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Icing Frequencies Experienced During Climb and Descent by Fighter-Interceptor Aircraft

Description: "Data and analyses are presented on the relative frequencies of occurrence and severity of icing cloud layers encountered by jet aircraft in the climb and descent phases of flights to high altitudes. Fighter-interceptor aircraft operated by the Air Defense Command (USAF) at bases in the Duluth and Seattle areas collected the data with icing meters installed for a 1-year period. The project was part of an extensive program conducted by the NACA to collect Icing cloud data for evaluating the icing problem relevant to routine operations" (p. 1).
Date: July 1958
Creator: Perkins, Porter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms: September 5, 1946 to September 10, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: Tables I and II of this report summarize the gust and draft velocity data for thunderstorm flights 31, 32, and 33 of September 5, 1946, September 6, 1946, and September 10, 1946, respectively. These data were evaluated from records of NACA instruments installed in P-61C airplanes and are of the type presented for previous flights. Table III summarizes the readings of a milliammeter which was used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient air temperature during thunderstorm surveys. These data were read from motion-picture records of the instrument and include all cases in which variations in the instrument indications were noted for the present flights.
Date: 1947
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Photographic Study of Freezing of Water Droplets Falling Freely in Air

Description: From Summary: "A photographic technique for investigating water droplets of diameter less than 200 microns falling freely in air at temperatures between 0 C and -50 C has been devised and used to determine: (1) The shape of frozen droplets, (2) The occurrence of collisions of partly frozen or of frozen and liquid droplets, and (3) The statistics on the freezing temperatures of individual free-falling droplets."
Date: February 25, 1952
Creator: Dorsch, Robert G. & Levine, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation of Local Liquid-Water Concentration About and Ellipsoid of Fineness Ratio 5 Moving in a Droplet Field

Description: From Summary: "Trajectories of water droplets about an ellipsoid of revolution with a fineness ratio of 5 (which often approximates the shape of an aircraft fuselage or missile) were computed with the aid of a differential analyzer. Analyses of these trajectories indicate that the local concentration of liquid water at various points about an ellipsoid in flight through a droplet field varies considerably and under some conditions may be several times the free-stream concentration."
Date: July 1954
Creator: Dorsch, Robert G. & Brun, Rinaldo J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of rate, area, and distribution of impingement of water drops on various airfoils from trajectories obtained on the differential analyzer

Description: From Summary: "The trajectories of waterdrops in air flowing over airfoils are determined for three airfoil-angle-of-attack combinations using the differential analyzer to solve the differential equations of motion of the waterdrops. From these trajectories the rate of water impingement, the area of impingement, and the distribution of impingement are determined as functions of two dimensionless moduli. Comparisons are made of the rate of water impingement on these airfoils and the rate of water impingement on cylinders."
Date: February 16, 1949
Creator: Guibert, A. G.; Janssen, E. & Robbins, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of rate, area, and distribution of impingement of of waterdrops on various airfoils from trajectories obtained on the differential analyzer

Description: From Summary: "The trajectories of waterdrops in air flowing over airfoils are determined for three airfoil-angle-of-attack combinations using the differential analyzer to solve the differential equations of motion of the waterdrops. From these trajectories the rate of water impingement, the area of impingement, and the distribution of impingement are determined as functions of two dimensionless moduli. Comparisons are made of the rate of water impingement on these airfoils and the rate of water impingement on cylinders."
Date: February 16, 1949
Creator: Guibert, A. G.; Janssen, E. & Robbins, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mercury Barometers and Manometers

Description: From Abstract: "Sources of error in measuring pressures are described in considerable detail, particularly for portable instruments including scale, temperature , gravity, capillarity, vacuum errors and return gas column. Methods of minimizing those errors and of making the corrections, including extensive tables, are presented."
Date: May 20, 1960
Creator: Brombacher, W. G.; Johnson, D. P. & Cross, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Procedure to Determine the Relative Extent of Reactor Fission Product Releases Under Various Meteorological Conditions

Description: From Abstract and Introduction: "A procedure for the application of these programs and graphs to the review and evaluation of reactor safety problems is presented. The purpose of this work is to present of the subsequent meteorological considerations suitable for review and analysis using a small digital computer."
Date: July 1964
Creator: Lanes, Stephen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of accelerations, gust velocities, and airspeeds from operations of a twin-engine transport airplane on a transcontinental route from 1950 to 1952

Description: Report presenting time-history data obtained from one type of twin-engine transport airplane during two years of operations on a transcontinental route, which is analyzed in order to determine the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of gust accelerations, gust velocities, and associated airspeeds and altitudes. The gusts were found to be in good agreement with those previously reported for another type of twin-engine transport airplane.
Date: February 1955
Creator: Coleman, Thomas L. & Walker, Walter G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of water droplets on a cylinder in an incompressible flow field and evaluation of rotating multicylinder method for measurement of droplet-size distribution, volume-median droplet size, and liquid-water content in clouds

Description: Report presenting an evaluation of the rotating multicylinder method for the measurement of droplet-size distribution, volume-median droplet size, and liquid-water content in clouds, which showed that small uncertainties in the basic data eliminate the distinction between cloud droplet-size distributions and are a source of large errors in the determination of droplet size. Matching curves for obtaining droplet-size distribution, volume-median droplet size, and liquid-water content from flight data were computed from the results of the droplet-trajectory configurations.
Date: March 1953
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J. & Mergler, Harry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some effects of rainfall on flight of airplanes and on instrument indications

Description: "Several possible effects of heavy rain on the aerodynamic performance of an airplane and of heavy rain and associated atmospheric phenomena on the indications of flight instruments are briefly considered. It is concluded that the effects of heavy rain on the performance of an airplane are not so great as to force the airplane down from moderate altitudes. Serious malfunctioning of the air-speed indicator may occur, however, as a result of flooding of the pitot-static head and subsequent accumulation of water in the air-speed pressure line" (p. 1).
Date: April 1941
Creator: Rhode, Richard V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Camera for Photographing Cloud Droplets in Natural Suspension in the Atmosphere

Description: "A camera designed for use in flight has been developed by the NACA Lewis laboratory to photograph cloud droplets in their natural suspension in the atmosphere. A magnification of 32 times is employed to distinguish for measurement purposes all sizes of droplets greater than 5 microns in diameter. Photographs can be taken at flight speeds up to 150 miles per hour at 5-second intervals, A field area of 0.025 square inch is photographed on 7-inch-width roll film accommodating 40 exposures on an 18-foot length" (p. 1).
Date: June 29, 1951
Creator: McCullough, Stuart & Perkins, Porter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A simplified instrument for recording and indicating frequency and intensity of icing conditions encountered in flight

Description: "An instrument for recording and indicating the frequency and intensity of aircraft icing conditions encountered in flight has been developed by the NACA Lewis Laboratory to obtain statistical icing data over world-wide air routes during routine airline operations. The operation of the instrument is based on the creation of a differential pressure between an ice-free total-pressure system and a total-pressure system in which small total-pressure holes vented to static pressure are allowed to plug with ice accretion. The simplicity of this operating principle permits automatic operation, and provides relative freedom from maintenance and operating problems" (p. 1).
Date: July 3, 1951
Creator: Perkins, Porter J.; McCullough, Stuart & Lewis, Ralph D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Instrument for Measurement of Liquid-Water Content in Clouds at Temperatures Above and Below Freezing

Description: "A principle formerly used in an instrument for cloud detection was further investigated to provide a simple and rapid means for measuring the liquid-water content of clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. The instrument consists of a small cylindrical element so operated at high surface temperatures that the impingement of cloud droplets creates a significant drop in the surface temperature. The instrument is sensitive to a wide range of liquid-water content and was calibrated at one set of fixed conditions against rotating multicylinder measurements. The limited conditions of the calibration Included an air temperature of 20 F, an air velocity of 175 miles per hour, and a surface temperature in clear air of 475 F" (p. 1).
Date: March 6, 1951
Creator: Perkins, Porter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms August 21, 1946 to August 22, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: Tables I and II of this report summarize the gust and draft velocity data for thunderstorm flights 25 and 26 of August 21, 1946 and August 22, 1946, respectively. These dta were evaluated from records of NACA instruments installed in P-61C airplanes and are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. Table III summarizes the readings of a milliammeter which was used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient air temperature during thunderstorm surveys. These data were read from motion-picture records of the instrument and include all cases in which variations in the instrument indications were noted during the present flights.
Date: 1946
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric temperature observations to 100,000 feet for several climatological regions of the Northern Hemisphere

Description: Report presenting radiosonde measurements of upper-air temperatures taken over a 5-year period at nine stations in the northern hemisphere are summarized in order to provide information on the temperatures likely to be encountered during airplane and missile operations up to 100,000 feet.
Date: November 1957
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms: August 23, 1946 to September 4, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: This report presents the results obtained from gust and draft velocity measurements within thunderstorms for the period August 23, 1946 to September 4, 1946 at Orlando, Florida. These data are summarized in tables I end II and are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. In several of the surveys, indications of ambient air temperature were obtained from photo-observer records. These data are summarized in table III.
Date: January 30, 1946
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61c Airplanes within Thunderstorms. 3 - July 12, 1946 to July 18, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: The gust and draft velocities evaluated from acceleration and airspeed-altitude records taken by NACA instruments installed in P-61c airplanes participating in thunderstorm flights 9, 10, and 11 of July 12, 1946, July 17, 1946, and July 18, 1946, respectively, are presented in references 1 and 2 for previous flights. In accordance with a recent discussion with a member of the U.S. Weather Bureau staff, motion-picture records of the pilots' instrument panels for the present flights were inspected to note variations in the readings of a milliammeter used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient air temperature. The inspection indicated that the instrument read zero throughout all traverses.
Date: November 5, 1946
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms. 4 - July 19, 1946 to July 20, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: "Summaries of the gust and draft velocities evaluated from acceleration and airspeed-altitude records taken by NACA instruments installed n P-61c airplanes participating in thunderstorm flights 12 and 13 of July 19, 1946, and July 20, 1946, respectively, are presented in tables I and II herein. These data are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. Inspection of the motion picture records of the pilots' instrument panels for the present flights indicated that the milliameter connected to equipment for measuring ambient air temperature read zero throughout all traverses" (p. 1).
Date: November 1946
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes within Thunderstorms August 17, 1946 to August 19, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: Results obtained from gust and draft velocity measurements within thunderstorms for the period August 17, 1946 to August 19, 1946 at Orlando, Florida are presented herein. These data are summarized in tables I and II and are of the type presented in reference 1 for previous flights. Inspection of photo-observer records taken on the present flights indicated that mo ambient-air temperature data were obtained.
Date: March 24, 1947
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Gust and Draft Velocities from Flights of P-61C Airplanes Within Thunderstorms August 14, 1946 to August 15, 1946 at Orlando, Florida

Description: "Tables I and II of the present paper summarize the gust and draft velocity data for thunderstorm-flights 21 and 22 of August 14, 1946 and August 15, 1946, respectively. These data were evaluated from records of NACA airspeed-altitude and acceleration recorders installed in P-61C airplanes and are of the type presented for previous flights. Table III summarizes the readings of a milliammeter which was used in conjunction with other equipment to indicate ambient-air temperature during thunderstorm surveys. These data were read from photo-observer records and include all cases in which variations of the instrument indications were noted for the present flights" (p. 1).
Date: March 19, 1947
Creator: Tolefson, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department