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Effect of pH on the persistence and toxicity of cyfluthrin to Chironomus tentans

Description: The effect of pH upon the aquatic toxicity of cyfluthrin was determined in 48 h static acute toxicity tests using 2nd instar Chironomus tentans larvae. Tests were conducted in both dechlorinated tap water and lake water of pH 8.0, 7.2, and 6.6. After 48 h, immobilized and dead larvae were removed and replaced with 2nd instar larvae to assess the persistence of toxicity. Midges were cultured in water adjusted to the pH values used in testing.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Hambleton, Faith Ann (Faith Ann Elizabeth)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Microbial Utilization of a Certain Hydrocarbon Insecticide

Description: This problem includes, first, the isolation and identification of microorganisms which utilized the hydrocarbon insecticide as a sole source of carbon and energy; second, a determination of the effect on plants sprayed with the hydrocarbon medium as compared with the effect on plants sprayed with the hydrocarbon medium containing a good growth of hydrocarbon-utilizers; and third, a determination of the ability of laboratory stock cultures of organisms to utilize or remain alive in the hydrocarbon medium.
Date: August 1951
Creator: Dorman, Homer L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Conformation-Activity Studies of Pyrethroid Alcohols

Description: The synthesis and insecticidal activity of certain alcohols (hydroxymethyldibenzofurans, hydroxymethyldibenzothiophenes and some of their ⍺-cyano derivatives), esterified with trans-chrysanthemic acid, were investigated. The preparation of these planar alcohol moieties was undertaken to study conformation-activity effects in insecticides of the pyrethroid type. The synthesis of final ester products employed two methods. One was the direct condensation of the appropriate alcohol with chrysanthemic acid chloride in the presence of pyridine. The other involved the in situ formation of the cyanohydrin from the appropriate aldehyde and subsequent condensation with chrysanthemic acid chloride in the presence of a phase transfer reagent. Insecticidal activity is to be tested at rates of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 10, 100, and 1000 ppm. Fenvalerate is used as the standard against Diabrotica undecimpuntata (spotted cucumber beetles).
Date: August 1984
Creator: Tu, Huai-Tsu
Partner: UNT Libraries

Spraying for Apple Diseases and the Codling Moth in the Ozarks

Description: Report promoting the spraying of apples with insecticides and fungicides in the Ozarks in order to prevent damage from bitter-rot, apple blotch, leaf-spot diseases, apple scab, and the codling moth. Each problem is described and a course of treatment by spraying is recommended.
Date: 1907
Creator: Quaintance, A. L. (Altus Lacy), 1870-1958
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Disulphid as an Insecticide

Description: "This bulletin gives the necessary facts regarding the nature of carbon disulphide and the general principles involved in the safe, economic, and effective use of this valuable insecticide." -- p. 2
Date: 1917
Creator: Hinds, W. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removing Spray Residue From Apples and Pears

Description: This bulletin gives instructions for removing spray residue from apples and pears. "Control of the codling moth has become essential in the production of marketable apples and pears in practically all deciduous-fruit districts of the United States, and through spraying with lead-aresenate has been for many years the accepted control method. Apples and pears sprayed with lead arsenate bear at harvest time an arsenical residue, and this residue must be removed in the interest of public health." -- p. 1
Date: 1931
Creator: Diehl, H. C.; Lutz, J. M. (Jacob Martin), 1908-1968 & Ryall, A. Lloyd (Albert Lloyd), 1904-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interactions among Temperature, pH, and Cyfluthrin on Survival of the Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas

Description: The 96-hr LC50 of cyfluthrin in Pimephales promelas ata temperature of 23*C and a pH of 8 was 1.08 g/L. The toxicity of cyfluthrin was inversely related to temperature and pH. A temperature of 10*C and a pH of 6 significantly decreased the 96-hr LC50 to 0.009 gg/L. Likewise, sublethal exposures to cyfluthrin significantly affected the fathead minnow's ability to tolerate high and low temperatures. Cyfluthrin compromised the fathead minnow's lower temperature tolerance (CTMin) by 60C and the upper temperature tolerance (CTMax) by 20C. Although cyfluthrin may not be present in the environment in large amounts due to its physical and chemical properties, small concentrations ( g/L) may adversely affect fish populations.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Heath, Susan M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Studies of Nitrogen-containing Compounds Having Pyrethroid-like Bioactivity

Description: During recent years most of the successful developments in pyrethroids have been primarily concerned with structural or compositional variations. As a part of our continuing interest in pyrethroid insecticides, nitrogen-containing compounds having pyrethroid-like structures were synthesized. Seven prolinate compounds, N-(substituted)-phenyl-prolinates and N-carbobenzoxy-prolinates were coupled with known pyrethroid alcohols. These structural variations which "locked in" a specific conformation between the nitrogen and chiral a-carbon in the acid moiety of fluvalinate were studied to determine the influence of certain conformations on insecticidal toxicity. The toxicity data for the prolinate compounds showed intermediate mortality against nonresistant cockroaches. It was concluded that the conformation imposed by the proline ring portion of the esters was probably close to the favored conformation for interaction of fluvalinate-like pyrethroids with the insect receptor site. A second series of nitrogen-containing compounds, twenty-five carbamate esters resulting from the condensation of N-isopropyl-(substituted)-anilines and N-alkyl-(substituted)-benzylamines with appropriate pyrethroid alcohols were studied for insecticidal activity. These studies were conducted on pyrethroid-susceptible houseflies. Some of the carbamate esters exhibited high toxicity when synergized by piperonyl butoxide. For example, the toxicity ( LD 50 ) of O-a-cyano-3-phenoxyfaenzyl-N-a,a-dimethyl-4-bromo-benzyl carbamate was 0.012 ug/g, which is significantly greater than that reported for the potent pyrethroid, fenvalerate. Correlations of insecticidal activity with respect to structure and conformational factors of the carbamate esters have been made. The N-isopropyl substituent decreases insecticidal activity in the N-benzyl-derived compounds, while the N-isopropyl substituent enhances activity in the N-phenyl-derived compounds. Certain substituents on the phenyl ring of both analogs greatly affect insecticidal potency of the carbamate esters. Also, some alkyl substituents (especially, a,cx-dimethyl and a-cyclopropyl groups) on the benzylic carbon of the benzylamine series enhance toxicity. The a,a-dimethyl branching of the N-benzyl carbamate approximates the steric shape given by the gemdimethyl group for conventional cyclopropane ring-containing pyrethroids. The N-benzyl compounds are significantly synergized by ...
Date: August 1989
Creator: Lee, Jimmy Jing-Ming, 1955-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impacts of the Pyrethroid Insecticide Cyfluthrin on Aquatic Invertibrate Populations in Outdoor Experimental Tanks

Description: The chemical fate and biological impacts of cyfluthrin in aquatic ecosystems were investigated using microcosms (1.9 m^3 concrete tanks) during 1989. Results were compared to a concurrent pesticide registration study using mesocosms (634.7 m^3 earthen ponds). Ten spray drift and five soil runoff simulations were conducted. Pesticide loadings were scaled by system volume, with the same experimental design in ponds and microcosms. Aqueous cyfluthrin concentrations and sediment residue values were generally higher in microcosms, while aqueous half-life was shorter in the smaller systems.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Johnson, Philip C. (Philip Charles)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Roundheaded Apple-Tree Borer

Description: This report discusses the roundheaded apple-tree borer, an insect in the eastern and midwestern United States that, in its larval stage, destroys the bark and wood of apple trees. Several methods of control are discussed, including worming, paints and washes, and sprays.Apple-tree borers.
Date: 1915
Creator: Brooks, Fred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of Aphids Injurious to Orchard Fruits, Currant, Gooseberry and Grape

Description: "The present bulletin treats of the aphids injurious to fruit and foliage of apple, quince, pear, plum, cherry, peach, currant, gooseberry, and grape. Forty-one species of aphids in all are discussed. The more important forms affecting a given fruit are considered first, and then follows a brief account of species known to infest the plant locally or occasionally, and which growers should be able to distinguish from the more destructive species. In their life history aphids are peculiar in many respects, and each species occurs in several different forms; for this reason a short account of aphids in general is given for the information of readers not familiar with these facts. Remedial measures are described at the close of the bulletin, since similar treatments are applicable, with some variations, for the control of all the species considered." - p. 3
Date: 1920
Creator: Quaintance, A. L. (Altus Lacy), 1870-1958 & Baker, A. C. (Arthur Challen), 1885-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Insects Injurious to Stored Grain

Description: Report discussing insects which commonly cause damage to grain being kept in storage. Three of these insects -- the granary weevil, rice weevil and Angoumois grain moth -- develop and live within the kernels until they reach maturity while the other insects feed on grain in both its kernel and processed forms.
Date: 1897
Creator: Chittenden, F. H. (Frank Hurlbut), 1858-1929
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grasshoppers and Their Control

Description: "Grasshoppers in a single year have destroyed crops valued at over a hundred million dollars. The best way to prevent losses is the use of poisoned bait supplemented by tillage and seeding methods which restrict egg laying and imprison the young grasshoppers in the ground after they hatch. Bait is most effective while grasshoppers are still on their hatching grounds or massed along field margins. It should be put out when grasshoppers are doing their first feeding of the day. This usually occurs between 6 and 10 a.m. at temperatures of 70° to 80°F. Bait should not be spread unless grasshoppers are actively feeding. In mixing and distributing the poisoned bait care should be taken to prevent injury to persons and farm animals. Seeding grain only on plowed or summer-fallowed ground and plowing infested stubble before the eggs hatch greatly reduces the quantity of bait needed for control and decreases the liability of crop injury. Cooperation in the use of control methods by all the farmers in a community is necessary for best results." -- p. i
Date: 1939
Creator: Parker, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of Lice and Sheep Ticks on Sheep and Goats.

Description: Describes the damage that lice and ticks can cause to sheep and goat wool. Provides instructions for preparing insecticide dips, sprays, and dusts.
Date: June 1951
Creator: United States. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. Division of Insects Affecting Man and Animals.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carpet Beetles.

Description: Describes the common types of carpet beetles, their life cycles, and methods of control.
Date: March 28, 1938
Creator: Back, E. A. (Ernest Adna), 1886-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department