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Power Plant Operating and Maintenance Costs

Description: Report issued by the Brookhaven National Laboratory discussing costs of power plant operations. As stated in the objective, "the objective of this study was to determine and evaluate operating and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: April 1970
Creator: Susskind, H. & Raseman, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Role of design complexity in forecasting reliability and availability for electric-power-generating units. Final report

Description: This report examines the relationship between design complexity and reliability and availability performance for fossil-fueled electric-power-generating units. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to design complexity and reliability and availability performance data gathered from a representative sample of electric-power-generating units. Twelve predictive relationships or equations were developed as a result of employing this statistical procedure. Each equation was verified and assessed. Guidelines for applying the predictive relationships, including confidence limits, were also developed and are presented in this report. A major result of this examination is a quantitative predictive tool that should be useful to the electric-power industry.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Berkey, D.M. & Balaban, H.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ABWR: PL-2 Design Report

Description: From preface: This report satisfies the quarterly progress report requirements for PL-1 and PL-2 plant design work for the period ending September 30, 1960 At present time a SL-1 Core 2 is under construction. This is a replacement core for SL-1 (ALPR) and will be identical to a PL-2 core; a PL condenser is under test at the SL-1 facility; final construction plans for PL components and modules which are not site sensitive will be completed in March 1961.
Date: October 15, 1960
Creator: Combustion Engineering, inc. Nuclear Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 7. Power plant reliability-availability and state regulation

Description: Data from the Edison Electric Institute annual report on equipment availability are briefly examined with a view to determining the breadth of effort which would be required to reduce outage time caused by equipment difficulties. For nuclear units, for several size categories of fossil units, and for gas turbine units, the basic data are examined to establish the basic operating experience and related outage and availability rates, and to assign outages to major plant systems. Related data giving detailed outage causes are grouped to yield data on component failure versus outage time, information that is required to determine the possible impact of research and regulatory efforts on reliability and availability.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Nero, A. V. & Bouromand, I. N. M. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

Description: "The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed" (p. 1).
Date: June 1926
Creator: Wilson, E. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nature and utility of some unsteady characteristics of a fossil-fuel-fired boiler

Description: The dimensionless temperature rise rate of an initially cold fossil-fuel-fired boiler and the boiler's off-cycle cooling rate are examined analytically. If the thermal relaxation times for the non-water-containing boiler elements are to be relatively short, simplified expressions are found for the time variation of the dimensionless boiler temperature. The utility of these analytic results is examined in the light of experimental observations.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Berlad, A L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment

Description: An important effort in the Satellite Power System (SPS) Comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. This report summarizes the ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies. The final set of central-station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open-cycle gas turbine with integral low-Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic-confinement fusion.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Samsa, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solar power arrays for the concentration of energy technical report covering task 4b. Solar hybrid plants: power system interface analyses

Description: A model is developed which yields the solar flux density distribution on the surface of a vertical cylindrical receiver mounted on a tower centrally located in a horizontal circular ring-shaped mirror field. The flux density at a given location on the receiver surface is shown to be given by the numerical integration of a simple analytical expression. Strategies are examined for redistributing the solar flux input to obtain a desired distribution or maintain a specified distribution throughout the day. The solar flux density distribution is expressed as a dimensionless concentration ratio which can be derived from universal curves and then used in the design of receivers to meet specified flux levels. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1975
Creator: Albertson, V. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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User's guide for the BNW-III optimization code for modular dry/wet-cooled power plants

Description: This user's guide describes BNW-III, a computer code developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Dry Cooling Enhancement Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNW-III code models a modular dry/wet cooling system for a nuclear or fossil fuel power plant. The purpose of this guide is to give the code user a brief description of what the BNW-III code is and how to use it. It describes the cooling system being modeled and the various models used. A detailed description of code input and code output is also included. The BNW-III code was developed to analyze a specific cooling system layout. However, there is a large degree of freedom in the type of cooling modules that can be selected and in the performance of those modules. The costs of the modules are input to the code, giving the user a great deal of flexibility.
Date: September 1, 1984
Creator: Braun, D. J. & Faletti, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geologic and Seismic Investigations of Proposed Nuclear Power Plant Site on Bodega Head, Sonoma County, California

Description: The following report covers the study of the site adjacent to Campbell Cove on Bodega Head, Sonoma County, California, focusing on questions such as: 1) its position relative to the San Andreas fault zone; 2) the possibility that minor faults, related to the San Andreas fault, might actually pass through the site; and 3) the seismic hazards posed by the nearby San Andreas fault zone.
Date: September 1963
Creator: Eaton, Jerry P.; Schlocker, Julius; Bonilla, Manuel G. & Clebsch, Alfred, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Cooling Water Intake Structures: Summary of EPA's Proposed Rule

Description: This report looks at the environmental impact of using water to absorb the heat from thermoelectric generating plants and manufacturing facilities during their industrial processes. The issue for Congress has been whether a stringent and costly environmental mandate could jeopardize reliability of electricity supply in the United States.
Date: June 12, 2012
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000

Description: The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive.
Date: June 1, 1987
Creator: Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C. & Bowers, H.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy Economic Data Base Program (EEDB-VIII): Phase VIII update (1986) report

Description: The objective of the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) Program is to provide current, representative and consistent power plant technical and cost information to the US Department of Energy (DOE). These data are useful for program planning by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, because they are representative of current US power plant construction cost experience and are developed on a consistent, organized basis.
Date: December 1, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Level-one modules library for DSNP: Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-plants

Description: The Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-plants (DSNP) is a system of programs and data sets by which a nuclear power plant or part thereof can be simulated at different levels of sophistication. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, for the DSNP precompiler, for the DSNP libraries, and for the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a set of simple block oriented statements, which together with the appropriate data, comprise a simulation of a nuclear power plant. The majority of the DSNP statements will result in the inclusion of a simulated physical module into the program. FORTRAN statements can be inserted with no restrictions among DSNP statements.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Saphier, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Generating technology assessment. Phase I work plan, Task 1 report

Description: A plan of work outlining information to assess electric generating technologies is presented. Projections are made of realistic and understandable engineering and cost assessments of nonnuclear electrical generating technologies. A computer-based method of producing such engineering and cost estimates for use by EIA's Coal and Electric Power Analysis Division is to be developed and implemented. Technologies and processes to be assessed are: all nonnuclear conventional and nonconventional (coal gasification, advanced combustion turbines, atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, fuel cells, geothermal, solar thermal and photovoltaics, biomass conversion to electricity, ocean thermal, wind, and MHD). Engineering specifications recommended for determination are listed. Compatibility of the technologies are to be assessed with EIA models: MEFS, LEAP, and NCM.
Date: October 15, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Desalting sea water and brackish waters: a cost update

Description: This report, based on first-quarter 1977 dollars, is an update of costs presented in ORNL/TM-5070 (Rev.), which gave cost estimates for desalting seawater and brackish waters based on first-quarter 1975 financial parameters. Cost estimates are given for desalting seawater by distillation and reverse osmosis and for brackish waters using reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. Cost data were computed as a function of plant size and energy cost. The cost of generating steam and electrical energy on-site using coal-fired boilers as well as oil-fired boilers and dual-purpose electric/seawater distillation plants is included. While the costs of energy, equipment and labor have continued to rise, they have increased at a relatively modest rate compared with the two years prior to 1975. On an average, the cost of desalting seawater by distillation has increased approximately 15%. Costs for desalting brackish waters by the membrance processes have increased about 7%.
Date: October 20, 1977
Creator: Reed, S. A. & Wilson, J. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: modification and simplification of the DOE/MRI methodology

Description: In recent years, the subject of public utility power plant productivity and reliability has received significant attention from both federal and state agencies and from within the utilities. One study was a FEA-sponsored program that had as its purpose the development of improved techniques for assessing cause of power plant unavailability. The results of this study have become widely known as the DOE/MRI methodology for calculating increased power plant equivalent availability resulting from instituting improvement projects. To further the development of the DOE/MRI methodology for assessing and quantifying the effect of improvement projects, the DOE initiated studies with two states to demonstrate the methodology in operating plants. These studies were focused on applying the methodology to specific power plants (fossil-fueled and nuclear) and on identifying any difficulties in using the method. In the course of these investigations, several problems were uncovered. Various recommendations were made for both eliminating the identified deficiencies in the methodology and for simplifying several of the calculations needed to evaluate proposed plant improvements. The information provided here describes four major modifications to the DOE/MRI methodology which eliminate previously uncovered deficiencies and simplify calculational methods.
Date: March 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Monthly technical progress report for the month of December 1978

Description: Levelized busbar energy costs for the sodium-cooled hybrid central receiver concept using both oil and coal as a fuel were developed as a function of the plant capacity factor and as a function of the solar multiple. The fuel escalation question was reviewed in detail on the basis of past historical data, and it was concluded that the lower escalation numbers that are provided in the requirements definition document appear to be more likely to represent the real situation. Subsystem-level trade studies were continued during this reporting period. A detailed investigation of the series/parallel arrangement of the sodium heater and solar receiver was conducted. The various performance, lifetime, and cost factors were determined for each arrangement for the receiver and nonsolar subsystems, respectively. Collector subsystem studies were continued. Revised cost algorithms that include levelized O and M costs for the heliostats were generated in order that they can be used in the field optimization. On the basis of the subsystem studies and the economic assessment work, a reference configuration was tentatively derived. This configuration does not require storage and uses a parallel arrangement of the receiver and the heater. At this time, a coal-fired heater seems to have a potential economic advantage under realistic assumptions for the escalation of coal relative to oil over the next decade or so.
Date: January 17, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

Description: A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Kisner, R. A.; Fullerton, A. M.; Frey, P. R. & Dougherty, E. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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