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Notes on Eastern Oil Shale Drilling

Description: Purpose: The primary objective of the eastern oil shale drilling was to obtain cores of the Chattanooga shale, from considerable depths and at long distances from its outcrops. Correlation of the cores with outcrop samples showed the effect of weathering on the shale, as well as changes in the stratigraphy. Of secondary interest was acquisition of information on the stratigraphy of the overlying rocks.
Date: January 1952
Creator: Brown, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Mobile Compressor and Utility Station

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the development of a mobile compressor and utility station in the oil-shale mine near Rifle, Colorado during 1949. The report includes photographs and illustrations of the mobile station.
Date: July 1950
Creator: Wright, Fred D. & Ballinger, Homer J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic-Information Needs for Oil-Shale Development, Northwestern Colorado

Description: From purpose: The purpose of this report is to summarize existing hydrologic information in the Piceance basin, to describe types of needed information, to suggest methods of obtaining needed information, and to outline standards for collection. The report also will provide guidance for comprehensive integrated hydrologic studies that will be necessary for water-resource planning in oil-shale development. These studies should provide hydrologic understanding that will benefit all aspects of water-resource and oil-shale development in the region.
Date: 1982
Creator: Taylor, O. James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the Bureau of Mines Gas-Combustion Oil-Shale Retorting Process

Description: From Abstract: "This bulletin presents results from research and development carried out by the Bureau of Mines on the gas-combustion oil-shale retorting process. Effects of the process variables, results of gas and shale distribution studies, tests on shale particle size, and other details of experimental programs are discussed. Various auxiliary information and problems associated with the retorting process also are included."
Date: unknown
Creator: Matzick, Arthur; Dannenberg, R. O.; Ruark, J. R.; Phillips, J. E.; Lankford, J. D. & Guthrie, Boyd
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Index of Oil-Shale and Shale-Oil Patents, 1946-56: A Supplement to Bulletins 467 and 468: (In Three Parts) [Part 2]. United Kingdom Patents

Description: From Introduction: "This part of Bulletin 574 contains 180 United Kingdom patents that relate to retorting (and distilling underground), refining, and utilization of oil shale and its products. The largest single group, of which the majority was assigned to a single company, relates to fluidized handling of shale."
Date: 1958
Creator: United States. Bureau of Mines.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil-Shale Mining, Rifle, Colorado, 1944-56

Description: From Introduction: "Detailed reports on various phases of the oil-shale mining research program have been published by the Bureau of Mines as Reports of Investigations, and numerous articles prepared by the mine staff have been published in the technical press. Summarizes of some of these publications are included in this report with other information not previously published."
Date: unknown
Creator: East, J. H., Jr. & Gardner, E. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of Certain Properties of Oil Shale and Shale Oil

Description: From Scope of Report: "In connection with the study of the oil-shale resources of the United States, the Bureau of Mines has carried on not only extensive laboratory and field investigations but has constructed and operated an experimental shale-oil plant in Colorado. This report is based entirely upon subject matter that appeared in published and unpublished manuscripts of the Bureau of Mines."
Date: 1938
Creator: Guthrie, Boyd
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Solution and Hydrogenation of Green River Oil Shale: Experimental Investigations and Bibliography

Description: From Introduction: "This so-called thermal-solution process and a modification of it, wherein the conversion is carried out under a high partial pressure of hydrogen, have been studied at the Petroleum and Oil-Shale Experiment Station, Laramie, Wyo., to determine their applicability to Green River oil shale. The results of this work are presented in this report."
Date: 1953
Creator: Jensen, H. B.; Barnet, W. I. & Murphy, W. I. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composition of Shale-Oil Naphtha

Description: From Summary: "This report describes the analysis if shale-oil naphthas and discusses their composition, based on investigation by the Federal Bureau of Mines. Individual compounds identified in this investigation. are listed, together with those reported previously in the literature. Also, quantitative data are given on the occurrence of individual compounds and groups of related compounds."
Date: 1961
Creator: Dinneen, G. U.; Van Meter, R. A.; Smith, J. R.; Bailey, C. W.; Cook, G. L.; Allbright, C. S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Index of Shale-Oil Patents

Description: From Introduction: "Work on this project was begun early in 1944; and the results with respect to shale oil are reported in this Bulletin. Since this bulletin is only an index to this large repository of ideas relating to the the treatment of shale oil, the material is presented in the form of short notices describing the subject material of each patent, which consist of an abridgment of the patent (if British or Australian) or a typical claim in the case of the United States or foreign patents."
Date: 1948
Creator: Klosky, Simon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manual of Testing Methods for Oil Shale and Shale Oil

Description: From Introduction: "This paper is presented, therefore, as a manual of apparatus and methods that the bureau has developed for work on oil shale and found satisfactory for routine tests and for research. Explanation and discussion of the principles underlying the methods of testing are included wherever necessary for a clearer understanding."
Date: 1926
Creator: Karrick, Lewis C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Bowie-Gavin Process: Its Application to the Cracking of Tars and Heavy Oils, Also to the Recovery of Oil from Oil-Soaked Sands or Shales, or from Oil Shales

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over the Bowie-Gavin process. As stated in the introduction, "this paper describes a process and an apparatus designed to recover oil from such deposits" (p. 1). The results of experiments conducted using this process are discussed. This paper includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1926
Creator: Bowie, C. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E. & Jewett, Kenneth L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P. & Fox, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The potential for contamination of groundwater by organic pollutants leached from in-situ spent shale was studied in a series of laboratory leaching experiments. Both batch-mode and continuous-flow column experiments were conducted to study the leaching phenomenon. Experimental variables included retorting characteristics of spent shale, leaching time, initial quality of leach water, temperature of leach water, and particle size of spent shale. Several unique samples of spent shale were examined during the eaching experiments, including spent shale samples produced during combustion retorting, inert gas retorting, and combustion retorting employing recycle gas. The solid-phase organic carbon content of spent shale samples ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 percent by weight. Leachate derived from the batch-mode experiments was analyzed for organic carbon, organic nitrogen, phenols, and acid/base/netral fractions. The highest levels of organic carbon were detected in leachate derived from spent shale produced during either inert gas retorting or combstion retorting using recycle gas. The highest levels of phenols were observed in leachate obtained from spent shale produced during inert gas retorting; significant levels of organic nitrogen were also detected in various leachate samples. The most predominant organic fraction measured in leachate samples was the neutral fraction associated with spent shale produced during inert gas retorting. Batch-mode experimental results describing equilibrium conditions were analyzed according to the Freundlich and langmuir isotherm models. Those models were found to be appropriate for describing equilibrium relationships between leachate and spent shale produced during inert gas retorting. To a somewhat lesser extent, these same models were found to be appropriate for modeling equilibrium relationships involving combustion-retorted spent shale. A kinetic analysis of results derived from the continuous-flow column experiments was conducted in an attempt to identify a rate-controlling mass transfer mechanism. Internal diffusion appeared to be the most likely rate-limiting mechanism for leaching from combustion-retorted spent shale. In ...
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Amy, Gary L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integration of Water Resource Models with Fayetteville Shale Decision Support and Information System

Description: Significant issues can arise with the timing, location, and volume of surface water withdrawals associated with hydraulic fracturing of gas shale reservoirs as impacted watersheds may be sensitive, especially in drought years, during low flow periods, or during periods of the year when activities such as irrigation place additional demands on the surface supply of water. Significant energy production and associated water withdrawals may have a cumulative impact to watersheds over the short-term. Hence, hydraulic fracturing based on water withdrawal could potentially create shifts in the timing and magnitude of low or high flow events or change the magnitude of river flow at daily, monthly, seasonal, or yearly time scales. These changes in flow regimes can result in dramatically altered river systems. Currently little is known about the impact of fracturing on stream flow behavior. Within this context the objective of this study is to assess the impact of the hydraulic fracturing on the water balance of the Fayetteville Shale play area and examine the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on river flow regime at subbasin scale. This project addressed that need with four unique but integrated research and development efforts: 1) Evaluate the predictive reliability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model based at a variety of scales (Task/Section 3.5). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate the across-scale water balance and the respective impact of hydraulic fracturing. A second hypothetical scenario was designed to assess the current and future impacts of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing on the flow regime and on the environmental flow components (EFCs) of the river. The shifting of these components, which present critical elements to water supply and water quality, could influence the ecological dynamics of river systems. For this purpose, we combined the use of ...
Date: June 30, 2013
Creator: Cothren, Jackson; Thoma, Greg; DiLuzio, Mauro & Limp, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

Description: For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.
Date: September 1, 2013
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

Description: Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.
Date: December 31, 2010
Creator: Ruple, John & Keiter, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

Description: There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (❍m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Lin, Chen-Luh & Miller, Jan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomistic Modeling of Oil Shale Kerogens and Asphaltenes Along With Their Interactions With the Inorganic Mineral Matrix

Description: The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.
Date: March 31, 2011
Creator: Facelli, Julio; Pugmire, Ronald & Pimienta, Ian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of CFD-Based Simulation Tools for In-Situ Thermal Processing of Oil Shale/Sands

Description: In our research, we are taking the novel approach of developing and applying high performance computing, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulation tools to a modified in-situ process for production of oil from oil shale. The simulation tools being developed capture the relevant physical processes and data from a large-scale system. The modified in-situ application is a pilot-scale heat transfer process inside Red Leaf Resources’ EcoShale capsule. We demonstrate the need to understand fluid flow behavior in the convective channels of the rubblized shale bed as convective heating greatly decreases the time required to heat the oil shale to the production temperature when compared with conductive heating alone. We have developed and implemented a geometry creation strategy for a representative section of the EcoShale capsule, developed a meshing approach to deal with the complicated geometry and produce a well-behaved mesh, analyzed the effects of boundary conditions on the simulation results, and devised a new operator splitting solution algorithm that reduces computational costs by taking advantage of the differing convective and conductive time scales occurring in the simulation. These simulation tools can be applied to a wide range of processes involving convective fluid flow heating in rubblized beds.
Date: April 30, 2012
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department