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The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics ofCustomer-Sited PV: A Study of Commercial Installations inCalifornia

Description: We analyze the impact of retail rate design on the economics of grid-connected commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems in California. The analysis is based on 15-minute interval building load and PV production data for 24 commercial PV installations in California, spanning a diverse set of building load shapes and geographic locations. We derive the annual bill savings per kWh generated for each PV system, under each of 21 distinct retail rates currently offered by the five largest utilities in California. We identify and explain variation in the value of bill savings attributable to differences in the structure of demand and energy charges across rates, as well as variation attributable to other factors, such as the size of the PV system relative to building load, the specific shape of the PV production profile, and the customer load profile. We also identify the optimal rate for each customer, among those rates offered as alternatives to one another, and show how the decision is driven in large measure by the size of the PV system relative to building load. The findings reported here may be of value to regulators and utilities responsible for designing retail rates, as well as to customers and PV retailers who have a need to estimate the prospective bill savings of PV systems.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen & Golove, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Can Real-Time Pricing SupportRetail Competition and Demand Response?

Description: As retail choice states reach the end of their transitional, rate-cap periods, state regulators must decide what type of default supply service to provide to customers that have not switched to a competitive retail supplier. In a growing number of states, regulators have adopted real-time pricing (RTP) as the default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. Although this trend is driven chiefly by policy objectives related to retail competition, default service RTP may have the added benefit of stimulating demand response. To evaluate the potential role of RTP as a means to both ends--retail market development and demand response--we conducted a comprehensive review of experience with default RTP in the U.S. and examined the emergence of RTP as a product offering by competitive retail suppliers. Across the ten utilities with default RTP in place in 2005, between 5% and 35% of the applicable load remained on the rate. Based on interviews with competitive retailers, we find evidence to suggest that a comparable amount of load in these states has switched to hourly pricing arrangements with competitive retailers. Many customers on default or competitive hourly pricing are paying prices indexed to the real-time spot market, and thus have no advance knowledge of prices. Because the price responsiveness of customers under these conditions has yet to be formally analyzed, and relatively few efforts have been undertaken to help these customers become price responsive, the actual demand response impacts from hourly pricing in retail choice states remains largely an open question. However, we find that policymakers and other stakeholders in retail choice states have various strategies at their disposal to capture the potential demand response benefits from hourly pricing, while simultaneously supporting retail competition.
Date: April 25, 2006
Creator: Barbose, Galen; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Hopper,Nicole & Neenan, Bernie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Best Practices in Targeted Advertising for Fashion Entrepreneurs

Description: A key to a business's success is reaching the target market. This ensures that consumers are exposed to the retailer's offerings and by turn, inspired to purchase. In turn, the business can reach its goal of a profitable organization. The purpose of this paper was to determine the most effective fashion advertising appeals for reaching target markets. To address these issues, this thesis consisted of two studies. The purpose of the first study was to determine the advice given to fashion entrepreneurs regarding effective target market practices. The purpose of the second study was to determine effective advertising strategies fashion entrepreneurs may employ for effectively reaching target markets. Data was collected to test the effectiveness of the advice from Study 1, degrees of brand awareness, attitudes towards advertising, willingness to follow trends, purchase intention, purchase behavior, and shopping involvement. The Theory of Reasoned Action was employed as the theoretical framework of the study. The framework was utilized to predict that attitudes towards targeted advertising and pressure to follow fashion trends would positively relate to intent to purchase which, in turn, would positively relate to purchase behavior. The results of this paper concluded the TRA model provided a proper framework to predict purchase behavior from targeted advertising employed by fashion entrepreneurs.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Slaton, Kelcie Shaelyn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Spot pricing of electricity and ancillary services in a competitive California market

