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Meta-Analysis of Meditation Outcomes in Counseling and Psychtherapy

Description: Meditation includes a variety of techniques that share a common conscious effort to focus attention in a non-analytic way. In terms of its goals, meditation is a state of completely focused attention devoid of external thoughts--a state of heightened choice-less awareness. This study was designed to: (1) Identify and critically review professional literature on the effectiveness of meditation; (2) Provide an overall measure of effectiveness through the statistical meta-analysis technique; (3) Provide a classification of findings through the voting method; and (4) summarize and integrate highlights and major findings for the purpose of generating implications for future research and practice in counseling and psychotherapy.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Anyanwu, Leonard C. (Leonard Chinaka)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Relaxation Training in Anxiety and Stress Management Differential Effects of an Audible vs. Imaginal Meditational Focus

Description: The hypothesis was tested that meditation using an audible word-sound would be superior to silent repetition of the same word in producing decrements in autonomic arousal and improvements in anxiety, mood, and the ability to cope with stress. The influence of hypnotic susceptibility upon improvement was also evaluated. Thirty subjects, assigned to one of three groups: audible meditation, silent meditation, and relaxation control, met one hour weekly for six weeks to practice their respective technique and discuss their progress. All subjects were evaluated using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, a medical symptom checklist, the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale, a self-rating of state anxiety, and factors C and Q4 of the 16PF. Finger temperature was taken as a measure of physiological arousal. Confidence ratings of the respective strategies were taken pre- and post-treatment.
Date: December 1986
Creator: Shaw, Patricia (Patricia Hyman)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Compassion and Person Perception: An Experiment

Description: Compassion is one of the fundamental experiences which signify human existence. Person perception is the constructive process with which we form an opinion or judgment of another person. Two experiments (N =277) were conducted in this study. Experiment 1 examined the effects of a mindfulness meditation on compassion in a large sample of young adults. Participants (n =76) were randomly assigned to three groups. Participants in group 1 received the mindfulness meditation, group 2 received an alternate version of the mindfulness meditation (self-focus only), and participants in group 3 were asked to complete an attention task and read a geological text. It was hypothesized that mindfulness meditation is significantly associated with the experience of compassion. Results showed that participants in the experimental group 1 experienced significantly higher levels of compassion compared to participants in the control group 3. The participants in group 2 were not different from experimental group 1 or from control group 3. Gender differences in the effects of meditation on compassion were explored. Different measures yielded conflicting evidence for gender differences in experienced compassion. For the second experiment a Solomon four-group experimental design was employed to examine the possible effects of compassion on person perception. Participants (n = 201) were randomly assigned to 4 groups. The effect of pretesting impression formation on posttest performance was investigated. It was hypothesized that compassion has a significant effect on impression formation. The Stouffer's z -method was used to investigate this effect. Results indicated that participants in the experimental groups after completing a mindfulness meditation rated a target person significantly more favorable, compared to participants in the control groups. Results also indicated that pretest had no significant effect on post-test ratings of the impression formation task. Transcendental applications for the inducement and experience of compassion in psychotherapy and the role of ...
Date: August 2006
Creator: Raina, Karina Christina
Partner: UNT Libraries

Using Relational Responding to Examine the Acquisition of Mindfulness and Meditation Material: An Analogue Study

Description: Mindfulness meditation is a growing area of interest for both mental health professionals and the general public alike. Beneficial outcomes are associated with these practices, although the variety of measurement techniques makes research difficult to interpret. Definitions of these constructs are varied, and anecdotal accounts point to the idea that many people hold misconceptions about mindfulness and meditation, even when meanings are made clear. Still, no formal research has been published on misconceptions of mindfulness – or, if they exist, how such misinformation affects acquisition of related skills. Furthermore, mindfulness has been incorporated into therapeutic modalities without much consideration for context, including the client's learning history. The current analogue study examined how the presentation of mindfulness meditations (i.e., inaccurate rationale/meditation and accurate rationale/meditation) affects an individual's practice. Specifically, self-reported mindfulness and meditation skills, mood questionnaires, a matching-to-sample task, and qualitative measurements were used to assess acquisition. Although primary hypotheses did not yield significant findings, results from both preliminary and exploratory analyses demonstrate significant findings with regard to teaching, learning, and measurement related to mindfulness meditation. The results, future directions, and limitations are discussed.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Lester, Ethan G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Allocation of Attention: Effects on Classical Conditioning

