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The Characteristics of Play Therapy Sessions with Children: A Preliminary Investigation

Description: This research study investigated various characteristics of children in play therapy and their play behaviors during sessions. Specifically, this research investigated how gender, age, ethnicity, household and presenting problem of children impacted the play therapy process. Thirty-two cases of children who received ten or more sessions of play therapy at the Child and Family Resource Clinic, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas between the years of 1998-2002 and met specified criteria were coded and entered into a computer spreadsheet for analysis. The background information provided by the parent/guardian of each child was analyzed using various measures of central tendency to summarize and describe the data sets. The session summary data completed by play therapists at the CFRC was examined using analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance revealed statistical significance between the following variables: a) males and use of dolls (.01), animals (.007) and weapons (.014), and males and expression of happy (.048), confident (.042) curious (.007) and flat (.029) during play therapy sessions; b) young children and use of vehicles (.050) during play therapy sessions; c) Caucasian children and expression of happy (.011), and confident (.008) during play therapy sessions; d) children residing in single parent households and use of hammer (.049) and puppets (.048) during play therapy sessions; and e) a variety of presenting problems and toy use/play behavior, feelings expressed and themes played out during play therapy sessions. Frequency of toy use and emotional expression were also investigated as well as session peaks of toy use, emotions expressed and themes. Analysis revealed that the toys used most often during play therapy sessions included the following categories: sandbox, easel/paints, dolls, weapons, crafts and money. Feelings expressed most often in play therapy sessions included excited, pleased, focused, interested, proud, curious, ...
Date: August 2003
Creator: Frye, Kristi Dean
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of the Significance of Client-Centered Play Therapy as a Counseling Technique

Description: The problem of this study was an attempt to appraise critically the effectiveness of client-centered play therapy as a counseling technique. In order to ascertain the effects of client-centered play therapy with children who have emotional problems, learning difficulties, and behavior problems, this study was conducted.
Date: May 1969
Creator: West, William Beryl
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impact of Child-Centered Play Therapy on Children of Different Developmental Stages

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of child-centered play therapy on children of Piaget's preoperational and concrete operations developmental stages. Piaget's assertions about the contributions of play to cognitive, affective, and social development have provided a basis for the theoretical rationale for the use of play as a therapeutic intervention. The impact of child-centered play therapy was measured by a decrease in parent-child relationship stress as measured by scores on the Child Domain, Parent Domain, and Total Stress Score of the Parenting Stress Index. This study utilized a three wave repeated measures ANOVA design to analyze the impact of child-centered play therapy on children between the ages of 3-8 who received 19-23 individual child-centered play therapy sessions. A pretest, approximate midpoint, and posttest administration was collected for use in the analysis. The population study comprised 24 children referred to the Child and Family Resource Clinic on the University of North Texas campus. Participating children were divided into two treatment groups based on their age at the time of treatment. The preoperational development treatment group consisted of 12 children aged of 3-6 years and the concrete operations development treatment group consisted of children aged 7-8 years. Nine hypotheses were tested using three wave repeated measures ANOVA and eta squared. The results of this study tentatively support the impact of child-centered play therapy with children of both the preoperational and concrete operations developmental stages. The data indicates a statistically significant difference in the impact of child-centered play therapy for children of different developmental stages.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Dougherty, Jennifer L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effectiveness Of Group Activity Play Therapy On Internalizing And Externalizing Behavior Problems Of Preadolescent Orphans In Uganda

Description: This pilot study investigated the impact of group activity play therapy (GAPT) on displaced orphans aged 10 to 12 years living in a large children.s village in Uganda. Teachers and housemothers identified 60 preadolescents exhibiting clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The participants ethnicity was African and included an equal number of females and males. Participants were randomly assigned to GAPT (n = 30) or reading mentoring (RM; n = 30), which served as an active control. Preadolescents in both treatment groups participated in an average of 16 sessions, twice weekly with each session lasting 50 minutes. Sessions were held in the school located within the village complex. A two (group) by two (repeated measures) split plot ANOVA was used to analyze the data. According to teacher reports using the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and housemother reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), children receiving the GAPT intervention demonstrated statistically significant decreases (p < .025) in internalizing behaviors (TRF: p < .001; CBCL: p < .001 ) and externalizing behaviors (TRF: p = .006; CBCL: p < .001) from pretest to posttest compared to children who received RM. The GAPT intervention demonstrated a large treatment effect on reducing orphaned childrenÆs internalizing problems (TRF: ?p2= .213; CBCL: ?p2 = . 244) and a moderate to large treatment effect on reducing externalizing problems (TRF: ?p2= .121; CBCL: ?p2 = .217). The statistical, practical, and clinical significance of the findings provided strong, preliminary support for using GAPT as a developmentally and culturally responsive school-based intervention for troubled Ugandan orphans.
Date: December 2011
Creator: Ojiambo, Deborah
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of a Structured and Nonpermissive Play Therapy Program on a Group of Profoundly and Severly Retarded Children

Description: The primary problem of this thesis is to determine the effect of a modified, structured, and basically non-permissive play therapy program upon the intellectual, social, and behavioral level of a group of profoundly and severely retarded children.
Date: June 1967
Creator: Pullock, Barry Douglas
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Adlerian Play Therapy on Maladaptive Perfectionism and Anxiety and in Children

Description: I used singlecase A-B-A experimental design to examine the effectiveness of Adlerian play therapy (AdPT) for children identified with clinical levels of perfectionism on the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised. Participants were 2 children, a 10 year-old Hispanic male and a 7 year-old Caucasian female. To examine the effect of AdPT on maladaptive perfectionism and anxiety, the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale and the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale were administered to the children twice weekly over 3 phases of the study: baseline (6 administrations), intervention (12-16 administrations), and maintenance (6 administrations) for a total of 24 to 29 data points. Additionally, parents and teachers completed the Conners Rating Scales-Revised5 times: (1) prior to study, (2) following baseline/prior to treatment, (3) midpoint of treatment, (4) following treatment, and (5) following maintenance phase.During the intervention phase, the male and female participants attended 21 and 16 play therapy sessions, their mothers attended 6 and 5 parent consultations, and their teachers attended 6 and 3 teacher consultations, respectively. Analysis of the child self-report assessments indicated mixed and inconclusive results regarding the effects of AdPT on target behaviors. However, results of the parent and teacher reports indicated clinically significant reductionsin maladaptive perfectionism and anxiety over the five points of measurement for both participants. The participants’ maladaptive perfectionism moved from the clinical to the normal range. Implications for practice and future research are indicated.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Akay, Sinem
Partner: UNT Libraries

Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with Children Experiencing Adjustment Difficulties

Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of child-centered group play therapy with children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Specifically, this study determined the effectiveness of child-centered group play therapy in: (a) improving self-concept, (b) reducing externalizing, internalizing, and overall behavior problems, (c) enhancing emotional and behavioral adjustment to the school environment, and (d) increasing self-control of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Also investigated were child-centered group play therapy effects on reducing parenting stress of the parents of kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. The experimental group consisted of 15 kindergarten children who received one 40-minute child-centered group play therapy session per week, for twelve weeks. Group facilitators were play therapists who were doctoral students at the University of North Texas. The control group consisted of the 14 kindergarten students that had been assigned to the control group in Baggerly's (1999) study. Before the group play therapy sessions began and after termination of the sessions: the researchers administered the Joseph Pre-School and Primary Self-Concept Screening Test; parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Report, Self-Control Rating Scale, Filial Problem Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index; and teachers completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher Report, Early Childhood Behavior Scale, and Self-Control Rating Scale. Although the general results of this study did not show statistically significant change due to child-centered group play therapy sessions, positive trends in the children's behavior, self-control, and self-concept were observed by the researcher, play therapists, and teachers. These trends and observations support the continued application of child-centered group play therapy with children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Several factors may have contributed to the lack of statistical significance demonstrated within this study. These factors include a) a small sample size; b) the sample was drawn from only one school; c) a minimum of interactions between therapists and teachers, and therapists and parents; d) two unforeseen and ...
Date: August 2000
Creator: McGuire, Donald E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of the Efficacy of Play Therapy with Young Children

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of play therapy as a method of intervention for children with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems. Specifically, the study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of play therapy in: (a) improving self-concepts of children with adjustment difficulties; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression; (c) reducing externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression and delinquent behaviors; (d) reducing overall behavior problems, social problems, thought problems, and attention problems of children with adjustment difficulties; and (e) reducing parenting stress of parents of children who were experiencing adjustment difficulties.The experimental group consisted of 15 children who were experiencing a variety of adjustment difficulties and received play therapy once per week for 7 to 10 weeks. The control group consisted of 14 children who were experiencing a variety of adjustment difficulties and who were on a waiting list to receive intervention, and therefore, did not receive any treatment during the time of data collection. Experimental and control group children were administered the Joseph Pre-School and Primary Self-Concept Screening Test and parents of all participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist and the Parenting Stress Index at pretest and posttest data collection times. A gain scores analysis revealed that children in the experimental group demonstrated a significant improvement on internalizing behavior problems. Also, a reduction in externalizing behavior problems and parenting stress was observed. No improvement in self-concept was demonstrated. This study provides evidence that play therapy is a viable intervention for treating a variety of emotional and behavioral difficulties in young children, particularly children who are experiencing internalizing behavior problems.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Brandt, Marielle Aloyse
Partner: UNT Libraries

Behavioral Outcomes of Client-Centered Play Therapy

Description: This study was concerned with determining the effectiveness of play therapy as measured by behavioral changes in interpersonal relationships, mature behavior patterns, and more adequate use of intellectual capacities. Client-centered play therapy appears to have grown out of the concept that it is the relationship between the therapist and the child that brings about change and growth. Rather than diagnostic or as preliminary to therapy, the relationship itself is seen as therapy. Problems are seen not in terms of their historical past, but rather as they exist in the immediate present and in terms of the child's own means of expression. The relationship offers to the child the opportunity to experience growth under the most favorable conditions. Like its adult counterpart, client-centered counseling, client-centered play therapy is based upon the hypotheses that the individual has within himself the capacity for growth and self-direction, and that these growth impulses are released within the therapeutic relationship established between the therapist and the child. This study was conducted to investigate changes in behavior which occur as a result of play therapy and to determine that such changes do not occur in the absence of play therapy. It was a direct outgrowth of an ongoing program developed at the Pupil Appraisal Center of North Texas.
Date: May 1969
Creator: Herd, Ruby H. (Ruby Helm)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Contemporary Research on Child-Centered Play Therapy (CCPT) Modalities: A Meta-Analytic Review of Controlled Outcome Studies

Description: The present meta-analytic study estimated the overall effectiveness of child therapy interventions using CCPT methodology and explored the relationships between study characteristics and treatment effects. Fifty-two studies between 1995 and the present were included based on the following criteria: (a) the use of CCPT methodology, (b) the use of control or comparison repeated measure design, (c) the use of standardized psychometric assessment, and (d) clear reports of effect sizes or sufficient information for effect size calculation. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) techniques were utilized to estimate the overall effect size for the collected studies and explore relationships between effect sizes and study characteristics. Dependent variable included 239 effect sizes, and independent variables included 22 study characteristics. The mean age of all child participants in the collected studies was 6.7. In 15 studies, the majority of participants were Caucasian. An equal number of studies were made up of non-Caucasian participants, including 3 with majority African American, 4 with majority Hispanic/Latino participants, 5 with majority Asian/Asian American participants, and 3 with other ethnic populations. Study collection included 33 studies with majority of boys and 11 studies with majority of girls. HLM analysis estimated a statistically significant overall effect size of 0.47 for the collected studies (p < 0.001). This result indicated that the overall improvement from pre to post treatment demonstrated by children in experimental groups was approximately 1/2 standard deviation better than by children in control groups. A statistically significant amount (49.2%) of between-study variance was found (p < 0.001), indicating the heterogeneity among the 52 studies Statistically significant relationships were found between effect sizes and study characteristics including child age, child ethnicity, clinical level of referral, treatment integrity, presenting issue, source of data, population, and caregiver involvement. Effect size findings for CCPT and its moderators should be interpreted in light of ...
Date: May 2011
Creator: Lin, Yung-Wei (Dennis)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Intensive Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of intensive play therapy as a method of intervention for child witnesses of domestic violence. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intensive play therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (d) reducing overall behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and social problems, thought problems, and attention problems, of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (e) improving play behaviors in the areas of affection, contact, physical proximity, self-direction, aggression, mood, play themes, and food nurturing themes.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Kot, Sarina (Sarina Ying-Lai)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Play Therapy Instruction: A Model Based On Objectives Developed by the Delphi Technique

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the core skills/methods and practicum experiences play therapy experts and professors believe to be essential in the education of the beginning play therapist in the specific areas of theory and history, terms, organizations, authors who have contributed to the field, methods, skills, training in special populations, practicum experience, and advanced skills. Two questionnaires were used to obtain opinions from play therapy experts and play therapy instructors. The first questionnaire was sent to twelve play therapy experts to obtain their opinions on the core curriculum and experiences necessary for training a play therapist in an introductory play therapy class, practicum experience, and advanced play therapy training. Frequencies and means were obtained and used to delete and add items for Questionnaire II. Questionnaire II was sent to 180 play therapy professors. Fifty play therapy professors returned the instrument. The ratings on Questionnaire II given by the professors were used to provide curriculum guidelines for developing a play therapy program. This program includes an introduction to play therapy course, play therapy practicum experiences, and advanced skills and advanced practicum experiences.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Joiner, Kimberly D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of Video Self-Confrontation Therapy Involving Children Engaged in Individual Play Therapy

Description: The problem of study concerns whether the video self-confrontation technique would have a beneficial behavioral effect on children engaged in play therapy, as had previously been demonstrated on adults receiving psychotherapy. Using this technique, videotape equipment records a patient during a therapy session after which the patient is confronted with the reality of his own image and behavior. The objectives of the video technique are to accelerate insight and positive behavior change.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Persful, Pamela Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effectiveness of microcounseling procedures in the training of play therapists

Description: The thrust of this study was to adapt the microcounseling paradigm to the skills utilized in play therapy. The basic problem was to teach prepracticum master's level counseling students three skills necessary to successful play therapy: limit setting, reflection of behavior statements, and reflection of feeling statements.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Arnold, J. Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Analysis of Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of intensive sibling group play therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (d) reducing overall behavior problems of child witnesses of domestic violence. A second objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intensive sibling group play therapy and intensive individual play therapy on the above identified dimensions.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Tyndall-Lind, Ashley
Partner: UNT Libraries

Adult Client Outcomes: Differences Between Counselors with Education in Child Centered Play Therapy Versus Counselors Without Education in Child-Centered Play Therapy

Description: Child-centered play therapists are taught unique relationship building approaches and therapeutic methods to utilize when working with children. The purpose of this study was to determine if adult clients counseled by child-centered play therapists would demonstrate greater positive therapeutic outcomes than adult clients who were counseled by non-educated child-centered play therapists. This study also attempted to determine if the play therapists' clients would show greater, significant improvement in any particular areas of client distress (i.e., depression/anxiety, relationship issues), more so than the clients of the non-play therapists. Archival data from an assessment, The Adult Self-Report Inventory (ASR), was gathered to measure reported pre and post-test client symptomology. This study utilized a 2X2 repeated measure ANOVA design to analyze the impact of counselors who were educated in child-centered play therapy who saw adult clients, versus their non-play therapy counterparts who saw adult clients. Before treatment pre-test and after treatment post-test administration was collected for use in the analysis. The population consisted of 60 adult clients seeking counseling services at a major university in the southwest. All clients were seen by Master's practicum students for ten sessions. The clients were divided into two groups - 30 were seen by play therapists, 30 were seen by non-play therapists. Five scales on the ASR were measured using a 2x2 split-plot design and Eta squared. There were three independent variables: group, measurement occasion, and the interaction between group and measurement. The results of this study did not reveal any statistical significance. However, clinical significance was demonstrated as the play therapists' clients did report greater reductions in symptomology on all five scales, some more than others.
Date: August 2007
Creator: Rees, Brian Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries

Play Therapy Behavior of Maladjusted and Adjusted Children

Description: The diagnostic value of children's play was investigated. The question explored was "Can maladjusted children be discriminated from adjusted children through observation of their play therapy behavior?" The play of 15 maladjusted and 15 adjusted children 5 to 10 years of age was compared during an initial 36-minute play therapy session. Three scales of the Play Therapy Observational Instrument (PTOI)—emotional discomfort, social inadequacy, and use of fantasy-- were used to rate the children's play. The children in the maladjusted group were referred by their parents for counseling and their teachers reported the children had exhibited one or more problem behaviors indicative of emotional disturbance. The children in the adjusted group were recommended by their teachers as exhibiting none of the problem behaviors and their parents did not believe their children needed counseling. Discriminant function equations predicted correct group membership for 23 of the 30 children during the second 12-minute time segment and for the entire play session. The analysis showed the play behaviors on the emotional discomfort scale of the PTOI items discriminated maladjusted and adjusted children. During the second and third 12-minute time segments and when all three time segments were combined, maladjusted children's play expressed significantly more dysphoric feelings, conflictual themes, play disruptions, and negative self-disclosing statements than were expressed by the adjusted children (p < .01, .03, .01, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups on play behaviors measured by the social inadequacy play and use of fantasy play scales of the PTOI. Positive correlations were found between the children's age and social inadequacy play behaviors and between the social status of the parents' occupations and social inadequacy play behaviors. The results also suggested a negative correlation between the social status of parents' occupations and the use of fantasy play scores. A negative correlation ...
Date: August 1988
Creator: Perry, Lessie Harnisch
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Ethnographic Study of an Adlerian Play Therapy Training Program

Description: This study utilized ethnomethodology to provide a description of the process and the effect of training counselors to incorporate the concepts and techniques of Individual Psychology into play therapy. Transcripts of the training program and of three individual interviews with the nine counselors who participated in the training were made. These transcripts and the journals in which the subjects were asked to chronicle their personal experiences and reactions to the training were qualitatively analyzed. This analysis indicated that most of the subjects reported that their attitudes toward play therapy, toward themselves as play therapists, and toward their play therapy clients had changed after their participation in the Adlerian play therapy training. The majority of subjects also reported that they perceived that their behavior in their play therapy sessions had changed, frequently in the direction of including more creative and active techniques. Qualitative analysis of the transcripts made from videotaped play therapy sessions by the researcher and an outside evaluator indicated that, while some of the counselors' behaviors seemed to have changed after the training, many of the counselors' behaviors did not appear to have been affected by their participation in the training. Possible explanations of the discrepancy between the counselors' perceptions of their behavior and the researcher's and outside evaluator's perceptions of the counselors' behaviors were discussed. Other areas considered as worthy of in-depth examination were: (a) possible influences on the changes in the counselors' attitudes toward play therapy, toward themselves as play therapists, and toward their play therapy clients; (b) several factors involved in training counselor education students; (c) elements which may have affected the counselors' receptivity to learning a new method of conducting play therapy; (d) implications for the future adaptation of the Adlerian play therapy training program; and (f) potential avenues for future research.
Date: December 1987
Creator: Kottman, Terry
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characteristics of Play Therapy Students in Training.

Description: This study examined if there were characteristic differences between play therapy students and non-play therapy students in training. Specifically, this study was designed to explore what, if any, characteristic differences between play therapy students and non-play therapy students in training exist in the following two areas: (a) personality variables, as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) and (b) attitude toward children, and measured by the Barnett's Liking of Children Scale (BLOCS). Additionally, this study examined whether certain personality traits and the general attitude toward children for the play therapy student group correlated with the play therapy students' effectiveness ratings assigned to them by their play therapy supervisors. This study found statistically significant differences at the .05 alpha level between the play therapy (N=105) and non-play therapy students (N=79) in training in both the Extraversion personality trait on the NEO PI-R assessment and attitude toward children on the BLOCS. Non-play therapy students were in the High range for Extraversion, whereas play therapy students in training were in the Average range. According to this finding, play therapy students are less extraverted than non-play therapy students. Specifically, a statistically significant difference occurred on the Gregariousness scale of the Extraversion domain between the play therapy and non-play therapy group. Additionally, the play therapy student group scored a statistically significant higher mean total score on the BLOCS, indicating that play therapy students have a more favorable attitude toward children as compared to non-play therapy students in training. No other statistically significant results were indicated on the other personality scales of the NEO PI-R between the play therapy and non-play therapy students in training group. Statistical significance was found on the BLOCS total mean scores between play therapy students rated as "Highly Effective" and play therapy students rated as "Effective" by their play therapy ...
Date: August 2003
Creator: Solt, Misty D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Behavioral outcomes of short-term nondirective play therapy with preschool deaf children

Description: This study was conducted to investigate change (as measured by positive growth changes in total personality adjustment, social maturity, and behavior patterns) in pre-school deaf children with behavioral problems who experienced short-term, nondirective play therapy. Change in behavior of these children was also investigated ten weeks after therapy.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Oualline, Viola Jackson
Partner: UNT Libraries