Description: Typically, in competitive electricity markets, the vertically integrated utilities that were responsible for ensuring system reliability in their own service territories, or groups of territories, cease to exist. The burden falls to an independent system operator (ISO) to ensure that enough ancillary services (AS) are available for safe, stable, and reliable operation of the grid, typically defined, in part, as compliance with officially approved engineering specifications for minimum levels of AS. In order to characterize the behavior of market participants (generators, retailers, and an ISO) in a competitive electricity market with reliability requirements, spot markets for both electricity and AS are modeled. By assuming that each participant seeks to maximize its wealth and that all markets clear, we solve for the optimal quantities of electricity and AS traded in the spot market by all participants, as well as the market clearing prices for each.
Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Siddiqui, A.S.; Marnay, C. & Khavkin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Survey of Programs for Developing Store Managers for Retail Shoe Chain Organizations

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine the practices of a selected number of chain shoe store organizations in training management personnel for their retail shoe outlets. The data secured from these sources will also be compared with the opinions of several authorities in the field of management to determine the extent to which the practices in actual use agree with those recommended.
Date: August 1955
Creator: Slater, W. B., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Minding the Store: A Memoir

Description: Personal memoir of Stanley Marcus providing anecdotes about his life and family, and also describing his role in the Neiman Marcus department store chain, which was founded by Herbert Marcus (Stanley's father) with his younger sister and her husband, Carrie and Al Neiman. Index starts on page 373.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: August 15, 2001
Creator: Marcus, Stanley, 1905-2002
Partner: UNT Press

Channel Conflict in the Women's Apparel Industry an Empirical Investigation of Texas Retailers' Attitudes Toward Manufacturers

Description: The problem of this investigation was to make an exploratory examination of the distribution practices of apparel manufacturers as perceived by apparel retailers. Specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify those areas of perceived conflict between women's apparel retailers and apparel manufacturers from the viewpoint of the retailer, determine if there was a relationship between select retailer variables and the quality of service that retailers perceived apparel manufacturers were giving, determine whether some merchandise classifications were perceived by retailers to be greater problem areas than other merchandise classifications, to determine factors contributing to the enhancement of perceived conflict within apparel marketing channels, and to suggest remedies that would improve apparel channel relationships. The report concluded with the presentation of an apparel retailer expectation model and suggestions for additional research.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Beisel, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Idaho Biodiesel Infrastructure Project: Final Report, December 2006

Description: The Idaho Energy Division issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) on March 14, 2006, inviting qualified licensed fuel wholesalers, fuel retailers, and vehicle fleet operators to provide proposals to construct and/or install infrastructure for biodiesel utilization in Idaho. The intent was to improve the ability of private and/or non-Federal public entities in Idaho to store, transport, or offer for sale biodiesel within the state. The RFP provided up $100,000 for co-funding the projects with a minimum 50% cash cost match. Four contracts were subsequetnly awarded that resulted in three new bidodiesel storage facilities immediately serving about 45 fueling stations from Sandpoint to Boise. The project also attracted considerable media attention and Idaho became more knowledgeable about biodiesel.
Date: December 31, 2006
Creator: Crockett, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Empirical Analysis of the Spot Market Implications ofPrice-Responsive Demand

Description: Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulatedelectricity industries share one common feature: the absence of anysignificant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, most electricity consumers stillpay an average cost based regulated retail tariff held over from the eraof vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are oftenforced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in openmarkets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who aresometimes additionally forbidden by regulators from signing hedgingcontracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time(or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price ofelectricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumptionaccordingly. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic,which together with the non storability of electricity that requiresmarket clearing over very short time steps spawn many other problemsassociated with electricity markets, such as exercise of market power andprice volatility. Indeed, electricity generation resources can bestretched to the point where system adequacy is threatened. Economictheory suggests that even modest price responsiveness can relieve thestress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To quantify thiseffect, actual generator bid data from the New York control area is usedto construct supply stacks and intersect them with demand curves ofvarious slopes to approximate the effect of different levels of demandresponse. The potential impact of real-time pricing (RTP) on theequilibrium spot price and quantity is then estimated. These resultsindicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a moreprice-responsive demand providing policymakers with a measure of howprices can be potentially reduced and consumption maintained within thecapability of generation assets.
Date: August 1, 2005
Creator: Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S. & Marnay, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A guide to surveys of motor vehicle fleets

Description: In response to directives in Section 407 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), the Energy Information Administration (EIA) developed a data collection program designed to provide information useful to persons interested in the alternative fuels market. The target audience includes those seeking to manufacture, convert, sell, own, or operate alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) or alternative fueling facilities. Among the various projects EIA conducted as part of this data collection program were two fleet surveys conducted in Department of Energy-designated Clean Cities. The Clean Cities program is a locally-based government/industry partnership coordinated by the Department of Energy to expand the use of alternative transportation fuels. These surveys were designed to collect a broad range of information regarding the fleets and fleet vehicles in operation in the Atlanta, Georgia and Denver, Colorado areas. One of the objectives of these surveys was to attempt to identify and describe the market for AFVs. Due to inherent limitations associated with AFVs and limited alternative-fuel infrastructure, it`s believed that the first practical applications for AFVs will be within private and government fleets. Another objective in conducting the Clean Cities Fleet surveys was to develop a useful methodology for accessing and surveying private and municipal fleets that would aid other interested parties in conducting similar surveys. This report is intended to provide a description of how EIA gathered information on private and municipal fleets, but the basic survey design could be used to design surveys of other difficult-to-access populations. There are 3 basic steps to any survey: define the target population, constructing the survey frame, and implementing the survey. The procedures outlined in this report are, for the most part, the procedures used for the fleet survey conducted in Denver. The major changes between the two surveys are described in Appendix A.
Date: November 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP). Final performance report, August 8, 1997--March 31, 1998

Description: The objective of the Missouri State Heating Oil and Propane Program is to develop a joint state-level company-specific data collective effort. The State of Missouri provided to the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration company specific price and volume information on propane on a semimonthly basis. Survey of heating oil has been waived by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration due to the limited number of retailers operating in Missouri. The energy companies participating under the program were selected at random by the U.S. Department of Energy and provided to the Missouri Department of Natural Resources` Division of Energy prior to the implementation of the program.
Date: June 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Empirical Exploratory Audit Study of the Effectiveness of the Retail Buyer of Fashion Wearing Apparel in Meeting Constituent Markets' Wants and Needs

Description: This study is designed as an exploratory empirical attempt to audit the effectiveness with which retail buyers select fashion wearing apparel that meets needs and wants of their constituent target markets. This study presents the retail buyer of fashion wearing apparel as the "gatekeeper" who controls the flow of apparel products through various "checkpoints" as these products move from producer to consumer, thus controlling product availability. This study has a three-fold purpose. The first is to determine if significant differences exist between retail buyers' selections (ratings) and constituent market selections (ratings) when given like; alternatives on manufacturing levels. The second is to determine whether differences exist between the extents to which department store retail buyers and specialty store retail buyers meet the needs and wants of their constituent markets. The third purpose is to determine if significant differences exist between sales performances of like and unlike retail buyer/consumer choices.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Taylor, Ruth Arleen Lesher
Partner: UNT Libraries

Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

Description: This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.
Date: October 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State Heating Oil and Propane Program, 1990--1991 heating season. Final technical report

Description: The following discussion summarizes the survey approach and results of the Department of Public Service`s survey of retail fuel oil and propane prices during the 1990--91 heating season. The semi-monthly phone surveys were conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy`s State Fuel Oil and Propane Program, which coordinated surveys of heating fuel prices by 25 eastern and midwest states. This federal/state program serves as a method for fast collection, analysis, and dissemination of information on current residential prices. No other information source meets needs for timely retail price information over the course of the heating season. For the 1990--91 heating season, the Minnesota Department of Public Service (MN/DPS) expanded the scope of its survey effort to include regional price data. Surveys were conducted with 160 retailers, including 59 respondents from the DOE samples, to provide a reasonable sample size for each region. Fuel oil retailers were also asked for updates on their secondary inventory levels.
Date: June 6, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Implications of Retrofitting Retail Sector Rooftop Units with Stepped-Speed and Variable-Speed Functionality

Description: Commercial retailers understand that retrofitting constant-speed RTU fan motors with stepped- or variable-speed alternatives could save significant energy in most U.S. climate zones. However, they lack supporting data, both real-world and simulation based, on the cost effectiveness and climate zone-specific energy savings associated with this measure. Thus, building managers and engineers have been unable to present a compelling business case for fan motor upgrades to upper management. This study uses whole-building energy simulation to estimate the energy impact of this type of measure so retailers can determine its economic feasibility.
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Studer, D.; Romero, R.; Herrmann, L. & Benne, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deregulation-restructuring: Evidence for individual industries

Description: Several studies have measured the effects of regulation on a particular industry. These studies range widely in sophistication, from simple observation (comparison) of pre-transformation and post-transformation actual industry performance to econometric analysis that attempt to separate the effects of deregulation from other factors in explaining changes in an industry`s performance. The major problem with observation studies is that they are unable to measure the effect of one particular event, such as deregulation, on an industry`s performance. For example, at the same time that the United Kingdom privatized its electric power industry, it also radically restructured the industry to encourage competition and instituted a price-cap mechanism to regulate the prices of transmission, distribution, and bundled retail services. Subsequent to these changes in 1991, real prices for most UK electricity customers have fallen. It is not certain however, which of these factors was most important or even contributed to the decline in price. In any event, one must be cautious in interpreting the results of studies that attempt to measure the effect of deregulation per se for a specific industry. This report highlights major outcomes for five industries undergoing deregulation or major regulatory and restructuring reforms. These include the natural gas, transportation, UK electric power, financial, and telecommunications industries. Particular attention was given to the historical development of events in the telecommunications industry.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Costello, K.W. & Graniere, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1995

Description: This publication contains the 1995 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the seventh year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the product supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). 24 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Empirical analysis of the spot market implications ofprice-elastic demand

Description: Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulated electricity industries share one common feature: the absence of any significant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, electricity industries continue to charge most consumers an average cost based on regulated retail tariff from the era of vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are forced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in open markets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who are sometimes forbidden by regulators from signing hedging contracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time (or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price of electricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumption in response to price signals. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic, and electricity generation resources can be stretched to the point where system stability is threatened. This, then, facilitates many other problems associated with electricity markets, such as market power and price volatility. Indeed, economic theory suggests that even modestly price-responsive demand can remove the stress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To test this theory, we use actual generator bid data from the New York control area to construct supply stacks, and intersect them with demand curves of various slopes to approximate different levels of demand elasticity. We then estimate the potential impact of real-time pricing on the equilibrium spot price and quantity. These results indicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a more price-elastic demand. Such analysis can provide policymakers with a measure of how effective price-elastic demand can potentially reduce prices and maintain consumption within the capability of generation resources.
Date: July 8, 2004
Creator: Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S. & Marnay, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

Description: The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium model, we find that price elasticity both increases the retailers revenue risk exposure and decreases the spot price. Since the latter induces the retailer to reduce forward electricity purchases, while the former has the opposite effect, the overall impact of price responsive demand on the relative magnitudes of its risk exposure and end-user price elasticity. Nevertheless, price elasticity decreases cumulative electricity consumption. By extending the analysis to allow for early settlement of demand, we find that forward stage end-user price responsiveness decreases the electricity forward price relative to the case with price-elastic demand only in real time. Moreover, we find that only if forward stage end-user demand is price elastic will the equilibrium electricity forward price be reduced.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Siddiqui, Afzal S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Zales]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 5:00 P.M.
Date: November 24, 1986
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Zales]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. This story aired at 6:00 P.M.
Date: November 24, 1986
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections