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Virtual teams: The relationship between organizational support systems and effectiveness

Description: This study investigates the effects of eight organizational support systems on virtual team effectiveness in five areas: communication, planning tasks and setting goals, solving problems and making decisions, resolving conflict, and responding to customer requirements. One hundred and eighty surveys were sent to information technology managers and collaborative team members, representing 43 companies. The results indicated that developing new roles for IT professionals and senior managers significantly increased virtual team effectiveness in several areas. The findings support the theory that organizations that utilize virtual teams must create high-level structures, policies, and systems to support the teams and the information tools they use.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Townsley, Carole
Partner: UNT Libraries

Information Technology Management: Observations on the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network's (FinCEN's) BSA Direct Retrieval and Sharing (BSA Direct R&S) Project

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network's (FinCEN) primary function is to support and strengthen domestic and international anti-money laundering efforts through coordination and partnerships. Since its creation in 1990, FinCEN has been responsible for overseeing the management, processing, storage and dissemination of Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) data. In 2004, FinCEN embarked on a major initiative intended to improve the sharing of information reported under the Bank Secrecy Act. BSA Direct is an umbrella project intended to provide secure, user-friendly, web-based tools for accessing, analyzing, and filing BSA data. It is part of a broad effort to reengineer data management responsibilities and transition them from the IRS. During the early spring of 2006, it became clear to FinCEN that the Retrieval and Sharing component of the BSA Direct project (BSA Direct R&S) was not going to meet the critical implementation deadline of June 30, 2006. Because FinCEN has experienced problems with development and implementation of the BSA Direct R&S, Congress asked us about the project's current status and to provide observations on FinCEN's IT investment management practices. Our objectives were to (1) describe BSA Direct R&S and the project's current status; (2) examine FinCEN's application of information technology (IT) investment management processes to the BSA Direct R&S project; and (3) describe, at a high level, the range of options FinCEN may consider as it reexamines the BSA Direct R&S project."
Date: July 14, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology Management: Improvements Needed in Strategic Planning, Performance Measurement, and Investment Management Governmentwide

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The federal government spends billions of dollars annually on information technology (IT) investments that are critical to the effective implementation of major government programs. To help agencies effectively manage their substantial IT investments, the Congress has established a statutory framework of requirements and roles and responsibilities relating to information and technology management, that addresses, for example, (1) IT strategic planning/performance measurement (which defines what an organization seeks to accomplish, identifies the strategies it will use to achieve desired results, and then determines how well it is succeeding in reaching resultsoriented goals and achieving objectives) and (2) IT investment management (which involves selecting, controlling, and evaluating investments). GAO was asked to summarize its January 2004 report on IT strategic planning/performance measurement and investment management (Information Technology Management: Governmentwide Strategic Planning, Performance Measurement, and Investment Management Can Be Further Improved, GAO-04-49, January 12, 2004) and to discuss how agencies can improve their performance in these areas."
Date: March 3, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accident versus Essence: Investigating the Relationship Among Information Systems Development and Requirements Capabilities and Perceptions of Enterprise Architecture

Description: Information systems (IS) are indelibly linked to the global economy and are indispensable to society and organizations. Despite the decisive function of IS in organizations today, IS development problems continue to plague organizations. The failure to get the system requirements right is considered to be one of the primary, if not the most significant, reasons for this high IS failure rate. Getting requirements right is most notably identified with Frederick Brooks' contention that requirements are the essence of what IT professionals do, all the rest being accidents or risk management. However, enterprise architecture (EA) may also provide the discipline to bridge the gap between effective requirements, organizational objectives, and the actual IS implementations. The intent of this research is to examine the relationship between IS development capabilities and requirements analysis and design capabilities within the context of enterprise architecture. To accomplish this, a survey of IT professionals within the Society for Information Management (SIM) was conducted. Results indicate support for the hypothesized relationship between IS development and requirements capabilities. The hypothesized relationships with the organizational demographics were not supported nor was the hypothesized positive relationship between requirements capabilities and EA perceptions. However, the nature of the relationship of requirements and EA provided important insight into the relationship leading to several explanations as to its meaning and contributions to research and practice. This research contributes to IS development knowledge by providing evidence of the essential role of requirements in IS development capabilities and in IS development maturity. Furthermore, contributions to the nascent field of EA research and practice include key insight into EA maturity, EA implementation success, and the role of IT professionals in EA teams. Moreover, these results provide a template and research plan of action to pursue further EA research in exploring EA maturity models and critical success factors, ...
Date: August 2009
Creator: Salmans, Brian R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Library of Congress: Strong Leadership Needed to Address Serious Information Technology Management Weaknesses

Description: The Library of Congress has established policies and procedures for managing its information technology (IT) resources, but significant weaknesses across several areas have hindered their effectiveness: -Strategic planning: The Library does not have an IT strategic plan that is aligned with the overall agency strategic plan and establishes goals, measures, and strategies. This leaves the Library without a clear direction for its use of IT. -Investment management: Although the Library obligated at least $119 million on IT for fiscal year 2014, it is not effectively managing its investments. To its credit, the Library has established structures for managing IT investments—including a review board and a process for selecting investments. However, the board does not review all key investments, and its roles and responsibilities are not always clearly defined. Additionally, the Library does not have a complete process for tracking its IT spending or an accurate inventory of its assets. For example, while the inventory identifies over 18,000 computers currently in use, officials stated that the Library has fewer than 6,500. Until the Library addresses these weaknesses, its ability to make informed decisions will be impaired. -Information security and privacy: The Library assigned roles and responsibilities and developed policies and procedures for securing its information and systems. However, its implementation of key security and privacy management controls was uneven. For example, the Library's system inventory did not include all key systems. Additionally, the Library did not always fully define and test security controls for its systems, remediate weaknesses in a timely manner, and assess the risks to the privacy of personal information in its systems. Such deficiencies also contributed to weaknesses in technical security controls, putting the Library's systems and information at risk of compromise. -Service management: The Library's Information Technology Services (ITS) division is primarily responsible for providing IT services ...
Date: March 2015
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Information Technology Management: Census Bureau Has Implemented Many Key Practices, but Additional Actions Are Needed

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Census Bureau's mission is to serve as the leading source of high quality data about the American people and the economy. This information is used to determine congressional and state legislative districts and to distribute hundreds of billions of dollars in federal funds each year. Information technology (IT) plays a critical role in the bureau's ability to carry out its missions by supporting data collection, analysis, and dissemination activities. In the past, the bureau has experienced problems with the development, acquisition, and implementation of IT systems. GAO was asked to (1) provide an IT profile of the Census Bureau, including an overview of information technology management and plans for the 2010 decennial census and (2) evaluate the adequacy of the bureau's IT policies, procedures, and practices in the areas of investment management, system development/management, enterprise architecture management, information security, and human capital."
Date: June 16, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing a model of the relationships among organizational performance, IT-business alignment and IT governance.

Description: Information Technology (IT) is often viewed as a resource that is capable of enhancing organizational performance. However, it is difficult for organizations to measure the actual contribution of IT investments. Despite an abundance of literature, there is an insufficiency of generally applicable frameworks and instruments to help organizations definitively assess the relationship among organizational performance, IT-business alignment, and IT governance. Previous studies have emphasized IT-business alignment as an important enabler of organizational effectiveness; however, the direct and indirect effects of IT governance have not been incorporated into these studies. The purpose of this study was (1) to propose a new model that defines the relationships among IT governance, IT-business alignment, and organizational performance, (2) to develop and validate measures for the IT governance and IT-business alignment constructs, and (3) to test this IT Governance-Alignment-Performance or "IT GAP" model. This study made some novel contributions to the understanding of the factors affecting organizational performance. The quest for IT-business alignment in the MIS literature has been based on the presumption that IT contributes directly to organizational performance. However, this study found that although IT-business alignment does contribute to organizational performance, IT governance is an important antecedent of both IT-business alignment and organizational performance. The major contributions of this work are the development and validation of uni-dimensional scales for both IT-business alignment and IT governance, and the confirmation of the validity of the IT GAP model to explain the hypothesized relationships among the three constructs. Future studies may improve upon this research by using different organizations settings, industries, and stakeholders. This study indicates that in order for organizations to improve the value, contribution, and alignment of IT investments they first need to improve the ways in which they govern their IT activities and the processes and mechanisms by which IT decisions are made.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Sanchez Ortiz, Aurora
Partner: UNT Libraries