Description: According to Deikman (1966), meditation (defined as a training to sustain attention) has a deautomatizing effect. This ascertion was utilized in the present study as a departure point and explored within an information processing framework for classical conditioning. A sample of 48 college students was selected and randomly assigned to four conditions with different instructional sets involving allocation of attention during a classical conditioning background situation. The basic hypothesis of the study was that provided arousal factors were controlled, focusing of attention upon internal stimulation (i.e. breathing) could delay or attenuate the affect of conditioning, habituation and extinction as compared with instructions to externally allocate attention (on the CS and US). A secondary hypothesis predicted that for subjects under switching conditions changing from internal to external allocation and vice versa would produce a more pronounced extinction pattern as compared with subjects under non—switching conditions.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Michel, Sergio B. (Sergio Barboza)
Partner: UNT Libraries

How to Factor Loss

Description: How to Factor Loss is a collection of poems and translations prefaced by a critical paper over Robert Hass's “Meditation at Lagunitas.” The preface, “A Sensuous Theory, A Sensuous Poem,” explores how Hass merges the discourses of theory and poetry to create a poem that hangs suspended between a confidence and an anxiety about language. The poems in this thesis are primarily responses to finitude. The first section turns toward an “other” as a strategy of placating desire and of reaching both inward and outward. The second section explores the potential failures of art as a means of touching objects. The final section acknowledges that finitude is the condition of humankind, and it turns toward a more tender language, one that embraces limitations and is filled with something like faith. The collection is followed by an appendix which contains translations of several poems by René Guy Cadou and Georg Trakl.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Hall, Todd R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Influence of Transcendental Meditation on Anxiety

Description: This study was concerned with the degree to which the practice of transcendental meditation (TM) aids in the long-term reduction of anxiety. The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), short form, was given to 16 Ss about to learn the technique of TM and to 16 control Ss. Eighteen weeks later, the TMAS was again administered to both groups. A significant difference was found in TMAS score reduction between the two groups, with the meditation group showing the greater reduction. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that TM aids in the long-term reduction of anxiety. It is recommended that further research in this area be undertaken to further validate the results of this study.
Date: December 1974
Creator: Floyd, William T., III
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of a Zen Meditation Procedure and Its Effect on Selected Personality and Psychotherapeutic Variables

Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effectiveness of Zen meditation practice in facilitating positive change on the personality variables time competence, inner direction, locus of control, and field independence, as well as to investigate the subjective experiences of novice meditators. Two population groups were included in the study: a student group and a clinical group. The student-population group consisted of forty-six undergraduate college students. The student subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: experimental group (Zen meditation group taught to focus attention on the breath, as well as a formal Zen posture), placebo group (formal Zen posture only), or control group (no treatment). The clinical-population group consisted of thirty-seven in-patient volunteers from the alcoholic-drug unit of a psychiatric state hospital. The clinical subjects were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (Zen meditation group which practiced focused attention on the breath, as well as a formal Zen meditation posture) or a control group (no treatment).
Date: December 1982
Creator: Norwood, Jean E. (Jean Elaine)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Is Mindfulness Just Another Ego Depletion Exercise?

Description: Given increasing interest in the therapeutic benefits of mindfulness, limitations of its treatment utility are frequently questioned. As such, the purpose of the study was to examine the effects of mindfulness on a subsequent self-control task in a sample of college students. A total of 67 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a control condition, an experimental mindfulness-only condition or a comparison expectancy-plus-mindfulness condition to investigate the utility of mindfulness practice when motivated by an outcome of increased self-control. Results did not indicate a difference in persistence on a difficult task between conditions, regardless of the manipulation. Conceptual and experimental limitations of current study’s findings, as well as future directions, are discussed.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Connally, Melissa Londoño
Partner: UNT Libraries

Recreating Near-Death Experiences: A Cognitive Approach

Description: Abstract: I describe a guided meditation that, when used by near-death experiencers (NDErs), recreates fragments of their NDEs. The meditation is based on Michael Persinger's neurological theory regarding the "God Experiences," and its success supports that theory. The present study included too few subjects to support quantitative analysis, and must be regarded as a pilot study.
Date: Summer 1999
Creator: Murphy, Todd
Partner: UNT Libraries

Connecting Soul, Spirit, Mind, and Body: A Collection of Spiritual and Religious Perspectives and Practices in Counseling

Description: This edited volume presents spiritual and religious perspectives and practices that can be integrated into counseling, written by experts in the field. Included are topics such as transpersonal experiences, prayer, meditation, and non-traditional spiritual approaches.
Date: January 2017
Creator: Foster, Ryan D. & Holden, Janice Miner
Partner: UNT Libraries

Renewal and Memory Approaches to Study Biological and Physiological Processes

Description: In nature we find many instances of complex behavior for example the dynamics of stock markets, power grids, internet networks, highway traffic, social networks, heartbeat dynamics, neural dynamics, dynamics of living organisms, etc. The study of these complex systems involves the use of tools of non-linear dynamics and non-equilibrium statistical physics. This dissertation is devoted to understanding two different sources of complex behavior – non-poissonian renewal events also called crucial events and infinite memory of fractional Brownian motion. They both generate 1/f noise frequency spectrum. Thus, we studied examples of both processes and also their joint action. We also tried to establish the role of crucial events in biological and physiological processes like biophoton emission during the germination of seeds, the dynamics of heartbeat and neural dynamics. Using a statistical method of analyzing the time series of bio signals we were able to quantify the complexity associated with the underlying dynamics of these processes. Finally, we adopted a model that unifies both crucial events and memory fluctuations to study the rhythmic behavior observed in heart rate variability of people during meditation. We were able to also quantify the level of stress reduction during meditation. The work presented in this dissertation may help us understand the communication and transfer of information in complex systems.
Date: May 2019
Creator: Tuladhar, Rohisha
Partner: UNT Libraries

Application of Statistical Physics in Human Physiology: Heart-Brain Dynamics

Description: This dissertation is devoted to study of complex systems in human physiology particularly heartbeats and brain dynamics. We have studied the dynamics of heartbeats that has been a subject of investigation of two independent groups. The first group emphasized the multifractal nature of the heartbeat dynamics of healthy subjects, whereas the second group had established a close connection between healthy subjects and the occurrence of crucial events. We have analyzed the same set of data and established that in fact the heartbeats are characterized by the occurrence of crucial and Poisson events. An increase in the percentage of crucial events makes the multifractal spectrum broader, thereby bridging the results of the former group with the results of the latter group. The crucial events are characterized by a power index that signals the occurrence of 1/f noise for complex systems in the best physiological condition. These results led us to focus our analysis on the statistical properties of crucial events. We have adopted the same statistical analysis to study the statistical properties of the heartbeat dynamics of subjects practicing meditation. The heartbeats of people doing meditation are known to produce coherent fluctuations. In addition to this effect, we made the surprising discovery that meditation makes the heartbeat depart from the ideal condition of 1/f noise. We also discussed how to combine the wave-like nature of the dynamics of the brain with the existence of crucial events that are responsible for the 1/f noise. We showed that the anomalous scaling generated by the crucial events could be established by means of a direct analysis of raw data. The efficiency of the direct analysis procedure is made possible by the fact that periodicity and crucial events is the product of a spontaneous process of self-organization. We argue that the results of this study ...
Date: August 2018
Creator: Bohara, Gyanendra
Partner: UNT Libraries

[News Clip: Taj Mahal]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story.
Date: April 25, 1986, 5:00 p.m.
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: TM seminar]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story.
Date: April 29, 1979, 10:00 p.m.
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections