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An Examination Of Three Texas High SchoolsÊ Restructuring Strategies That Resulted In An Academically Acceptable Rating

Description: This study examined three high schools in a large urban school district in Texas that achieved an academically acceptable rating after being sanctioned to reconstitute by state agencies. Texas state accountability standards are a result of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2011 (NCLB). Texas state law requires schools to design a reconstitution plan after the second year of receiving an academically unacceptable school rating for failing to meet the required standards on state assessments, dropout rates, and graduation rates. The plan must be implemented by the third year. A mixed methods approach was used to uncover the strategies that were successful during the restructuring initiative. Data was obtained from three sources: interviews, document analysis and surveys. Interviews were conducted with district administrators, campus based administrators and teachers of the three high schools. A sample of core content teachers were surveyed using questions from the MetLife Survey of the American Teacher: Collaborating for Student Success. Results revealed that each school chose to engage in a major form of restructuring that included the formation of a themed based magnet school. A team approach was used to devise, implement, and monitor the reconstitution plan. Common strategies unveiled in the study included the use of common assessments, collaborative planning among core teachers, professional development, continuous monitoring of student absences, extended learning times for students, and a focus on college readiness. Survey data revealed that the majority of teachers believed that collaboration positively impacted student achievement. It is recommended that schools undergoing restructuring choose a reconstitution option that allows for flexibility, use multiple resources to foster school improvement, and develop restructuring plans that serve as living documents. Further research is needed to study the principal's role in achieving an academically acceptable rating. This study could also be expanded to compare restructuring strategies of ...
Date: December 2011
Creator: Massey Fields, Chamara
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Review of National Railroad Issues

Description: The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) prepared a report that studies how to handle the remaining bankrupt railroads after the creation of Conrail. It examines the current financial states of railroads, and possible ways to address the problem.
Date: December 1975
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Restructuring of the Electric Power Industry in California and in Texas: An Examination and Comparison of Deregulation as Legislated

Description: California legislated the restructuring of its electric power industry in 1996. Deregulation was successful until 2000 when crisis, caused by a number of outside forces and flawed legislation, sent wholesale electric prices skyrocketing. Restructuring of the electricity sector in Texas occurred in two phases. The first phase began in 1995, when wholesale markets were opened to competition; the second phase began June 18, 1997, when the 1999 Texas Electric Choice Act, was signed into law. Deregulation has largely been successful in Texas. This analysis examines the legislation of these states and how they differed, setting the stage for one unsuccessful and one successful move to retail competition in the electricity industry.
Date: August 2003
Creator: Lewis, Rebecca Joy
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Review of Alternative Approaches to Federal Funding of Rail Rehabilitation

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that is part of a plan to restructure the railroads of the Northeast. It "provides a conceptual framework for the evaluation of alternative approaches to federal assistance for the rehabilitation of the nation's railroad fixed plant" (p. xiv).
Date: September 1975
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electricity Restructuring: Key Challenges Remain

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The electricity industry is in the midst of many changes, collectively referred to as restructuring, evolving from a highly regulated environment to one that places greater reliance on competition. This restructuring is occurring against a backdrop of constraints and challenges, including a shared responsibility for implementing and enforcing local, state, and federal laws affecting the electricity industry and an expected substantial increase in electricity demanded by consumers by 2025, requiring significant investment in new power plants and transmission lines. Furthermore, several recent incidents, including the largest blackout in U.S. history along the East Coast in 2003 and the energy crisis in California and other parts of the West in 2000 and 2001, have drawn attention to the need to examine the operation and direction of the industry. At Congress's request, this report summarizes results of previous GAO work on electricity restructuring, which was conducted in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. In particular, this report provides information on (1) what the federal government has done to restructure the electricity industry and the wholesale markets that it oversees, (2) how electricity markets have changed since restructuring began, and (3) GAO's views on key challenges that remain in restructuring the electricity industry."
Date: November 15, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electricity Restructuring: FERC Could Take Additional Steps to Analyze Regional Transmission Organizations' Benefits and Performance

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 1999, as a part of federal efforts to restructure the electricity industry, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began encouraging the voluntary formation of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO)--independent entities to manage regional networks of electric transmission lines. FERC oversees six RTOs that cover part or all of 35 states and D.C. and serve over half of U.S. electricity demand. As electricity prices increase, stakeholders-- organizations and individuals with financial and regulatory interest in the electricity industry--have voiced concerns about RTO benefits and how RTO expenses and decisions influence electricity prices. GAO was asked to review (1) RTO expenses and key investments in property, plant, and equipment from 2002 to 2006, the most current data available; (2) how RTOs and FERC review RTO expenses and decisions that may affect electricity prices; and (3) the extent to which there is consensus about RTO benefits. To do so, GAO reviewed documentation and data and spoke with FERC officials and experts."
Date: September 22, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electricity Restructuring: 2003 Blackout Identifies Crisis and Opportunity for the Electricity Sector

Description: Other written product issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The August 14, 2003, electricity blackout--the largest in the nation's history--affected millions of people across eight northeastern and midwestern states as well as areas in Canada. The blackout intensified concerns about the overall status and security of the electricity industry at a time when the industry is undergoing major changes and Americans have a heightened awareness of threats to security. Because of these widespread concerns and the broad institutional interest of the Congress, we (1) highlighted information about the known causes and effects of the blackout, (2) summarized themes from prior GAO reports on electricity and security matters that provide a context for understanding the blackout, and (3) identified some of the potential options for resolving problems associated with these electricity and security matters."
Date: November 18, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grid-Connected Renewable-Electric Policies in the European Union

Description: Policy, and other, efforts by the European Union have resulted in a dramatic increase in non-hydro renewable generating capacity in the European Union countries since 1990. These policies are aimed at reducing the cost of renewable technologies and at reducing market risks by making investments in renewable technologies more favorable. These efforts have substantially reduced the existing gap between installed renewable capacity in the United States and the European Union. This brief examines the policies that were most effective to promote renewables as well as lessons learned.
Date: May 18, 1999
Creator: Goldstein, L.; Mortensen, J. & Trickett, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retail Choice Experiments: Comparing Early-AdopterExperience

Description: This paper reviews the experience with retail choice of non-residential electricity customers during the period from early 1998 through the first few months of 2000. Key findings include: (1) customers in California received a significantly smaller discount from utility tariffs than customers in other competitive markets; (2) this sample of large commercial/industrial customers believed they were benefiting significantly more from commodity savings from contracts with retail electricity service providers (RESP) than from value-added services; and,(3) market rules appear to be critical to customer experiences with retail competition, yet the relationship between market rules and market development is inadequately understood.
Date: March 1, 2003
Creator: Golove, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Who should administer energy efficiency programs?

Description: The restructuring of the U.S. electricity industry created a crisis for ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. This paper briefly describes the reasons for the crisis and some of its consequences. Then the paper focuses on issues related to program administration and discusses the relative merits of entities-utilities, state agencies, and non-profit corporations-that might be administrators. Four criteria are developed for choosing among program administration options: Compatibility with public policy goals, effectiveness of the incentive structure, ability to realize economies of scale and scope, and contribution to the development of an energy-efficiency infrastructure. We examine one region, the Pacific Northwest, and three states, New York, Vermont, and Connecticut, which have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved.We observe that no single administrative structure for energy-efficiency programs has yet emerged in the US that is clearly superior to all of the other alternatives. We conclude that this is not likely to happen soon for three reasons. First, policy environments differ significantly among the states. Second, the structure and regulation of the electric utility industry differs among the regions of the US. Third, market transformation and resource acquisition, two program strategies that were once seen as alternatives, are increasingly coming to be seen as complements. Energy-efficiency programs going forward are likely to include elements of both strategies. But, the administrative arrangements that are best suited to support market transformation may be different from the arrangements that are best for resource acquisition.
Date: August 1, 2003
Creator: Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles & Barbose, Galen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESTRUCTURING RELAP5-3D FOR NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT ANALYSIS

Description: RELAP5-3D is used worldwide for analyzing nuclear reactors under both operational transients and postulated accident conditions. Development of the RELAP code series began in 1975 and since that time the code has been continuously improved, enhanced, verified and validated [1]. Since RELAP5-3D will continue to be the premier thermal hydraulics tool well into the future, it is necessary to modernize the code to accommodate the incorporation of additional capabilities to support the development of the next generation of nuclear reactors [2]. This paper discusses the reengineering of RELAP5-3D into structured code.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Guillen, Donna Post; Mesina, George L. & Hykes, Joshua M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Patterns and Trends in Federal Coal Lease Ownership 1950-80

Description: A technical memorandum by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "identifies the participants in the Federal coal leasing program between 1950 and 1980, traces the ownership on a lease-by-lease basis, and discusses the business activities and organizational structures of the lessees [sic]" (p. iii).
Date: April 1981
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determinants of Principal Pay in the State of Texas

Description: The purpose of the study was to examine district, campus, and community determinants of principal’s salaries using a spatial econometric framework. Among the district variables business tax (p = 0.001), property tax (p < .01), and the Herfindahl Index (measure of competition) were statistically significant indicators of principal salaries. The results suggest that more affluent districts tend to pay principals higher salaries, which was expected. Regarding campus characteristics, the percent of economically disadvantaged was not a statistically sound indicator (p = 0.468), but campus enrollment was significant (p = <.01). Interestingly as the percentage of economically disadvantaged students increased, the principal salary decreased. In contrast, as student enrollment increases the salary of principals increases, suggesting that principals of larger campuses earn higher salaries. Interestingly, student achievement was not a statistically significant predictor of principals’ salary given that pay for performance in Texas is at the forefront of political debate. Among the variables examined at the community level, only the percentage of homes owner occupied (p = 0.002) was found to be a statistically significant indicator of principal salary (p = .002). The lack of evidence on reforms, such as determinants of principal salary, points to data and research deficiencies to be addressed in order to learn more about their effects and make sound public policies. The paper utilized a spatial regression approach to examine the determinants of principal salary using data from the local, state, and national data sources. Principal salaries are viewed from several lenses in this study by considering effective outcomes of pay defined by actual salaries and market considerations for pay as defined by community, organizational, and human capital variables. Literature from the private sector as well as from the public school setting was used as a theoretical underpinning for the hypotheses set forth in this study. ...
Date: May 2016
Creator: Asbury, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries

IRS Restructuring Act: Implementation Under Way but Agency Modernization Important to Success

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the Internal Revenue Service's (IRS) progress in implementing the taxpayer rights and protection mandates of the IRS Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998 and IRS' ongoing efforts to modernize its organizational structure, performance management system, and information systems."
Date: February 2, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lessons Learned From Electricity Restructuring: Transition to Competitive Markets Underway, but Full Benefits Will Take Time and Effort to Achieve

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The electricity industry in the United States is undergoing major change, the outcomes of which will affect every consumer. The industry is restructuring from one where electricity prices are set by regulation to one in which competitive markets set the price. GAO was asked to report on the extent to which federal and state actions, to date, have achieved the goal of restructuring. GAO discusses lessons learned from efforts to date."
Date: December 17, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electricity Restructuring: Action Needed to Address Emerging Gaps in Federal Information Collection

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The ongoing transition (or restructuring) of electricity markets from regulated monopolies to competitive markets is one of the largest single industrial reorganizations in the history of the world. While information is becoming more critical for understanding how well restructuring is working, there are troubling indications that some market participants deliberately misreported information to manipulate prices. GAO was asked to describe (1) the electricity information collected, used, and shared by key federal agencies in meeting their primary responsibilities and (2) the effect of restructuring on these federal agencies' collection, use, and sharing of this information."
Date: June 30, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A summary of the California Public Utilities Commission`s two competing electric utility restructuring proposals

Description: In May 1995, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) released two proposals for restructuring the state`s electric power industry. The two proposals follow more than a year of testimony and public comment after the CPUC issued the ``Blue Book`` (CPUC 1994a) on April 20, 1994, which called for retail wheeling to be phased in to all customers over 5 years. The majority proposal, supported by three of the four CPUC commissioners (one seat was vacant when the proposals were released), calls for creating a central pool, or ``poolco``; setting electric prices to reflect true costs of service, or ``real-time pricing``; and allowing parties to negotiate ``contracts for differences`` between the pool price and the contract price. The minority proposal, sponsored by Commissioner Jesse Knight, calls for retail wheeling, or ``direct access,`` and for utilities to divest or spin off their generating assets. This paper presents a summary of the major provisions of the two CPUC proposals and the possible implications and issues associated with each. It is aimed at researchers who may be aware that various efforts to restructure the electric power industry are under way and want to known more about California`s proposals, as well as those who want to known the implications of certain restructuring proposals for renewable energy technologies. Presented at the end of the paper is a summary of alternative proposals promoted by various stakeholder in response to the two CPUC proposals.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Porter, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric industry restructuring and environmental issues: A comparative analysis of the experience in California, New York, and Wisconsin

Description: Since the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) issued its April 20, 1994, Blue Book proposal to restructure the regulation of electric utilities in California to allow more competition, over 40 states have initiated similar activities. The question of how major public policy objectives such as environmental protection, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and assistance to low-income customers can be sustained in the new competitive environment is also an important element being considered. Because many other states will undergo restructuring in the future, the experience of the {open_quotes}early adopter{close_quotes} states in addressing public policy objectives in their electric service industry restructuring processes can provide useful information to other states. The Competitive Resource Strategies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Utility Technologies, is interested in documenting and disseminating the experience of the pioneering states. The Center for Energy Analysis and Applications of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory assisted the Office of Utility Technologies in this effort with a project on the treatment of environmental issues in electric industry restructuring.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Fang, J. M. & Galen, P. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Who Should Administer Energy-Efficiency Programs?

Description: The restructuring of the electric utility industry in the US created a crisis in the administration of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. Before restructuring, nearly all energy-efficiency programs in the US were administered by utilities and funded from utility rates. Restructuring called these arrangements into question in two ways. First, the separation of generation from transmission and distribution undermined a key rationale for utility administration. This was the Integrated Resource Planning approach in which the vertically integrated utility was given incentives to provide energy services at least cost. Second, questions were raised as to whether funding through utility rates could be sustained in a competitive environment and most states that restructured their electricity industry adopted a system benefits charge. The crisis in administration of energy-efficiency programs produced a variety of responses in the eight years since restructuring in the US began in earn est. These responses have included new rationales for energy-efficiency programs, new mechanisms for funding programs, and new mechanisms for program administration and governance. This paper focuses on issues related to program administration. It describes the administrative functions and some of the options for accomplishing them. Then it discusses criteria for choosing among the options. Examples are given that highlight some of the states that have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved. The conclusion attempts to summarize lessons learned.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles & Barbose, Galen L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State approaches to the system benefits charge

Description: This report documents the consideration and implementation of a non-bypassable system benefits charge (SBC) in six states through mid-May 1997. The SBC is being established to sustain important public-policy programs during the electric industry restructuring process. The states covered include Arizona, California, Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin. This report was prepared for the Office of Energy and Resource Planning, Utah Department of Natural Resources, under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Sustainable Technology Energy Partnerships Initiative, Second Round (STEP-2). The purpose of the report is to provide decision makers in Utah, including the Utah Public Service Commission and the state legislature, with relevant information on the SBC for use in their deliberation on the matter. The issues faced by the six states are the SBC in general; surcharge rate or funding levels; administrative structure and procedures; and actions, guidelines, and principles by program area.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Fang, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relative efficiency benefits of wholesale and retail competition in electricity: An analysis and a research agenda

Description: A central issue in the debate over restructuring the electric power industry is the extent to which the market should be open to competition. One aspect of this debate is whether competition ought to be restricted to the whole sale power market or be extended to final retail consumers. This report begins to explore the potential differences in economic efficiency between wholesale and retail competition in the electric power industry. The two market-structure scenarios are defined and the factors responsible for differences in efficiency are described. The report also contains an assessment of the relative importance of the factors and recommendations for pursuing further research.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Bohi, D.R. & Palmer, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Industry Restructuring in Five States: Final Report

Description: The electric industry in the United States is undergoing fundamental changes; it is transitioning from regulated monopolies to competitive markets offering customer choice. In this process, the states have been in the forefront of considering the changes in the industry structure and regulation. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) spearheaded a project on electric restructuring in the United States. This is the final report prepared under the project. The purpose of the report is to describe and compare the overall restructuring processes that took place in five states through June 30, 1996. The five states are California, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin. These are the first major states to consider restructuring or retail wheeling.
Date: October 31, 1996
Creator: Fang, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department