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[News Script: City council]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about the Fort Worth city council rejecting the request for water service made by property owners along Highway 81 South, with the council stating its policy will be not to provide water service to new private customers outside the city limits.
Date: June 22, 1964
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Estimating market penetration of new district heating and cooling systems using a combination of economic cost and diffusion models

Description: The economic-cost model and the diffusion model are among the many market-penetration forecasting approaches that are available. These approaches have been used separately in many applications. In this paper, the authors briefly review these two approaches and then describe a methodology for forecasting market penetration using both approaches sequentially. This methodology is illustrated with the example of market-penetration forecasting of new district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in the Argonne DHC Market Penetration Model, which was developed and used over the period 1979--1983. This paper discusses how this combination approach, which incorporates the strengths of the economic-cost and diffusion models, has been superior to any one approach for market forecasts of DHC systems. Also discussed are the required modifications for revising and updating the model in order to generate new market-penetration forecasts for DHC systems. These modifications are required as a result of changes in DHC engineering, economic, and market data from 1983 to 1990. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: May 10, 1991
Creator: Teotia, A.P.S. & Karvelas, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications

Description: A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A. & Becker, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District cooling engineering & design program. Final technical report

Description: Phoenix, Arizona is located in the Sonoran desert. Daytime temperatures typically rise to over 100 F during the three summer months. Average and peak temperatures have tended to rise over recent decades. This is generally attributed to what is known as the heat island effect, due to an increase in heat absorbing concrete and a decrease in irrigated farmland in the area. Phoenix is the eighth largest city in the US with a population of just over one million (1,000,000). The metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing in the nation. Over the last ten years its population has increased by over 40%. It is not an exaggeration to say the general availability of refrigerated air conditioning, both for buildings and automobiles has been an important factor enabling growth. The cost of operating public buildings has risen significantly in the last decade. In fiscal year 92/93 the City of Phoenix had energy expenses of over thirty four million dollars ($34,000,000). Because the City was planning a major new construction project, a new high-rise City Hall, it was decided to study and then optimize the design and selection of building systems to minimize long term owning and operating costs. The City Hall was to be constructed in downtown Phoenix. Phoenix presently owns other buildings in the area. A number of large cooling systems serving groups of buildings are currently operating in the Phoenix area. The City requested that the design consultants analyze the available options and present recommendations to the City`s engineering staff.
Date: March 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume II

Description: This volume begins with an Introduction summarizing the history, methodology and scope of the study, the project team members and the private and public groups consulted in the course of the study. The Load and Service Area Assessment follows, including: a compilation and analysis of existing statistical thermal load data from census data, industrial directories, PSE and G records and other sources; an analysis of responses to a detailed, 4-page thermal load questionnaire; data on public buildings and fuel and energy use provided by the New Jersey Dept. of Energy; and results of other customer surveys conducted by PSE and G. A discussion of institutional questions follows. The general topic of rates is then discussed, including a draft hypothetical Tariff for Thermal Services. Financial considerations are discussed including a report identifying alternative ownership/financing options for district heating systems and the tax implications of these options. Four of these options were then selected by PSE and G and a financial (cash-flow) analysis done (by the PSE and G System Planning Dept.) in comparison with a conventional heating alternative. Year-by-year cost of heat ($/10/sup 6/ Btu) was calculated and tabulated, and the various options compared.
Date: January 31, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste not - want not. DOE appropriate technology small grants program

Description: The work reported was to look at various alternatives for local solid waste management and develop an implementation strategy for a resource conservation and recovery plan for the community of Berea, Kentucky. A library on recycling and conservation of resources was compiled, and state and local plans were examined. To get a better understanding of how the community would respond to a waste reduction and recycling program, a series of surveys was conducted. A community recycling project plan is proposed. (LEW)
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central airport energy systems using alternate energy sources

Description: The purpose of this project was to develop the concept of a central airport energy system designed to supply energy for aircraft ground support and terminal complex utility systems using municipal waste as a fuel. The major task was to estimate the potential for reducing aircraft and terminal fuel consumption by the use of alternate renewable energy sources. Additional efforts included an assessment of indirect benefits of reducing airport atmospheric and noise pollution.
Date: July 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Focus on energy conservation: a project list

Description: The Urban Land Institute (ULI) has prepared the following list of outstanding energy conserving projects for the US Department of Energy. As requested by the Department, the list includes descriptions of land developments and individual buildings suggested by members of ULI and by other sources. The projects have been selected to exemplify the major energy saving techniques in use today, with emphasis on those strategies most significant for people engaged in the business of land development. To make the list a useful reference for developers and public officials, ULI has attempted to cover energy conservation in the broadest sense from overall site planning to the functioning of individual building components. Focusing too closely on the myriad types of hardware available has been avoided and examples of the basic considerations important to energy-conscious planning and design are provided. Details on some heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are provided in order to acquaint readers with major innovations in the field.
Date: April 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling our communities: A guidebook on tree planting and light-colored surfacing

Description: This book is a practical guide that presents the current state of knowledge on potential environmental and economic benefits of strategic landscaping and altering surface colors in our communities. The guidebook, reviews the causes, magnitude, and impacts of increased urban warming, then focuses on actions by citizens and communities that can be undertaken to improve the quality of our homes and towns in cost-effective ways.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Akbari, H.; Davis, S.; Huang, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Dorsano, S. (ed.) (The Bruce Co., (United States)) & Winnett, S. (ed.) (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Climate Change Div.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suitability of the CASES software for evaluation of district heating systems based on annual storage cycles

Description: The CASES computer program is a software package for evaluation of community annual-storage energy system concepts. The software models energy systems that provide space and water heating by cascaded heat pumps and cooling by melting of stored ice. CASES computes thermal demands of individual buildings, aggregates these demands into community demands, models system response, and estimates the overall system costs. The Heat-Pump-Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) Project has produced a number of system concepts involving annual-storage cycles for which preliminary application feasibility studies have been performed. More rigorous examination of these concepts as well as detailed simulation and analysis of application feasibility would increase understanding of their potential. The CASES software was considered for these purposes, but was found unsuitable for evaluation of HP-ICES concepts and their application feasibility. No alternative software has been identified which will provide these capabilities, and extensive effort would be required to upgrade CASES for the intended concept evaluations.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Calm, J.M. & Sapienza, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Load management alternatives to transmission and distribution construction: Toledo-Wren case study

Description: This paper describes the development of a method to predict the feasibility of using load management as an alternative to construction of transmission and distribution capacity. A forecasting model was developed and applied to a particular case. Several problems were identified in the test case, necessitating modification of the model. The authors conclude that the modified version of the model allows accurate assessment of the effects of load management and conservation measures on transmission capacity. 13 figs. (JDH)
Date: December 1, 1987
Creator: Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Lyke, A.J.; Tawil, J.J.; De Steese, J.G. & Tepel, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data base for district heating pipe system design

Description: A methodology and data base for assigning installation costs and length requirements of hot water pipes for district heat service are described. These variables are the most important elements in the cost of the distribution system. The assignment technique is applicable to any city and reflects such factors as land use intensity, congestion of present underground service lines, and local labor rates and materials procurement costs.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Lesse, R; Karkheck, J; Serry, H & Tessmer, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Rhode Island Statewide Lighting Program

Description: This report summarizes the implementation and initial evaluation of the nation's first statewide conservation and load management program, the Rhode Island Statewide Lighting Program (RISLP). Rhode Island's program is unique because it is a voluntary collaborative effort and because three utilities use a single delivery mechanism for their programs. The Rhode Island Statewide Lighting Program is a unique attempt to improve the efficiency of electricity use in the commercial/industrial sector on a statewide basis. The cooperative nature of program design and implementation has strengthened communication among the participants. The process evaluation showed that both the participants and the customers are satisfied with the program. The program has had a significant effect on customer behavior.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Pierce, B. & Bjoerkqvist, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of impact of advanced energy transmission fluids on district heating and cooling systems (Phase 1)

Description: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community Systems, has embarked upon a comprehensive, long-range program to develop high-performance advanced energy transmission fluids for use in district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. ANL has the lead technical role in this DOE program. These advanced fluids will substantially reduce flow frictional losses and enhance energy transfer. In system enhancement scoping studies conducted by ANL, the fluids yielded potentially significant upfront capital equipment cost reductions by allowing the use of smaller pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, and storage tanks as well as reductions in operational costs. This report presents the first-phase results of assessment of impact of the advanced fluids on DHC systems. Future reports will focus on assessment of impact on hardware performance, capital eqiupment, and operation costs. 9 refs., 30 figs., 2 tab.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Kasza, K.E. & Chen, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scrap tire utilization via surface modification

Description: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach to reusing scrap tire rubber, which will be described in this presentation. In addition to consuming scrap tires, this technology represents a new approach to material engineering. Furthermore, this method of rubber recycle is most efficient in terms of energy recovery. 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Bauman, B. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling

Description: The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.
Date: September 30, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

Description: The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.
Date: January 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycling: You are the solution

Description: Americans produce nearly 150 million tons of residential and commercial solid waste each year, or slightly less than 1,400 lb for each one of us. This document contains various items related to public education: exhibit text, vocabulary, collection sites, classroom and individual activities, puzzles, classroom simulations.
Date: January 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

Description: This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90[degrees]C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15[degrees]C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Zakin, J.L. & Christensen, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urban energy management today: Ten year compendium of UCETF programs. Products and expertise of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, 1979--1989

Description: The reports listed in this Overview summarize projects conducted through the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force by local government staff who have defined and implemented many of the energy strategies described above. Reports from their projects illustrate effective approaches to plan and implement these strategies, as well as software tools, surveys, and technical instruments valuable to other local government officials conducting similar projects.
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Training program for energy conservation in new building construction. Volume III. Energy conservation technology for plan examiners and code administrators. Energy Conservation Technology Series 200

Description: Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, a Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. The subject of regulation of new building construction to assure energy conservation is recognized as one in which code officials have not had previous exposure. It was also determined that application of the model code would be made at varying levels by officials with both a specific requirement for knowledge and a differing degree of prior training in the state-of-the-art. Therefore, a training program and instructional materials were developed for code officials to assist them in the implementation and enforcement of energy efficient standards and codes. The training program for Energy Conservation Tehnology for Plan Examiners and Code Administrators (ECT Series 200) is presented.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

Description: The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.
Date: November 1, 1983
Creator: Mickley, M.C. & Goering, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department