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U.S. Circuit and District Court Judges: Profile of Select Characteristics

Description: This report addresses ongoing congressional interest in the demographic characteristics and professional experiences of those individuals nominated and appointed to fill lower federal court judgeships. It focuses on demographic and other background characteristics of active U.S. circuit and district court judges who are currently serving on the federal bench.
Date: August 1, 2017
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Number of African American Judges Reaches All-Time High; Do Issues Remain?

Description: This report provides historical and statistical information related to the appointment of African Americans as U.S. circuit and district court judges. Such information addresses ongoing congressional interest in the demographic characteristics of lower federal court judges.
Date: February 23, 2015
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nominations to U.S. Circuit and District Courts by President Obama During the 111th and 112th Congresses

Description: Recent Senate debates in the 112th Congress over judicial nominations have focused on issues such as the relative degree of success of President Barack Obama's nominees in gaining Senate confirmation (compared with other recent Presidents) as well as the effect of delayed judicial appointments on judicial vacancy levels. The following report addresses these issues, and others, by providing a statistical overview of President Obama's nominees to U.S. circuit court of appeals and U.S. district court judgeships, current through May 31, 2012.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black and Hispanic Federal Judges: 1900 to Present

Description: This report shows that in recent years, attention has increasingly focused upon the minority composition of the Federal judiciary, in apparent response to concerns that judges appointed to the Federal bench should more compositely reflect the U.S. population they serve. Two of the larger U.S. subpopulations served by the Federal judiciary are blacks and Hispanics. Accordingly, this mini brief lists chronologically and cumulatively the appointments of blacks and Hispanics to the Federal bench, which includes the U.S.Supreme Court, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and District courts.
Date: August 9, 1983
Creator: Bailey, Dorothy J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appointment of African American U.S. Circuit and District Court Judges: Historical Overview and Current Data

Description: This report briefly provides historical and statistical information related to the appointment of African Americans as U.S. circuit and district court judges. Such information addresses ongoing congressional interest in the demographic characteristics of lower federal court judges.
Date: February 12, 2016
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions Authored by Judge Merrick Garland

Description: This report identifies and briefly summarizes each of the more than 350 cases in which Judge Garland has authored a majority, concurring, or dissenting opinion. Arguably, these written opinions provide the greatest insight into Judge Garland's judicial approach, as a judge's vote in a case or decision to join an opinion authored by a colleague may be based upon a number of considerations and may not necessarily represent full agreement with a joined opinion.
Date: May 2, 2016
Creator: Mason, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Judge Merrick Garland: His Jurisprudence and Potential Impact on the Supreme Court

Description: This report provides an overview of Judge Garland's jurisprudence and discusses what the impact on the Court might be if he, or a judge of a similar judicial approach, were to be confirmed to succeed Justice Scalia. The report begins with his views on two overarching issues -- the role of the judiciary and statutory interpretation -- it then addresses 14 separate areas of law, which are arranged in alphabetical order from "administrative law" to "takings."
Date: April 27, 2016
Creator: Nolan, Andrew; Manuel, Kate M. & Murrill, Brandon J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Criminal Justice Reform: One Judge's View

Description: This report briefly provides highlights from an article written by Judge Alex Kozinski of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, in which he recommended 26 changes in the U.S. criminal justice system, federal and state.
Date: January 1, 2016
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appellate Recruitment Patterns in the Higher British Judiciary: 1850 - 1990

Description: This study seeks to advance the understanding of appellate promotion in the senior judiciary of Great Britain . It describes the population and attributes of judges who served in the British High Courts, Court of Appeal, and Appellate Committee of the House of Lords (i.e., Law Lords) from 1850 to 1990. It specifically builds upon the work of C. Neal Tate and tests his model of appellate recruitment on a larger and augmented database. The study determines that family status, previously asserted as having a large effect on recruitment to the appellate courts, is not as important as previously believed. It concludes that merit effects, professional norms, and institutional constraints offer equally satisfactory or better explanations of appellate recruitment patterns.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Thomas, Bruce K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Judge Sonia Sotomayor: Analysis of Selected Opinions

Description: This report provides an analysis of selected opinions authored by Judge Sotomayor during her tenure as a judge on the Second Circuit. Discussions of the selected opinions are grouped according to various topics of legal significance.
Date: June 19, 2009
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of Home State Senators in the Selection of Lower Federal Court Judges

Description: This report examines the role that home state Senators, historically and in the contemporary era, have played in the selection of nominees to U.S. district court and circuit court of appeals judgeships. It also identifies issues that have arisen in recent years over the role of home state Senators in the selection process for federal judges.
Date: February 11, 2013
Creator: Rutkus, Denis Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Senate Action on U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations During a President's Eighth Year in Office

Description: This report, in light of continued Senate interest in the judicial confirmation process during a President's final year in office, provides statistics related to Senate action on U.S. circuit and district court nominations during the eighth year of the George W. Bush, Clinton, and Reagan presidencies. The eighth year of a presidency is significant, in part, because it is the final opportunity for a President to appoint individuals as U.S. circuit and district court judges. Such judges have what effectively has come to mean life tenure, holding office "during good Behaviour."
Date: January 27, 2016
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Recess Judges

Description: This report discusses the recess clause and takes a look at the history of recess appointments. Under Article II of the Constitution, the President is empowered "to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session." Presidents have used the recess appointment power on more than 300 occasions to place judges on the district, appellate, and U.S. Supreme Court level. This practice slowed after the 1950s, but recent recess appointments to federal appellate courts (the Fourth, Fifth, and Eleventh Circuits) have revived a number of constitutional issues.
Date: February 2, 2005
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Appointment Process for U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations: An Overview

Description: This report discusses the process of appointment of U.S. circuit and district court judges through presidential nomination and Senate confirmation. In recent decades, the process for appointing judges to the U.S. circuit courts of appeals and the U.S. district courts has been of continuing Senate interest. The responsibility for making these appointments is shared by the President and the Senate. Pursuant to the Constitution's Appointments Clause, the President nominates persons to fill federal judgeships, with the appointment of each nominee also requiring Senate confirmation. Although not mentioned in the Constitution, an important role is also played midway in the appointment process by the Senate Judiciary Committee.
Date: June 17, 2016
Creator: Rutkus, Denis S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Essential Neil Gorsuch Reader: What Judge Gorsuch Cases Should You Read?

Description: This report outlines significant cases on which Supreme Court nominee Neil Gorsuch had voted while on the Tenth Circuit court, organized by topical categories. These categories represent fields of law where Judge Gorsuch could, if confirmed, influence the High Court's approach.
Date: February 13, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations: Comparative Statistics of Two-Term Presidencies Since 1945

Description: This report provides comparative statistics related to the nomination and confirmation of U.S. circuit and district court judges during the eighth year of two-term presidencies since 1945 (i.e., the Truman, Eisenhower, Reagan, Clinton, George W. Bush, and Obama presidencies). It also provides cumulative comparative statistics for the entire terms of these same six presidencies. Previous CRS research has analyzed final Senate action on judicial nominations during the eighth year of the Reagan, Clinton, and George W. Bush presidencies.
Date: April 24, 2017
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Blue Slip Process for U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations; Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report answers frequently asked questions about the blue-slip process of gaining the approval of senators from the home states of federal district and circuit court nominees before the process moves to the Senate floor. The report provides historical information and analysis as to how blue slips have been used in the past for judicial nominations, with a focus on the various blue slip policies used during recent presidencies. This report also discusses potential changes that might occur in the Senate and in the confirmation process for judicial nominees if there is a lesser role for home state Senators in approving some, or all, of a President's judicial nominees from their respective states.
Date: October 2, 2017
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department