskin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Stress, Spirituality and Self-Esteem: Correlates of Psychological Quality of Life in an LGB Sample

Description: In the current study, we aimed to explore the relationship between perceived stress, spirituality and self-esteem and how they are related to psychological QOL. We found that our overall model accounted for 58% of the total variance in psychological QOL (adj. R2 = .58, F(10, 136) = 21.79, p < .001) with stress (β = -.37, p < .01) and self-esteem (β = .45, p < .01) as the significant predictors. Additionally we found that spiritual beliefs and practices moderate the relationship between stress and QOL (adj. R2= .49, F(11, 135) = 13.88, p < .001). Lastly, we conducted a principle component analysis (PCA) on our three variables of interest and outcome variable to determine whether the proposed structure of our measures holds true for our sample (i.e., LGB populations).
Date: May 2016
Creator: Stephen, Krystal A
Partner: UNT Libraries

The relationship of receiving violence and perceptions of self and partner

Description: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there are any differences between college students 1) who have received violence 2) who have received threats of physical violence, and 3) who have not received threats or physical violence from their partners. The study examined ways in which these three groups describe their own and their partners' self-esteem and personality.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Quest, Kathryn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relationships Among Self-esteem, Psychological and Cognitive Flexibility, and Psychological Symptomatology

Description: Previous findings on the relationship between self-esteem and psychological outcomes are inconsistent. Therefore it appears that self-esteem, while related to crucial variables, does not provide a clear, direct, and comprehensive prediction of psychological symptoms. Thus, it was hypothesized that the relationship between self-esteem and symptomatology would be moderated by broader measures of how one interacts with emotional and cognitive stimuli.The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-esteem, psychological flexibility, and cognitive flexibility on psychological symptomatology. A sample of 82 undergraduate students at the University of North Texas completed self-report questionnaires measuring low self-esteem, psychological flexibility, measured inversely as inflexibility, cognitive flexibility, and psychological symptoms. Results of the study suggest that self-esteem (?= -0.59, p < 0.001) and flexibility (both psychological (?= 0.36, p = 0.001) and cognitive (?= 0.21, p < 0.05) are significant predictors of psychological symptoms. In other words, self-esteem is positively correlated with psychological symptoms, while psychological and cognitive flexibility are negatively correlated with psychological symptoms. Neither form of flexibility moderated the relationship between self-esteem and psychological symptoms in this sample. The findings of the current study are discussed as well as suggestions for further research related to self-esteem, psychological and cognitive flexibility, and their impact on psychological outcomes.
Date: December 2012
Creator: Al-Jabari, Rawya, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Stigma and Psychological Quality of Life in People Living with HIV: Self-Esteem as a Mediating Factor

Description: Although the negative impact of HIV stigma is well documented, a gap exists in exploration of constructs that mediate the relationship between HIV stigma and psychological QOL (PQOL). Self-esteem is often conceptualized as a protective factor. We used PLS-SEM to explore the relationships between HIV stigma, PQOL and self-esteem, where PQOL and self-esteem are latent constructs represented by direct observations. Our hypotheses were supported - stigma is negatively related to self-esteem (as measured by self-blame, forgiveness of self, acceptance without judgment and self-esteem), self-esteem is positively related to PQOL (as measured by depression, mental health, QOL and perceived stress) and when the two aforementioned relationships are controlled for, a previously significant relation between stigma and PQOL changes its value significantly. These findings have implications for interventions designed to mitigate the negative psychosocial effects of stigma in PLH.
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Date: August 2017
Creator: Wike, Alexandra
Partner: UNT Libraries

Test Anxiety, Low Self-esteem, and Conformity

Description: The present study has a threefold purpose. First, it will attempt to investigate whether the presentation of the bogus group norm is effective to exert influence on an individual subject to modify his original response in the direction of the norm. Secondly, it will investigate relationships between the subject's level of test anxiety and his conformity behavior in the simple judgmental situation. Thirdly, it will further explore whether test anxiety, as measured by a questionnaire, and low self-esteem, as measured by feelings of personal inadequacy, are comparable constructs.
Date: January 1970
Creator: Lee, See Woo
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship of Self-Esteem and the Development of Interpersonal Spacing in Elementary School Age Children

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine three experimental hypotheses: (1) each grade level in the study will show greater physical distances in interpersonal spacing as the grade level increases in both child-to-child and child-to-adult relationships, (2) interpersonal spacing will be greater in child-to-adult relationships than in child-to-child relationships, and (3) there will be a correlation between a child's self-esteem and his interpersonal spacing in both child-to-child and child-to-adult relationships. Two basic instruments were used in testing the hypotheses: (1) Interpersonal Spacing Measurement Apparatus and (2) modified Self-Esteem Inventory Short Form B. The three hypotheses were accepted and significant at better than the .01 level.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Baker, Patricia B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Mindfulness, Self-Esteem and Positive States of Mind: Correlates of Mental Health in LGBT Individuals

Description: Presentation for the 2012 University Scholars Day at the University of North Texas discussing research on mindfulness, self-esteem, positive states of mind, and correlates of mental health in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals.
Date: April 19, 2012
Creator: Stem, Wiley & Vosvick, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Honors College

Self-Perceived Information Seeking Skills and Self-Esteem in Adolescents by Race and Gender

Description: The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between self-perceived information seeking skills and self-esteem in adolescents and, further, to determine whether this correlation varied according to race and gender. Tenth-grade students from three public high schools in a Midwestern city were given two instruments. Self-perceived information seeking skills were measured using a modified version of the Information Skills Checklist from High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium's Profiler website. Self-esteem was measured by the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, which is designed for students 12 years of age and over. The scale has six separate measures of self-esteem: physical, moral-ethical self, personal self, family self, social self and academic self. These six measures are used to determine overall level of self-esteem. The results showed a statistically significant correlation between self-perceived information seeking skills and at least one facet of self-esteem for all groups measured, with one exception. African American males were the only adolescents to show no correlation between scores from these two instruments. It is hoped that this research will ultimately be used to develop policies regarding the development of information seeking skills in disenfranchised groups.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Simpson-Scott, Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Receptivity to Dissonant or Consonant Information Via Taped Media with Self-Esteem as a Variable in Counseling Classes

Description: The problem of this study was to determine through the use of taped media receptivity to dissonant or consonant information and to appraise those conditions which bring about change in attitude in light of dissonance theory.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Booth, Dorothy J. (Dorothy Johnson)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Family Structure and Self-Esteem of Elementary School Children

Description: Maternal or paternal absence in one- or two-parent families, the presence of stepparents, and reasons for the disruption of the original family were analyzed in relation to the self-esteem of 501 males and females in grades 3-6 as measured by Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory. The study provided a review of the broken-home literature followed by the methodology, results, and conclusions pertinent to the investigation. A step-wise multiple regression analysis and two-way and three-way factorial analyses of variance revealed no significant differences in the self esteem levels of children from intact or disrupted families. Conclusions suggested that children from all family structures may have experienced both debilitating and nurturing environments. Recommendations supported parent training.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Anderson, Judy Novak
Partner: UNT Libraries

Discrimination and Perceived Stress in Sexual and Gender Minorities: Self-esteem As a Moderating Factor

Description: Sexual and gender minorities are subjected to discrimination and stigmatization which increase vulnerability to psychological co-morbidities (Mays & Cochran, 2001). The mechanisms through which discrimination contributes to distress in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (lgbt) communities can be partially elucidated through the minority stress model. The minority stress model argues that minorities are subjected to negative societal attitudes and discrimination that results in excessive psychosocial stress related to their minority position, which is distinct from daily stress. Meyer’s minority stress model is supported by social stress theoriesand data linking discrimination to stress in lgb samples. Researchers suggest that self-esteem buffers the negative effects of adverse experiences but tests of the moderating effect of self-esteem on the discrimination-distress relationship in ethnic and gender minorities yielded mixed results. Szymanski found that self-esteem moderates the relationship between discrimination and psychological distress in a male sexual minority sample, but this has never been tested in a gender-balanced sexual minority sample. We hypothesized that higher levels of self-esteem are associated with lower overall perceived stress in lgbt adults, and that self-esteem acts differentially in lgbt populations to moderate perceived discrimination. We found that discrimination, self-esteem and the interaction effect between discrimination and self-esteem accounted for 53 percent of the total variance in perceived stress scores, ∆R2 = .38; adj. R2 = .53, F(12, 133) = 14.47, p < .001.When we tested whether self-esteem moderated the relationship between discrimination and stress, discrimination was positively related to stress, β = .13, t(144) = 2.14, p < .05, and self-esteem was negatively related to stress, β = -.63, t(144) = -10.26, p < .001. The interaction between self-esteem and discrimination positively correlated with stress, β = .14, t(144) = 2.29, p < .05. Our findings suggest that self-esteem may alleviate the impact of discrimination on perceived stress, which ...
Date: August 2014
Creator: Wike, Alexandra Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Adult Children of Alcoholic Families with Adult Children from Non-Alcoholic Families: a Replication

Description: The purpose of this study was to re-examine the issue of whether adult children of alcoholics experience more depression, anxiety, and lower self-esteem than do children of non-alcoholic families. This study is a replication of the study of David Dodd, entitled A Comparison of Adult Children of Alcoholic Families with Adult Children from Non-Alcoholic Families. 1990. The measures used in this study were as follows: Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Coopersmith Adult Self-Esteem Inventory, and a questionnaire developed by this writer designed to obtain family history regarding not only alcoholism, but other issues of family dysfunctionality as well. The subjects for this study were 231 students enrolled in the counselor education program at this university, all aged 19 or older. Of the 230 subjects, 31 were male and 199 were female. Eleven males identified themselves as children of alcoholics, as measured by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, and 60 females identified themselves as children of alcoholics. Thus, a total of 71 subjects in this study were identified as children of alcoholics. T-tests were conducted to see whether any differences existed between the male and female groups. No significant differences were found. Results of this study showed that family dysfunctionality rather than parental alcoholism was the factor of variability regarding depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. There appears to be a strong relationship between parental alcoholism and family dysfunctionality, but dysfunctionality clearly has more impact upon depression, anxiety, and self-esteem in the adult children of these families than does alcoholism.
Date: August 1996
Creator: Dooley, Sandra Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Teachers' Self-Esteem on Student Achievement

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the level of teachers' self-esteem on student achievement. This study surveys and analyzes factors of teachers' self-esteem. Its results are based on (1) a review of the literature to develop an understanding of historical perspectives and research, (2) the factors involved in the development of self-esteem, (3) the role of the parents, and (4) the role of the teacher. Forty-three teachers of grades three and five in North Central Texas completed the Gordon Personal Profile-Inventoiy to assess their levels of self-esteem. Six teachers with mid-range scores were eliminated from the study. The remaining 37 teachers were divided into high and low self-esteem categories. Students' Texas Learning Index scores on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills were matched with the appropriate teachers' scores. The findings of the study indicate that the students with teachers in the high level of self-esteem category scored an average of 5.67 points higher than those students with teachers in the low level of self-esteem categoiy. Findings resulting from the study led to the conclusion that teachers with high levels of self-esteem have a positive influence on the achievement of their students.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Hartley, Melba Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of a Mentoring Program on the Self-Esteem of College-Age Women

Description: The fact that girls and women suffer a loss of self-esteem disproportionate to boys and men is without argument. There are an increasing number of books, magazine articles, and resource kits being made available to begin to comprehensively address the issue with young girls. However, less effort is being directed toward the older adolescent, the college-age woman. The problem with which this study was concerned was that of determining the impact of a mentoring program on the self-esteem of college-age women. The Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory (MSEI) was administered as a pre- and posttest, to 40 sophomore women, 20 of whom were in a control group and 20 who participated in the structured mentoring program. Using the MSEI, it was possible to gain statistically significant data which indicated that the self-esteem of the women could be positively impacted as a result of the mentoring experience. In addition to the instrument, the participants kept journals about their mentoring experience. Therefore, this research was able to report both qualitative and quantitative findings. The findings regarding the control group were not statistically significant for any of the 11 characteristics on the inventory. The findings from the mentored group however, were determined to be statistically significant for 5 characteristics: global self-esteem, competence, lovability, body appearance, and identity integration. From the statistical findings, as well as, from the journal entries it appeared that mentoring is a valuable experience. Also it was determined that there was a pattern to a positive mentoring experience. The women felt that their mentors were individuals in whom they could place their trust, the women felt the mentors could be helpful to them because of the wisdom that comes from life experience.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Higgins, Lynda Kay Burton
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of a Kindergarten-First Grade Looping Program on Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if academic achievement and academic self-esteem can be linked to the non-traditional organizational pattern of looping in kindergarten and first grade classes. Looping is defined as one teacher remaining with the same students for two or more years. Using a control group-experimental group design where the experimental group participated in the looping program and the control group did not, and applying the statistical procedure of multivariate analysis of variance (MANAVO), it was found that there was no significant difference between the subjects in the two groups on the criterion variable of academic achievement as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, and the criterion variable of academic self-esteem as measured by the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory, Second Edition. It was concluded that further study would need to be done to determine if there are advantages to an organizational pattern of looping for students in public elementary schools.
Date: December 2002
Creator: Murphy, Doris Jo
Partner: UNT Libraries

Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Behavior Among Homeless Youth

Description: Homeless youth face numerous risks. Data on 602 homeless youth from the Midwest Homeless and Runaway Study and binary logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with their participation in risky sexual behaviors. Specifically, the effects of abuse/neglect and three potential moderating resiliency indicators, namely self-esteem, parental warmth, and parental monitoring, on having sex before adulthood and thinking about trading sex for food or shelter were examined. While none of the three resiliency indicators had the hypothesized moderating effects, controlling for abuse/neglect and various sociodemographic characteristics, parental monitoring had a direct, negative effect on having sex before adulthood, and self-esteem and parental warmth had direct, negative effects on thinking about trading sex for food or shelter. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Cooksey, Christy
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Self-Esteem and Body Dissatisfaction on Muscle Dysmorphia and Exercise Dependence

Description: Using the psycho-behavioral model as a conceptual framework, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, muscle dysmorphia, and exercise dependence among college men. Participants (n = 110) completed surveys including a demographic questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Body Part Satisfaction Scale, Drive for Muscularity Scale, and Exercise Dependence Scale-21. No significant relationship was found between self-esteem and muscle dysmorphia. A significant correlation was found between body dissatisfaction and muscle dysmorphia, as well as between muscle dysmorphia and exercise dependence. These results partially support the psycho-behavioral model of muscle dysmorphia.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Parnell, Reid
Partner: UNT Libraries