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The Potent Triangle

Description: This film highlights New Jersey and L. Bamberger & Co. retail stores (now branded Macy's) as two important parts of a "Potent Triangle" of business in their corner of the U.S. - a "quality market" and a "great outlet," respectively. The film represents L. Bamberger & Co.'s call for a "Creative Producer" to complete their Potent Triangle by providing L. Bamberger & Co. with a "California fashion cavalcade."
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Media Library

A system of selection and human resource development for small retailers of apparel and accessories

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is that of constructing a system of selection and human resource development for small retailers of apparel and accessories. The study has a twofold purpose. The first is to determine the extent to which organized selection and training practices exist in small apparel and accessory retailing establishments, and the general attitude which small retailers of apparel and accessories express toward the value of selection and training functions. The second is to construct a practical system which can be used in small apparel and accessory retailing establishments.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Burr, Patricia LeMay
Partner: UNT Libraries

Retail Crowding: Impact of Merchandise Density on Store Image

Description: Store image research has attempted to identify factors contributing to formation of positive or negative perceptions of stores by consumers. These factors include tangible and intangible elements. Of the tangible factors, store atmosphere (including store layout and congestion level) is often identified as contributing to store image. Intangible factors influencing store image include emotional or psychological reactions that consumers have in response to various tangible store factors. One of these emotional responses is retail crowding. Retail crowding is a state of psychological stress occurring in consumers in response to perceived high density levels in stores. Crowding literature suggests that environmental cues, including layout and density level, contribute to this stress level. The overall purpose of this study was to expand on current research by incorporating the concept of retail crowding with store image research.
Date: December 1993
Creator: Paden, Nita L. (Nita Lynn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A System of Selection and Human Resource Development for Small Retailers of Apparel and Accessories

Description: The study has a twofold purpose. The first is to determine the extent to which organized selection and training practices exist in small apparel and accessory retailing establishments, and the general attitude which small retailers of apparel and accessories express toward the value of selection and training functions. The second is to construct a practical system which can be used in small apparel and accessory retailing establishments.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Burr, Patricia LeMay
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessing the Role of Smaller Format Retailers on the Food Desert Landscape in Dallas, Texas

Description: Many policy and business decisions regarding food deserts in the U.S. are based on the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) definition of a food desert. This definition only includes large/national chain grocery retailers, based on the assumption that these major retailers are the only affordable sources of food contributing to balanced diets. As alternative distribution channels, including smaller stores, start to include groceries in their product offering, the need to consider the role of other businesses in the food retailing environment should be addressed. This thesis assesses the role of smaller format grocery retailers (small local grocers, convenience stores, gas stations, dollar stores, and drug stores) in shaping the food desert landscape in Dallas, Texas. The analysis evaluates the products offered in these stores, and then identifies the difference these stores make when included in the USDA analysis. This was done by collecting in-store data to determine the variety of products offered, the affordability of those products, and the overall healthfulness of the store. In addition, the gaps in supply and demand were identified in the USDA-defined food deserts in order to identify the impact any smaller format retailer may have. The findings suggest that, overall, smaller format retailers do offer a variety of products needed for a balanced diet. However, the products in these stores are mostly not affordable, and most stores offer more unhealthy foods, than unhealthy. Overall, results suggest dollar stores may play a role in alleviating the impact of food deserts.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Regan, Amanda D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Retail District Evolution: An Exploration of Retail Structure and Diversity, a Case Study in Denton, Texas

Description: It is well established that national retail chains impact small, single location retail businesses in terms of revenue generation, retail structure, retail type diversity, and location. This study examines the retail structure and diversity of five retail districts in the City of Denton, Texas. The analysis focuses on one central business district (CBD), one traditional retail strip center (University Drive, also known as US HWY 380), one special retail district (Fry Street District), one traditional enclosed shopping mall and associated development (Golden Triangle Mall), and one power retail center (Denton Crossing). The empirical foundation for the investigation is a historical business database covering years 1997 to 2010, obtained from Info Group's Reference USA. This Reference USA database includes location, industry, and status (single versus chain location) information for each business. Retail diversity and evenness were measured for each of the five retail districts using the Simpson's Diversity Index and the Simpsons Measure of Evenness, leading to specification of the differences that exist in retail structure and diversity among the districts. Golden Triangle Mall and Denton Crossing were primarily chain location in composition while Fry Street District, the CBD, and University Drive were primarily single location in composition. Across all years, the single versus chain status of the local business communities did not substantially change within any of the districts. The Fry Street District exhibited the most change in diversity as well as the lowest overall diversity among the retail districts, followed by University Drive and Golden Triangle Mall. The CBD did not experience any major change in retail type diversity. However, all retail districts experienced major changes in retail evenness. Overall for the city, single location retail businesses accounted for the majority of all the retail businesses, however, chain locations employed more people. In total, these findings indicate that the ...
Date: August 2018
Creator: Bova, Joshua Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Retail Management Mix Strategies of Retail Grocery Establishments Belonging to a Retailer-Cooperative in the State of Texas