Information Technology Management: SBA Needs to Establish Policies and Procedures for Key IT Processes

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Small Business Administration's (SBA) management of information technology (IT), focusing on the five key IT process areas--investment management, architecture, information security, software development and acquisition, and human capital management."
Date: May 31, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology Management: Governmentwide Strategic Planning, Performance Measurement, and Investment Management Can Be Further Improved

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Over the years, the Congress has promulgated laws and the Office of Management and Budget and GAO have issued policies and guidance, respectively, on (1) information technology (IT) strategic planning/performance measurement (which defines what an organization seeks to accomplish, identifies the strategies it will use to achieve desired results, and then determines how well it is succeeding in reaching resultsoriented goals and achieving objectives) and (2) investment management (which involves selecting, controlling, and evaluating investments). To obtain an understanding of the government's implementation of these key IT management policies, congressional requesters asked GAO to determine the extent to which 26 major agencies have in place practices associated with key legislative and other requirements for (1) IT strategic planning/ performance measurement and (2) IT investment management."
Date: January 12, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology Management: Social Security Administration Practices Can Be Improved

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Social Security Administration (SSA) needs to identify strengths and weaknesses within its agencywide operational and managerial capabilities to enable the delivery of high-quality customer service in the face of increases in both workloads and in the number of retirements from its experienced workforce. Evaluating SSA's management of information technology (IT) is critical to assess whether the agency is adequately addressing these capabilities. This report reviews SSA's IT policies, procedures, and practices in the following five areas: investment management, enterprise architecture, software acquisition and development, information security, and human capital. GAO found that SSA had many important IT management policies and procedures in place in each of these five key areas but did not always implement them consistently. In some areas, SSA had not established key policies, procedures, or practices essential to ensure that its IT was effectively managed. GAO found weaknesses in all of the five key areas of IT management--particularly in investment management and human capital management."
Date: August 21, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology Management: Coast Guard Practices Can Be Improved

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Coast Guard is now striving to realize its information technology (IT) management vision of being able to "deliver the right information to the right people at the right time" in order to support its various missions. GAO reviewed the Coast Guard's policies and procedures in the areas of investment management, architecture, software acquisition and development, information security, and human capital. GAO found that although the Coast Guard had many important IT management policies in place, it did not always implement them consistently. In addition, there were weaknesses in each of the key IT management areas."
Date: December 12, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology Management: Small Business Administration Needs Policies and Procedures to Control Key IT Processes

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the Small Business Administration's (SBA) management of information technology (IT), focusing on five key areas: (1) investment management; (2) architecture; (3) software development and acquisition; (4) information security; and (5) human capital management."
Date: July 20, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling Utilization of Planned Information Technology

Description: Implementations of information technology solutions to address specific information problems are only successful when the technology is utilized. The antecedents of technology use involve user, system, task and organization characteristics as well as externalities which can affect all of these entities. However, measurement of the interaction effects between these entities can act as a proxy for individual attribute values. A model is proposed which based upon evaluation of these interaction effects can predict technology utilization. This model was tested with systems being implemented at a pediatric health care facility. Results from this study provide insight into the relationship between the antecedents of technology utilization. Specifically, task time provided significant direct causal effects on utilization. Indirect causal effects were identified in task value and perceived utility constructs. Perceived utility, along with organizational support also provided direct causal effects on user satisfaction. Task value also impacted user satisfaction in an indirect fashion. Also, results provide a predictive model and taxonomy of variables which can be applied to predict or manipulate the likelihood of utilization for planned technology.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Stettheimer, Timothy Dwight
Partner: UNT Libraries

Report on the Maturity of the Library’s System Development Life Cycle Processes and Procedures

Description: The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) process applies to information system development projects ensuring that all functional and user requirements are met by using a structured and standardized process during all phases of a system’s life cycle. Systems developed according to information technology (IT) best practices are more likely to provide secure and reliable long‐term performance. The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) engaged CliftonLarsonAllen’s (CLA’s) to perform an audit of the Library’s SDLC process to assess the maturity of the Library’s current policies and practices and to evaluate the efficiency of Information Technology Services’ (ITS) process for structuring, planning, and controlling the development of the Library’s vital information systems. This included an assessment of ITS’ compliance with the Library’s SDLC policy and the application of generally accepted IT best practices. In its report, CLA identified several weaknesses in the Library’s SDLC process that places the Library at risk of developing IT systems that are not adequately documented and lack cost and performance data needed to properly monitor and make prudent IT investment decisions. By optimizing its current SDLC process, the Library can mitigate these risks while improving efficiency and governance of IT system development.
Date: February 2015
Creator: United States. Library of Congress Office of the Inspector General
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of IT Capability on Employee Capability, Customer Value, Customer Satisfaction, and Business Performance

Description: This study empirically examines the impact of IT capability on firms' performance and evaluates whether firms' IT capabilities play a role in improving employee capability, customer value, customer satisfaction, and ultimately business performance. The results were based on comparing the business performance of the IT leader companies with that of control companies of similar size and industry. The IT leader companies were selected from the Information Week 500 list published annually from 2001 to 2004. For a company to be selected as IT leaders, it needed to be listed at least twice during the period. Furthermore, it had to be listed in the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) so that its customer satisfaction level could be assessed. Standard & Poor's Compustat and the ACSI scores were used to test for changes in business performance. The study found that the IT leaders had a raw material cost measured by cost-of-goods-sold to sales ratio (COGS/S) than the control companies. However, it found no evidence that firms' IT capability affects employee capability, customer value, customer satisfaction, and profit. An important implication from this study is that IT becomes a commodity and an attempt to gain a competitive advantage by overinvesting in IT may be futile.
Date: August 2009
Creator: Chae, Ho-Chang
Partner: UNT Libraries

Computer Support Interactions: Verifying a Process Model of Problem Trajectory in an Information Technology Support Environment.

Description: Observations in the information technology (IT) support environment and generalizations from the literature regarding problem resolution behavior indicate that computer support staff seldom store reusable solution information effectively for IT problems. A comprehensive model of the processes encompassing problem arrival and assessment, expertise selection, problem resolution, and solution recording has not been available to facilitate research in this domain. This investigation employed the findings from a qualitative pilot study of IT support staff information behaviors to develop and explicate a detailed model of problem trajectory. Based on a model from clinical studies, this model encompassed a trajectory scheme that included the communication media, characteristics of the problem, decision points in the problem resolution process, and knowledge creation in the form of solution storage. The research design included the administration of an extensive scenario-based online survey to a purposive sample of IT support staff at a medium-sized state-supported university, with additional respondents from online communities of IT support managers and call-tracking software developers. The investigator analyzed 109 completed surveys and conducted email interviews of a stratified nonrandom sample of survey respondents to evaluate the suitability of the model. The investigation employed mixed methods including descriptive statistics, effects size analysis, and content analysis to interpret the results and verify the sufficiency of the problem trajectory model. The study found that expertise selection relied on the factors of credibility, responsibility, and responsiveness. Respondents referred severe new problems for resolution and recorded formal solutions more often than other types of problems, whereas they retained moderate recurring problems for resolution and seldom recorded those solutions. Work experience above and below the 5-year mark affected decisions to retain, refer, or defer problems, as well as solution storage and broadcasting behaviors. The veracity of the problem trajectory model was verified and it was found to be an ...
Date: December 2006
Creator: Strauss, Christopher Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries