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Assessing the Role of Smaller Format Retailers on the Food Desert Landscape in Dallas, Texas

Description: Many policy and business decisions regarding food deserts in the U.S. are based on the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) definition of a food desert. This definition only includes large/national chain grocery retailers, based on the assumption that these major retailers are the only affordable sources of food contributing to balanced diets. As alternative distribution channels, including smaller stores, start to include groceries in their product offering, the need to consider the role of other businesses in the food retailing environment should be addressed. This thesis assesses the role of smaller format grocery retailers (small local grocers, convenience stores, gas stations, dollar stores, and drug stores) in shaping the food desert landscape in Dallas, Texas. The analysis evaluates the products offered in these stores, and then identifies the difference these stores make when included in the USDA analysis. This was done by collecting in-store data to determine the variety of products offered, the affordability of those products, and the overall healthfulness of the store. In addition, the gaps in supply and demand were identified in the USDA-defined food deserts in order to identify the impact any smaller format retailer may have. The findings suggest that, overall, smaller format retailers do offer a variety of products needed for a balanced diet. However, the products in these stores are mostly not affordable, and most stores offer more unhealthy foods, than unhealthy. Overall, results suggest dollar stores may play a role in alleviating the impact of food deserts.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Regan, Amanda D.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Location Analysis of Lifestyle Centers: Uncovering Patterns and Potential Driving Factors behind Site Selection

Description: The shopping center has held an important place in the American economy for decades. However, the concept has seen multiple revolution in terms of format. The most recent shopping center concept to gain rapid popularity is the lifestyle center – an outdoor shopping mall made to resemble a pleasant main street setting, with a tenant mix emphasizing dining and entertainment. In other words, the lifestyle center concept is geared toward selling consumers things to do, versus things to buy. This thesis studies the geography of lifestyle centers in the United States in both the large-scale and small-scale view. Results show that lifestyle centers are concentrated into larger urban areas, often with a population of over 1 million. An analysis of spatial agglomeration revealed that lifestyle centers are often several miles away from the nearest traditional mall, indicating that developers do not feel the need to build near established shopping districts where traditional malls lie. Finally, results concerning trade area characteristics show the characteristics of consumers in areas where lifestyle centers have been built. Findings in this study indicate that developers are utilizing a unique approach when selecting sites for lifestyle centers compared to traditional indoor malls.
Date: August 2019
Creator: Sorenson, Matthew R
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Geography of Partial-Market Exits: Applying Geospatial and Econometric Methods to Analyze 2017 Department Store Closures in the United States

Description: Many factors have prompted the adoption of partial-market exit strategies in retail as a means of reducing cost and minimizing risk. These mass closures have become more frequent in recent years. Marketers and economists have offered explanations for these closures linked to the rise of e-commerce, the real estate cycle and general changes in consumer taste. The research here marks an attempt to apply geospatial and econometric methods to better understand what factors explain the spatial variation of these closures across the United States. Specifically, the analysis examines the store networks of Sears, J.C. Penney and Macy's- large, established department stores that, collectively, announced over 100 closures at the beginning of 2017. By treating each store as a unit of observation, and a closure as a limited dependent variable, this analysis will attempt to quantify the relationship between place-specific factors and retail closures using Probit modeling. This application of modeling marks a deviation from traditional analyses in retail geography which, up until the early 2000s, have focused almost entirely on store development and growth. The results reveal patterns of spatial clustering of closures in and around the Rust Belt and demonstrate the strong negative effect of competitive agglomeration on the probability of closure.
Date: May 2019
Creator: Reed, Connor
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Small Town Retail Change in East Texas: an Analysis of Retail Growth, Decline, and Spatial Reconfiguration

Description: In recent years, small towns have experienced declining levels of retail activity attributable to a variety of factors. Previously conducted research identifies a number of these factors such as changing population dynamics, continuously evolving retail practices, locational factors, and an assortment of other macroeconomic factors. Although retail decline is common for many small towns, there are some small towns that have been able to maintain their viability in an ever-changing economic climate. The primary purpose of this research is to better understand what spatial and socio-economic characteristics contribute to retail growth and decline in a series of small towns. This research highlights a selection of small towns across a 14 county area within east Texas. The selection of small towns includes a number of towns with an increasing number of retail establishments as well as a number of towns with decreasing retail establishments over the 14 year study timeframe. Contained within this research is a discussion of small town economic and retail development, as well as findings regarding spatial and socio-economic characteristics as they relate to retail growth and decline in small towns. This research finds that locational characteristics do have an effect on retail growth and decline. The research also supports the literature, which states retail growth and decline is more pronounced within certain retail categories.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Whitaker, Carl W.
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

The Global Expansion of Transnational Retailers: A Case Study of the Localization Strategy of Costco in Taiwan

Description: This research focuses on the global expansion of the transnational retail industry. Globalization is a phenomenon experienced by many industries in the present global economy. The global production network (GPN) framework can be used to explain and interpret the phenomenon of transnational firms' adaptation strategies. Due to market saturation in their home countries, retailers began to expand into East Asia in the 1980s. However, cultural differences and legislative limitations created barriers and restrictions for the transnational retailers making this transition. How do firms overcome these challenges? Through a case study of Costco in Taiwan, this research investigates the ways in which retailers adapt their strategies with regard to three concerns: site decisions, product mix selection, and supply network consolidation. The results shows that Costco opted for a strategy of lesser localization in all three domains. This research provides evidence to support this characterization along with examples of Costco's localization strategies via a case study and focuses on the issue of the balance between localization and standardization in the GPN framework.
Date: December 2010
Creator: Yeh, YunLung
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Retail District Evolution: An Exploration of Retail Structure and Diversity, a Case Study in Denton, Texas

Description: It is well established that national retail chains impact small, single location retail businesses in terms of revenue generation, retail structure, retail type diversity, and location. This study examines the retail structure and diversity of five retail districts in the City of Denton, Texas. The analysis focuses on one central business district (CBD), one traditional retail strip center (University Drive, also known as US HWY 380), one special retail district (Fry Street District), one traditional enclosed shopping mall and associated development (Golden Triangle Mall), and one power retail center (Denton Crossing). The empirical foundation for the investigation is a historical business database covering years 1997 to 2010, obtained from Info Group's Reference USA. This Reference USA database includes location, industry, and status (single versus chain location) information for each business. Retail diversity and evenness were measured for each of the five retail districts using the Simpson's Diversity Index and the Simpsons Measure of Evenness, leading to specification of the differences that exist in retail structure and diversity among the districts. Golden Triangle Mall and Denton Crossing were primarily chain location in composition while Fry Street District, the CBD, and University Drive were primarily single location in composition. Across all years, the single versus chain status of the local business communities did not substantially change within any of the districts. The Fry Street District exhibited the most change in diversity as well as the lowest overall diversity among the retail districts, followed by University Drive and Golden Triangle Mall. The CBD did not experience any major change in retail type diversity. However, all retail districts experienced major changes in retail evenness. Overall for the city, single location retail businesses accounted for the majority of all the retail businesses, however, chain locations employed more people. In total, these findings indicate that the …
Date: August 2018
Creator: Bova, Joshua Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Retail Change and Light Rail: an Exploration of Business Location Changes Accompanying Commuter Rail Development in Denton County, Texas

Description: Within the past few decades, commuter rail routes in several major metropolitan areas have been implemented to provide an alternative to automobile transportation. Urban planners in these cities are looking to commuter rail to mitigate congestion and pollution. However, research on the impacts of commuter rail development on the surrounding retail landscape is still needed. In metropolitan Dallas-Fort Worth, the Denton County Transportation Authority recently opened its new A-Train light rail service linking suburban Denton and downtown Dallas. This thesis examines urban changes that occurred in the years before and after the A-Train line's 2011 opening, with a focus on restaurant and retail development in the vicinity of the A-Train stations in Denton County. This analysis evaluates changes in retail density and type, the population surrounding stations, and municipal initiatives that shape the retail landscape of station vicinities. This was done by gathering field data, retailer listings, population data, and conducting interviews with local businesses and city planners. The findings suggest that A-train stations have had a differential impact on the surrounding landscape, depending on the existing retail landscape, the types of retailers present, and the current state of municipal infrastructure that promotes accessibility. Overall, results suggest that urban planners play a vital role in harnessing the potential of commuter rail to promote nearby retail growth.
Date: August 2014
Creator: Yarbrough, Trevor S.
Partner: UNT Libraries
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