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Surface-Water Seepage into Anthracite Mines in the Western Middle Field: Anthracite Region of Pennsylvania

Description: From Scope of Report: "This report summarizes the engineering study conducted during 1952 by engineers of the Federal Bureau of Mines seepage of surface water into mine workings underlying the Western Middle field drainage area."
Date: 1953
Creator: Ash, S. H. (Simon Harry), b. 1889 & Link, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface-Water Seepage into Anthracite Mines in the Lackawanna Basin, Northern Field: Anthracite Region of Pennsylvania

Description: From Scope of Report: "This report discusses the nature of stream-bed and surface seepage problems and mentions remedial measures devised by some anthracite-mining companies to prevent seepage of surface water into their mines."
Date: 1952
Creator: Ash, S. H. (Simon Harry), b. 1889; Eaton, W. L. & Whaite, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface-Water Seepage into Anthracite Mines in the Southern Field: Anthracite Region of Pennsylvania

Description: Scope of Report: "This report summarizes the engineering study conducted during 1953 by engineers of the Federal Bureau of Mines on seepage of surface water into mine workings underlying the Southern field drainage area."
Date: 1954
Creator: Ash, S. H. (Simon Harry), b. 1889; Link, H. B. & Romischer, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of Relief Wells Along Missouri River Levees: 1951-1952 Floods

Description: "The purpose of this report is to present the results of a study of the performance of the three relief well systems [along the Missouri River] during the July 1951 and April 1952 floods, and to compare their performance with design predictions. [...] The report includes observed uplift and well-flow data, descriptions of relief well operations during the floods, and an analysis of the effectiveness of the well systems together with discussion and comments on several experimental and test wells" (p. 2).
Date: December 1956
Creator: Waterways Experiment Station (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface-Water Seepage into Anthracite Mines in the Wyoming Basin, Northern Field: Anthracite Region of Pennsylvania

Description: From Scope of Report: "This report discusses the nature of stream-bed and surface seepage problems and mentions remedial measures devised by some anthracite-mining companies to prevent seepage of surface water into their mines."
Date: 1953
Creator: Ash, S. H. (Simon Harry), b. 1889 & Whaite, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geotechnical Applications of the Self-Potential Method, Report 3: Development of Self-Potential Interpretation Techniques for Seepage Detection

Description: This report consists of four distinct but complementary parts: (a) a laboratory/field study of environmental effects on self-potential (SP) electrodes and long-term stability of the electrodes; (b) field investigations at Beaver Dam, Arkansas; (c) development of a computer program for interpretation of seepage-related SP field survey data; (d) development of an extensive bibliography and data base for acquisition and interpretation of seepage-related SP data.
Date: February 1989
Creator: Corwin, Robert W. & Butler, Dwain K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Soils Design, Construction, and Performance Observations, John H. Kerr project (Buggs Island and Island Creek Dams) Virginia

Description: This report contains general background information about the John H. Kerr project, which comprises a retaining structure, Buggs Island Dam, and a backwater protection structure, Island Creek Dam. It also provides more detailed information about the design, construction, and prototype observation of each of the dams.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Waterways Experiment Station (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical processes in theunsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Heterogeneity andseepage

Description: An understanding of processes affecting seepage intoemplacement tunnels is needed for correctly predicting the performance ofunderground radioactive waste repositories. It has been previouslyestimated that the capillary and vaporization barriers in the unsaturatedfractured rock of Yucca Mountain are enough to prevent seepage underpresent day infiltration conditions. It has also been thought that asubstantially elevated infiltration flux will be required to causeseepage after the thermal period is over. While coupledthermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) changes in Yucca Mountain host rockdue to repository heating has been previously investigated, those THCmodels did not incorporate elements of the seepage model. In this paper,we combine the THC processes in unsaturated fractured rock with theprocesses affecting seepage. We observe that the THC processes alter thehydrological properties of the fractured rock through mineralprecipitation and dissolution. We show that such alteration in thehydrological properties of the rock often leads to local flow channeling.We conclude that such local flow channeling may result in seepage undercertain conditions, even with nonelevated infiltrationfluxes.
Date: July 15, 2005
Creator: Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Sonnenthal, Eric L. & Spycher, Nicolas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical analysis of liquid seepage in partially saturated heterogeneous fracture systems

Description: Field evidence suggests that water flow in unsaturated fracture systems may occur along fast preferential flow paths. However, conventional macroscale continuum approaches generally predict the downward migration of water as a spatially uniform wetting front subjected to strong inhibition into the partially saturated rock matrix. One possible cause of this discrepancy may be the spatially random geometry of the fracture surfaces, and hence, the irregular fracture aperture. Therefore, a numerical model was developed in this study to investigate the effects of geometric features of natural rock fractures on liquid seepage and solute transport in 2-D planar fractures under isothermal, partially saturated conditions. The fractures were conceptualized as 2-D heterogeneous porous media that are characterized by their spatially correlated permeability fields. A statistical simulator, which uses a simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, was employed to generate synthetic permeability fields. Hypothesized geometric features that are expected to be relevant for seepage behavior, such as spatially correlated asperity contacts, were considered in the SA algorithm. Most importantly, a new perturbation mechanism for SA was developed in order to consider specifically the spatial correlation near conditioning asperity contacts. Numerical simulations of fluid flow and solute transport were then performed in these synthetic fractures by the flow simulator TOUGH2, assuming that the effects of matrix permeability, gas phase pressure, capillary/permeability hysteresis, and molecular diffusion can be neglected. Results of flow simulation showed that liquid seepage in partially saturated fractures is characterized by localized preferential flow, along with bypassing, funneling, and localized ponding. Seepage pattern is dominated by the fraction of asperity contracts, and their shape, size, and spatial correlation. However, the correlation structure of permeability field is less important than the spatial correlation of asperity contacts. A faster breakthrough was observed in fractures subjected to higher normal stress, accompanied with a nonlinearly decreasing trend of the ...
Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: Liou, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Levee Underseepage Analysis for Special Foundation Conditions

Description: This report describes a research study in which techniques were developed for prediction of underseepage conditions for special cases of levee and foundation geometry. The differential equations for levee underseepage were derived and programmed in finite difference form for three special cases of boundary conditions. The developed programs allow analyses that are not restricted to the boundary conditions assumed in the conventional, closed form solution, i.e., two foundation layers of uniform thickness with horizontal boundaries.
Date: September 1989
Creator: Wolff, Thomas F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Levee Underseepage Software: User Manual and Validation

Description: Report discussing the FORTRAN 77 computer program (LEVSEEP), developed to analyze levee underseepage on IBM PC compatible microcomputers with an 8087 math coprocessor. The software and associated equipment plots cross sections and piezometer data; calculates seepage flow and substratum pressure; analyzes landside berm, river side blanket, cutoff and relief well control measures; and finally, estimates the construction cost of these alternatives.
Date: September 1989
Creator: Cunny, Robert W.; Agostinelli, Victor M., Jr. & Taylor, Hugh M., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LEVSEEP: Analysis Software for Levee Underseepage and Rehabilitation

Description: This report uses the computer software LEVSEEP to describe analysis methodology for levee underseepage analyses and rehabilitation. Information required for data input, calculation procedures, output, and graphics is presented. In addition, comprehensive results of case studies and parameter analyses utilizing LEVSEEP are included.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Brizendine, Anthony L.; Taylor, Hugh M., Jr. & Gabr, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Levee Underseepage Software: User Manual and Validation [Floppy Disk]

Description: A FORTRAN 77 computer program (LEVSEEP), developed to analyze levee underseepage on IBM PC compatible microcomputers with an 8087 math coprocessor. The software and associated equipment plots cross sections and piezometer data; calculates seepage flow and substratum pressure; analyzes landside berm, river side blanket, cutoff and relief well control measures; and finally, estimates the construction cost of these alternatives.
Date: September 1989
Creator: Cunny, Robert W.; Agostinelli, Victor M. & Taylor, Hugh M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Levee Underseepage Analysis for Special Foundation Conditions [Floppy Disk]

Description: Computer program developed to predict underseepage conditions for special cases of levee and foundation geometry. The differential equations for levee underseepage were derived and programmed in finite difference form for three special cases of boundary conditions. The developed programs allow analyses that are not restricted to the boundary conditions assumed in the conventional, closed form solution, i.e., two foundation layers of uniform thickness with horizontal boundaries.
Date: September 1989
Creator: Wolff, Thomas F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock: An evaluation of the continuum approach

Description: Because the continuum approach is relatively simple and straightforward to implement, it has been commonly used in modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock. However, the usefulness of this approach can be questioned in terms of its adequacy for representing fingering flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock. The continuum approach thus needs to be evaluated carefully by comparing simulation results with field observations directly related to unsaturated flow and transport processes. This paper reports on such an evaluation, based on a combination of model calibration and prediction, using data from an infiltration test carried out in a densely fractured rock within the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Comparisons between experimental and modeling results show that the continuum approach may be able to capture important features of flow and transport processes observed from the test. The modeling results also show that matrix diffusion may have a significant effect on the overall transport behavior in unsaturated fractured rocks, which can be used to estimate effective fracture-matrix interface areas based on tracer transport data. While more theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies are needed to provide a conclusive evaluation, this study suggests that the continuum approach is useful for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated, densely fractured rock.
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Liu, Hui-Hai; Haukwa, Charles B.; Ahlers, C. Fredrik; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Flint, Alan L. & Guertal, William B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT: HUMATE INJECTION AS AN ENHANCED ATTENUATION METHOD AT THE F-AREA SEEPAGE BASINS, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

Description: A field test of a humate technology for uranium and I-129 remediation was conducted at the F-Area Field Research Site as part of the Attenuation-Based Remedies for the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) funded by the DOE Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation. Previous studies have shown that humic acid sorbed to sediments strongly binds uranium at mildly acidic pH and potentially binds iodine-129 (I-129). Use of humate could be applicable for contaminant stabilization at a wide variety of DOE sites however pilot field-scale tests and optimization of this technology are required to move this technical approach from basic science to actual field deployment and regulatory acceptance. The groundwater plume at the F-Area Field Research Site contains a large number of contaminants, the most important from a risk perspective being strontium-90 (Sr-90), uranium isotopes, I-129, tritium, and nitrate. Groundwater remains acidic, with pH as low as 3.2 near the basins and increasing to the background pH of approximately 5at the plume fringes. The field test was conducted in monitoring well FOB 16D, which historically has shown low pH and elevated concentrations of Sr-90, uranium, I-129 and tritium. The field test included three months of baseline monitoring followed by injection of a potassium humate solution and approximately four and half months of post monitoring. Samples were collected and analyzed for numerous constituents but the focus was on attenuation of uranium, Sr-90, and I-129. This report provides background information, methodology, and preliminary field results for a humate field test. Results from the field monitoring show that most of the excess humate (i.e., humate that did not sorb to the sediments) has flushed through the surrounding formation. Furthermore, the data indicate that the test was successful in loading a band of sediment surrounding the injection point to a point where pH ...
Date: September 16, 2013
Creator: Millings, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogeological Analysis and Groundwater Flow for C-Reactor Area with Contaminant Transport for C-Reactor Seepage Basins (CRSB) and C-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (CBRP)

Description: A groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 4 mi2 within C Reactor area has been developed. The objectives and goals of the C Reactor Area groundwater model are to: Provide a common hydrogeologic and groundwater flow modeling framework for C Area that can be easily updated as additional field data is collected from waste site investigations. Provide a baseline groundwater flow model for use in subsequent flow and transport simulations for remedial/feasibility studies for C Area waste sites. Provide baseline transport simulations for CBRP and CRSB that reconstruct historical contaminant distributions and simulate future plume migration from each waste unit. Provide a working groundwater flow model for particle tracking and analysis to guide subsequent field characterization activities. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through spring 1999. The model simulates groundwater flow within the area bounded to the west and north by Fourmile Branch, to the south by Caster Creek, and to the east by a line between Fourmile Branch and the headwaters of Caster Creek. Vertically the model extends from ground surface to the top of the Gordon aquifer. The chosen areal grid is 14,600 by 13,200 feet with a resolution of 200 feet. The model accurately reproduces groundwater flow directions from the CBRP and CRSB, and matches targets for hydraulic head, recharge and baseflow within calibration goals. The hydrogeologic model reflects aquifer heterogeneity as derived from CPT lithologic data.
Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: FLACH, GREGORYP.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the vaporization barrier above waste emplacement drifts

Description: Prediction of the amount of water that may seep into the waste emplacement drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the proposed geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The repository is to be located in thick, partially saturated fractured tuff that will be heated to above-boiling temperatures as a result of heat generation from the decay of nuclear waste. Since water percolating down towards the repository will be subject to vigorous boiling for a significant time period, the superheated rock zone (i.e., rock temperature above the boiling point of water) can form an effective vaporization barrier that reduces the possibility of water arrival at emplacement drifts. In this paper, we analyze the behavior of episodic preferential flow events that penetrate the hot fractured rock, and we evaluate the impact of such flow behavior on the effectiveness of the vaporization barrier.
Date: February 3, 2003
Creator: Birkholzer, Jens; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit & Tsang, Yvonne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seepage into drifts with mechanical degradation

Description: Seepage into drifts in unsaturated tuff is an important issue for the long-term performance of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drifts in which waste packages will potentially be emplaced are subject to degradation in the form of rockfall from the drift ceiling induced by stress relief, seismic, or thermal effects. The objective of this study is to calculate seepage rates for various drift-degradation scenarios and for different values of percolation flux for the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and the Topopah Spring lower lithophysal (Tptpll) units. Seepage calculations are conducted by (1) defining a heterogeneous permeability model on the drift scale that is consistent with field data, (2) selecting calibrated parameters associated with the Tptpmn and Tptpll units, and (3) simulating seepage on detailed degraded-drift profiles, which were obtained from a separate rock mechanics engineering analysis. The simulation results indicate (1) that the seepage threshold (i.e., the percolation flux at which seepage first occurs) is not significantly changed by drift degradation, and (2) the degradation-induced increase in seepage above the threshold is influenced more by the shape of the cavity created by rockfall than the rockfall volume.
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Li, Guomin & Tsang, Chin-Fu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolution of the unsaturated zone testing at Yucca Mountain

Description: The evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site has evolved from intensive surface based investigations in the early 1980s to current focus on testing in underground drifts. Different periods of site-characterization activities and prominent issues concerning the unsaturated zone are summarized. Data-collection activities have evolved from mapping of faults and fractures, to estimation of percolation through tuff layers, and to quantification of seepage into drifts. Evaluation of discrete flow paths in drifts has led to fracture-matrix interaction and matrix diffusion tests over different scales. The effects of tuff interfaces and local faults are evaluated in fractured-welded and porous-nonwelded units. Mobilization of matrix water and redistribution of moisture are measured in thermal tests. Lessons learned from underground tests are used to focus on processes needed for additional quantification. Migration through the drift shadow zone and liquid flow through faults are two important issues that have evolved from current knowledge.
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Wang, J.S.Y. & Bodvarsson, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing and modeling of seepage into underground openings in aheterogeneous fracture system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: We discuss field activities designed to characterize seepage into an underground opening at the potential site for geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the use of these data for development and calibration of a model for predicting seepage into planned HLRW emplacement drifts. Air-injection tests were conducted to characterize the permeability of the fractured rock, and liquid-release tests (LRTs) were conducted and seepage monitored to characterize the seepage-relevant properties of the fractured rock. Both air-injection and liquid-release tests were performed in the same borehole intervals, located above the underground openings. For modeling, three-dimensional, heterogeneous permeability fields were generated, conditioned on the air-permeability data. The initial seepage data collected were used to calibrate the model and test the appropriateness of the modeling approach. A capillary-strength parameter and porosity were the model parameters selected for estimation by data inversion. However, due to the short-term nature of the initial data, the inversion process was unable to independently determine the capillary strength and porosity of the fractured rock. Subsequent seepage data collection focused on longer-term tests, a representative selection of which was used for data inversion. Field observations also played a key role by identifying factors such as evaporation and ceiling geometry that can enhance or reduce seepage. These observations help guide future test and model development by ensuring that relevant processes that influence seepage are identified, characterized, and incorporated into the model, thus increasing confidence in the parameter estimates. It is this iterative and collaborative approach to field testing and modeling, and the feedback mechanisms of field-test-methodology and model review and revision, that has been employed to continuously improve the scientific quality of the study. Initiation of modeling as soon as the first liquid-release data were available, review of the models with the field-testing team, and feedback ...
Date: March 25, 2002
Creator: Ahlers, C.F.; Trautz, R.C.; Cook, P.J. & Finsterle, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department