Description: The purpose of this study was basically fivefold: 1) to examine the historical development and significance of the retail mix as a retail management concept; 2) to identify the nature and structure of the independent variables which make up a retail management mix; 3) to distinguish the nature and significance of each variable within the structure of the retail management mix; 4) to propose and develop an interrelated set of propositions in the form of a retail management mix for retail grocery establishments belonging to a retailer-cooperative in the state of Texas; and 5) to relate the retail management mix theory to dependent variables gross profit margin, net profit margin, gross profit return on inventory, and net profit return on inventory. The major thrust of this study was to propose and research a retail management mix theory for retail grocery establishments belonging to a retailer-cooperative in the state of Texas.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Judd, Louis Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Empirical Exploratory Audit Study of the Effectiveness of the Retail Buyer of Fashion Wearing Apparel in Meeting Constituent Markets' Wants and Needs

Description: This study is designed as an exploratory empirical attempt to audit the effectiveness with which retail buyers select fashion wearing apparel that meets needs and wants of their constituent target markets. This study presents the retail buyer of fashion wearing apparel as the "gatekeeper" who controls the flow of apparel products through various "checkpoints" as these products move from producer to consumer, thus controlling product availability. This study has a three-fold purpose. The first is to determine if significant differences exist between retail buyers' selections (ratings) and constituent market selections (ratings) when given like; alternatives on manufacturing levels. The second is to determine whether differences exist between the extents to which department store retail buyers and specialty store retail buyers meet the needs and wants of their constituent markets. The third purpose is to determine if significant differences exist between sales performances of like and unlike retail buyer/consumer choices.
Date: August 1981
Creator: Taylor, Ruth Arleen Lesher
Partner: UNT Libraries

Small Town Retail Change in East Texas: an Analysis of Retail Growth, Decline, and Spatial Reconfiguration

Description: In recent years, small towns have experienced declining levels of retail activity attributable to a variety of factors. Previously conducted research identifies a number of these factors such as changing population dynamics, continuously evolving retail practices, locational factors, and an assortment of other macroeconomic factors. Although retail decline is common for many small towns, there are some small towns that have been able to maintain their viability in an ever-changing economic climate. The primary purpose of this research is to better understand what spatial and socio-economic characteristics contribute to retail growth and decline in a series of small towns. This research highlights a selection of small towns across a 14 county area within east Texas. The selection of small towns includes a number of towns with an increasing number of retail establishments as well as a number of towns with decreasing retail establishments over the 14 year study timeframe. Contained within this research is a discussion of small town economic and retail development, as well as findings regarding spatial and socio-economic characteristics as they relate to retail growth and decline in small towns. This research finds that locational characteristics do have an effect on retail growth and decline. The research also supports the literature, which states retail growth and decline is more pronounced within certain retail categories.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Whitaker, Carl W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

Description: The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, ...
Date: February 1, 2014
Creator: Royer, Michael P. & Beeson, Tracy A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Franchise System of Distribution

Description: This report discusses the franchising system of distribution and its growing popularity among small business owners. Legal challenges to franchising under anti-trust laws are also discussed.
Date: September 3, 1965
Creator: Knight, Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organized Retail Crime

Description: This report provides an overview of organized retail crime rings, their operations, and goods targeted. It then examines the domestic impact of organized retail crime (ORC) in the arenas of the economy, public health and safety, and domestic security. The report also outlines current efforts by retailers, resale markets, and the federal government to combat ORC. It then analyzes various policy issues that the 111th Congress may wish to consider, including whether current federal resources provided for the investigation of ORC are adequate, whether to amend the U.S. Code to criminalize ORC, and whether to regulate resale marketplaces that may be utilized as fences for criminals to sell stolen goods.
Date: June 16, 2010
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Expansion of a Retail Chain: An Analysis of Wal-Mart Locations in the United States

Description: Retail geography is an expanding field that is becoming increasingly important within academia, the business environment, and the national and global economy. The focus of this study is to provide insight and additional understanding of the site selection processes employed by Wal-Mart in the United States. The research studies Wal-Mart from a national perspective and investigates the patterns of retail store expansion across the United States from 1990 to 2005. The study employs the use of a continuous Poisson model to check for significant clustering, and a single and multiple correlation analysis to identify the types of relationships that exist between retail stores and location. The results of the study make apparent several distinct patterns of retail store dispersion within the United States between the years 1990 to 2005.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Ostrander, Anthony P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An analysis of the advertising art in eight retail stores of Fort Worth Texas

Description: It is the purpose of this thesis to acquaint the reader with the various systems, materials, and people who produce the art , in order to evaluate it and to pass on the results of its research to others who may find it useful in acquainting themselves with the advertising field.
Date: June 1951
Creator: Bradford, Johnny Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Decoding the Formation of a Retail Giant: the Evolving Geography of Costco’s Store Network

Description: Although Costco operates over 580 warehouse stores throughout North America, their location strategy remains relatively unexamined in the economic geography literature. A cursory examination of Costco’s network makes it clear that the firm chooses to locate primarily in the suburbs of major cities, where income levels are somewhat higher than the national average. However, what is not clear is the extent to which other demographic and geographic factors adequately account for Costco’s store locations, and what strategy underlies the geography of the firm’s warehouse stores, especially in relation to its distribution network. This research studies Costco in order to decode the location strategies that have guided the company’s North American and international expansions. The investigation attempts to identify key elements of Costco’s multinational retail network, including this network’s evolution over time. This paper seeks to benefit both retail business and public policymakers by highlighting elements of Costco’s location strategy that have contributed to the firm’s success.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Testa, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

Description: This article examines the impact of retail electricity rate design on the economic value of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, focusing on commercial customers in California. Using 15-minute interval building load and PV production data from a sample of 24 actual commercial PV installations, we compare the value of the bill savings across 20 commercial-customer retail electricity rates currently offered in the state. Across all combinations of customers and rates, we find that the annual bill savings from PV, per kWh generated, ranges from $0.05/kWh to $0.24/kWh. This sizable range in rate-reduction value reflects differences in rate structures, revenue requirements, the size of the PV system relative to building load, and customer load shape. The most significant rate design issue for the value of commercial PV is found to be the percentage of total utility bills recovered through demand charges, though a variety of other factors are also found to be of importance. The value of net metering is found to be substantial, but only when commercial PV systems represent a sizable portion of annual customer load. Though the analysis presented here is specific to California, our general results demonstrate the fundamental importance of retail rate design for the customer-economics of grid-connected, customer-sited PV.
Date: May 11, 2008
Creator: Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen & Golove, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of the Retail Trading Area of Denton, Texas

Description: "The purpose of this study is to find what information is available from secondary sources on retail trade areas and to assemble and analyze it so that the information will be of value to those interested in the economy of the area...the following general conclusions are drawn: 1. The Denton retail trade area is primarily agricultual. Indicators of this fact are so many and so definite that there is little doubt but that agriculture and the rural population of the area will affect, to a considerable extent all business activity. 2. In 1947, the Denton retail trade area was not highly industrialized. The trading center is not centrally located within the state of Texas, but several markets are a few miles away. A good supply of labor is available within the area. With the present trend toward decentralization of industry, these facts point toward an expansion of manufacturing in the trade area. 3. In 1948, retailing in the trade center and in the area as a whole indicates a strong retail trade center. 4. The fact that the retail trade center would be a good sampling area for companies introducing new products is indicated by the youth of the population of the center. 5. A good market for fashion goods is revealed by the large population of females in the area. 6. In 1948, wholesaling in the area had doubled in number and tripled its sales in the past ten years, and with the trend toward decentralization of industry the wholesale trade of the area should continue to increase."-- leaves 1,63.
Date: June 1951
Creator: Brooks, John M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Evaluation of the Efforts of Denton Apparel Stores in Securing Student Trade

Description: "The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which Denton apparel stores have succeeded in securing student trade, and from the findings, draw some conclusions concerning improvement of relations with students which would maximize the amount of student trade obtained by these stores... according to the findings, the Denton apparel stores as a whole do not seem to be achieving their maximum potential in securing student trade...It seems that most of the stores could substantially increase the amount of trade secured by expanding their advertising and sales promotion plans, by handling line of merchandise which are most appealing to the students, and by adjusting their price lines to the ranges in which students normally buy. "-- leaves 1,63.
Date: August 1953
Creator: McGee, Mack Edwin
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Survey of Programs for Developing Store Managers for Retail Shoe Chain Organizations

Description: The purpose of the study was to determine the practices of a selected number of chain shoe store organizations in training management personnel for their retail shoe outlets. The data secured from these sources will also be compared with the opinions of several authorities in the field of management to determine the extent to which the practices in actual use agree with those recommended.
Date: August 1955
Creator: Slater, W. B., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries