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Nuclear Proliferation and Safeguards

Description: A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that looks at nuclear proliferation and "seeks to facilitate an understanding of the problem and its implications, in terms of both a comprehensive overview and a detailed indepth analysis of key elements" (p. 7).
Date: June 1977
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

Description: Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.
Date: March 3, 2010
Creator: Goldston, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strengthening the foundations of proliferation assessment tools.

Description: Robust and reliable quantitative proliferation assessment tools have the potential to contribute significantly to a strengthened nonproliferation regime and to the future deployment of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Efforts to quantify proliferation resistance have thus far met with limited success due to the inherent subjectivity of the problem and interdependencies between attributes that lead to proliferation resistance. We suggest that these limitations flow substantially from weaknesses in the foundations of existing methodologies--the initial data inputs. In most existing methodologies, little consideration has been given to the utilization of varying types of inputs--particularly the mixing of subjective and objective data--or to identifying, understanding, and untangling relationships and dependencies between inputs. To address these concerns, a model set of inputs is suggested that could potentially be employed in multiple approaches. We present an input classification scheme and the initial results of testing for relationships between these inputs. We will discuss how classifying and testing the relationship between these inputs can help strengthen tools to assess the proliferation risk of nuclear fuel cycle processes, systems, and facilities.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Rexroth, Paul E.; Saltiel, David H.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.; Ng, Selena (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Greneche, Dominique (AREVA NC, Paris, France) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United Nations: For Peace and World Progress.

Description: The top and bottom of the poster are blue. In the top portion is the title; in the middle portion is a chart of the organization of the United Nations; the bottom section has drawings and text explaining some of the UN's goals.
Date: 1946
Creator: United States. Department of State.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World at Risk: The Report of the Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism

Description: The bipartisan Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism was established by the U.S. Congress to build on the work of the 9/11 Commission. The Commission has interviewed over 200 experts inside and outside of government. They have met with counterterrorism and intelligence officials at home and abroad who are working to stop proliferation and terrorism. The Commission's report examines the government's current policies and programs, identifies gaps in prevention strategy and recommends ways to close them. The Commission believes that unless the world community acts decisively and with great urgency, it is more likely than not that a weapon of mass destruction will be used in a terrorist attack somewhere in the world by the end of 2013. The Commission further believes that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use a biological weapon than a nuclear weapon. The Commission believes that the U.S. government needs to move more aggressively to limit the proliferation of biological weapons and reduce the prospect of a bioterror attack. Further compounding the nuclear threat is the proliferation of nuclear weapons capabilities to new states and the decision by several existing nuclear states to build up their arsenals. Such proliferation is a concern in its own right because it may increase the prospect of military crises that could lead to war and catastrophic use of these weapons.
Date: December 2008
Creator: Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

Description: Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.
Date: April 28, 2011
Creator: Goldston, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inertial Confinement Fusion R&D and Nuclear Proliferation

Description: In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R&D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.
Date: April 28, 2011
Creator: Goldston, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Incorporation of a risk analysis approach for the nuclear fuel cycle advanced transparency framework.

Description: Proliferation resistance features that reduce the likelihood of diversion of nuclear materials from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. A framework that monitors process information continuously can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation by measuring and reducing diversion risk, thus ensuring the legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation makes this possible by generating instantaneous system state data that can be used to track and measure the status of the process and material at any given time. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are working in cooperation to develop an advanced transparency framework capable of assessing diversion risk in support of overall plant transparency. The ''diversion risk'' quantifies the probability and consequence of a host nation diverting nuclear materials from a civilian fuel cycle facility. This document introduces the details of the diversion risk quantification approach to be demonstrated in the fuel handling training model of the MONJU Fast Reactor.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Mendez, Carmen Margarita (Sociotecnia Solutions, LLC); York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko (Japan Atomic Energy Agency); Kitabata, Takuya (Japan Atomic Energy Agency); Vugrin, Eric D.; Vugrin, Kay White et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department