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Information Management: Progress in Implementing the 1996 Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments, known as e-FOIA, require federal agencies to make certain types of information available for public inspection. GAO reviewed 25 federal agencies and found that they have implemented many of the e-FOIA provisions. However, agencies have not made all required documents electronically available. Furthermore, the Department of Justice and other federal agencies have implemented reporting provisions required by e-FOIA, including annual workload reports. Although these reports provide a good overview of FOIA activities across the government, data quality issues limit their usefulness."
Date: March 16, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Update on Freedom of Information Act Implementation Status

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Based on principles of openness and accountability in government, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) establishes that federal agencies must provide the public with access to government information, thus enabling them to learn about government operations and decisions. To ensure appropriate implementation of FOIA, Congress requires that agencies report annually to the Attorney General information about agencies' FOIA operations. GAO has recently reported twice on the annual FOIA reports of 25 agencies. In 2001, GAO reported that data-quality issues limited the usefulness of agencies' annual reports. In 2002, GAO reported that fewer agency FOIA reports had data-quality and consistency problems in fiscal year 2001 compared with fiscal year 2000, although some fiscal year 2001 reports did have data anomalies. GAO was asked, among other things, to determine (1) trends of reported FOIA implementation between 2000 and 2002 and (2) progress the 25 agencies have made addressing reporting inconsistencies and data-quality problems in annual FOIA reports."
Date: February 18, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Dissemination of Technical Reports

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This report reviews the Department of Commerce's National Technical Information Service (NTIS), which is a permanent repository and principal disseminator of scientific, technical, engineering, and business-related information. NTIS acquires research reports primarily from federal agencies and their contractors and grantees as well as from international sources. GAO discusses (1) the various functions of NTIS; (2) the quantity, age, and demand trends of reports in NTIS' repository; (3) the extent to which the reports in NTIS' repository are readily available from other public sources; and (4) whether federal agencies are sending their reports to NTIS for sale to the public, as required by law. GAO found that NTIS provides its basic statutory clearinghouse repository function of collecting and disseminating full-text paper reports and various other fee-based services for agencies. These include brokerage services, distribution services, and Web services. NTIS has about 2.5 million reports in its repository that are to be retained permanently. About 75 percent of the reports are more than 12 years old, and NTIS has sold one or more copies of about eight percent of its 2.5 million reports. Of the 1.8 million reports more than 12 years old, only about one percent has sold since 1995. About 19 percent of NTIS reports were readily available from one or more of the four sources at the time GAO searched. Agencies often did not send their reports to NTIS as required by law. The reasons agencies cited for not sending their reports were that they (1) were unaware of the law; (2) would incur additional costs and duplication of effort to format and transfer information to NTIS that is free on the agency's Web site; or (3) did not believe their reports were covered because, ...
Date: May 18, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: National Technical Information Service's Dissemination of Technical Reports Needs Congressional Attention

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "As a component of the Department of Commerce, the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) is organized into five primary offices that offer the public and federal agencies a variety of products and services. As of late October 2012, NTIS was supported by 181 staff, all except 6 of which held full-time positions. NTIS reports its progress toward agency goals to the Deputy Secretary of Commerce, and the Director of NTIS reports to the Director of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology. In addition, NTIS receives oversight of its functions and strategic direction from an advisory board with members appointed by the Secretary of Commerce. NTIS's product and service offerings include, among other things, subscription access to reports contained in its repository in both print and electronic formats, distribution of print-based informational materials to federal agencies' constituents, and digitization and scanning services."
Date: November 19, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Challenges in Managing and Preserving Electronic Records

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Agencies are increasingly moving to an electronic environment rather than paper records. Because electronic records provide comprehensive documentation of essential government functions and provide information necessary to protect government and citizen interests, their proper management is essential. Further, the preservation of significant documents and other records is crucial for the historical record. Responsibility for the government's electronic records lies with the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). NARA completed an assessment of the current federal record keeping environment in 2001 which concluded that although agencies are creating and maintaining records appropriately, most remain unscheduled, and records of historical value are not being identified and provided to NARA for archival preservation. Although NARA plans to improve its guidance and to address technology issues, its plans do not address the low priority generally given to records management programs, nor the issue of systematic inspections. Recognizing the limitations of its technical strategies to support preservation, management, and sustained access to electronic records, NARA is planning to design, acquire, and manage an advanced electronic records (ERA) system. However, NARA is behind schedule for the ERA system, largely because of flaws in how the schedule was developed. Further, to acquire a major system like ERA, NARA needs to improve its information technology management capabilities."
Date: June 17, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Challenges in Implementing an Electronic Records Archive

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Since 2001, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has been working to develop a modern Electronic Records Archives (ERA) system, a major information system that is intended to preserve and provide access to massive volumes of all types and formats of electronic records. The system is being developed incrementally over several years; the first system increment is to provide an initial set of functions, with additional capabilities to be added in future increments. However, in 2007, NARA's contractor acknowledged that it would not be able to meet the planned date for the initial operational capability of the first ERA increment. GAO was asked to provide information on the steps that NARA has taken to respond to the delays encountered in the development. To prepare this testimony, GAO reviewed its previous work in this area, as well as the preliminary results of an ongoing performance audit. For this ongoing audit, GAO analyzed NARA reports, contract documents, and other material related to the ERA development project, and interviewed agency and contractor officials."
Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: The Challenges of Managing Electronic Records

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Federal agencies are increasingly using electronic means to create, exchange, and store information, and in doing so, they frequently create federal records: that is, information, in whatever form, that documents government functions, activities, decisions, and other important transactions. As the volume of electronic information grows, so does the challenge of managing electronic records. Both federal agency heads and the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) have responsibilities for managing federal records. As requested, after providing some context about records management in the federal government and the roles of federal agencies and NARA, this testimony describes the challenges of electronic records management and potential means of addressing these challenges. In preparing this testimony, GAO relied primarily on its previous work, supplemented by analysis of publicly available documents."
Date: June 17, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Implementation of the Freedom of Information Act

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) establishes that federal agencies must provide the public with access to government information, thus enabling them to learn about government operations and decisions. To help ensure appropriate implementation, the act requires that agencies report annually to the Attorney General, providing specific information about their FOIA operations. GAO has reported previously on the contents of these annual reports for 25 major agencies. GAO was asked to describe the FOIA process and discuss the reported implementation of FOIA."
Date: May 11, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Freedom of Information Act Fee and Fee Waiver Processing at the Department of Energy

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) gives the public the right to access information about the federal government. In addressing requests for information, agencies have the authority to assess fees for certain categories of requesters to cover the costs of locating and copying records, as well as discretion to waive fees if specific criteria are met. GAO was asked to determine, for fiscal year 2004, the volume and nature of FOIA request processing at the Department of Energy (DOE), to what extent DOE followed the act and related Office of Management and Budget and Department of Justice guidance in processing cases that involve fees, and to what extent DOE communicated its fee-related decisions to requesters."
Date: May 27, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Acquisition of the Electronics Records Archives Is Progressing

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Since 2001, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has been working to acquire the Electronic Records Archives (ERA) system. In August 2004, NARA awarded two contracts to design the ERA system. The agency plans to select one of the resulting designs for the development of the system in August 2005. Conference Report 108-792 directed GAO to report on ERA's costs, schedule, and performance. Our objectives were to determine (1) the extent to which NARA has achieved the ERA program's cost, schedule, and performance objectives and the extent to which the agency has identified risks to future objectives; and (2) the status of NARA's efforts to address prior GAO recommendations on the acquisition."
Date: July 15, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Information Management: Continuing Implementation Challenges Highlight the Need for Improvement

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the Department of Defense's (DOD) efforts to implement the Clinger-Cohen Act and strengthen its information technology (IT) management processes."
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Planning for the Electronic Records Archives Has Improved

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Since 2001, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has been working to develop the policies and plans to build the Electronic Records Archives (ERA), a major information system that is intended to preserve and provide access to massive volumes of all types and formats of electronic records. Senate Report 108-146 directed GAO to provide a progress report on NARA's development of the ERA system. Specifically, GAO's objective was to determine the agency's progress in implementing recommendations from previous assessments."
Date: September 23, 2004
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Electronic Dissemination of Government Publications

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Electronic dissemination of government documents can reduce distribution costs and make government information more usable and accessible. However, the transition to a paperless environment will require that several challenges be overcome. Transferring the depository library program to the Library of Congress entails both advantages and disadvantages. In studies done in 1993 and 1994, the Library concluded that the depository library program was not inconsistent with the mission and functions of the Library and that it might be appropriate for the Library to oversee this program. However, the Government Printing Office (GPO) believes that the Library is not an appropriate home for the depository library program because the Library's mission and operations are inconsistent with a large-scale information dissemination program. In addition, the studies and librarian organizations raised concerns about the potential negative effects of the transfer on public access to information and the availability of funds to maintain the current program. If a decision is made to transfer the depository library program, the concerns raised by library organizations and employee unions should be addressed. One option for addressing these issues is to form a GPO/Library transition team to develop appropriate strategies."
Date: March 30, 2001
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Selected Agencies' Handling of Personal Information

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "To obtain government services, members of the public must often provide agencies with personal information, which includes both identifying information (such as name or Social Security number, which can be used to locate to identify someone) and nonidentifying information (such as age or gender). GAO was asked to review agencies' handling of the personal information they collect and whether this handling conforms with federal law, regulation, and agency guidance."
Date: September 30, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Challenges In Federal Agencies' Use of Web 2.0 Technologies

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins ""Web 2.0" technologies--such as Web logs ("blogs"), social networking Web sites, video- and multimedia-sharing sites, and "wikis"--are increasingly being utilized by federal agencies to communicate with the public. These tools have the potential to, among other things, better include the public in the governing process. However, agency use of these technologies can present risks associated with properly managing and protecting government records and sensitive information, including personally identifiable information. In light of the rapidly increasing popularity of Web 2.0 technologies, GAO was asked to identify and describe current uses of Web 2.0 technologies by federal agencies and key challenges associated with their use. To accomplish this, GAO analyzed federal policies, reports, and guidance related to the use of Web 2.0 technologies and interviewed officials at selected federal agencies, including the Department of Homeland Security, the General Services Administration, and the National Archives and Records Administration."
Date: July 22, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: Update on Implementation of the 1996 Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The 1966 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) established the public's right of access to government information, on the basis of openness and accountability. The 1996 Electronic Freedom of Information Act (e-FOIA) Amendments extended these principles to include electronic access to information. Under the act, the Department of Justice provides implementing guidance to agencies. In addition, agencies report annually to Justice on their FOIA operations. GAO was asked to determine, among other things, (1) agencies' progress in improving their timeliness in responding to requests for information and (2) the actions Justice has taken on previous GAO recommendations (GAO-01-378, Mar. 16, 2001) to improve data quality in annual reports and on-line availability of government information."
Date: August 30, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing the Reliability of Computer-Processed Data (Supersedes GAO-03-273G)

Description: Guidance issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This publication supersedes GAO-03-273G, Assessing the Reliability of Computer-Processed Data, October 2002. GAO published a guide to assist its auditing staff in ensuring the reliability of computer-based data. The guidance provides a flexible, risk-based framework for data reliability assessments that can be geared to the specific circumstances of each engagement. The framework is built on (1) making use of all existing information about the data; (2) performing at least a minimal level of data testing; (3) doing only the amount of work necessary to determine whether the data are reliable enough for GAO's purposes; (4) maximizing professional judgment; and (5) bringing the appropriate people, including management, to the table at key decision points."
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing the Reliability of Computer-Processed Data (Superseded by GAO-09-680G)

Description: Guidance issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This publication has been superseded by GAO-09-680G, Assessing the Reliability of Computer-Processed Data, July 2009. GAO published a guide to assist its auditing staff in ensuring the reliability of computer-based data. The guidance provides a flexible, risk-based framework for data reliability assessments that can be geared to the specific circumstances of each engagement. The framework is built on (1) making use of all existing information about the data; (2) performing at least a minimal level of data testing; (3) doing only the amount of work necessary to determine whether the data are reliable enough for GAO's purposes; (4) maximizing professional judgment; and (5) bringing the appropriate people, including management, to the table at key decision points."
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementing Information Security and Its Technology: A LineManagement Perspective

Description: Assuring the security and privacy of institutionalinformation assets is a complex task for the line manager responsible forinternational and multi-national transactions. In the face of an unsureand often conflicting international legal framework, the line managermust employ all available tools in an Integrated Security and PrivacyManagement framework that ranges from legal obligations, to policy, toprocedure, to cutting edge technology to counter the rapidly evolvingcyber threat to information assets and the physical systems thatinformation systems control.
Date: August 22, 2005
Creator: Barletta, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: The National Archives and Records Administration's Fiscal Year 2007 Expenditure Plan

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Since 2001, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has been working to acquire the Electronic Records Archives (ERA) system. As required by law, the agency submitted its fiscal year 2007 expenditure plan to congressional appropriations committees, seeking the release of $23.4 million for the development of the system. GAO's objectives in reviewing the expenditure plan were to (1) determine the extent to which the expenditure plan satisfied the legislative conditions specified in the appropriations act; (2) determine the extent to which NARA has implemented GAO's prior recommendations; and (3) provide any other observations about the expenditure plan and the ERA acquisition. GAO reviewed the expenditure plan and analyzed it against the legislative conditions and assessed NARA's progress in addressing prior recommendations. In May 2007, GAO briefed staff of the Senate subcommittee and sent a copy of the briefing to the House and Senate subcommittee staffs."
Date: July 27, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Management: The National Archives and Records Administration's Fiscal Year 2008 Expenditure Plan

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "To preserve and provide access to all types of electronic records, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has been developing an Electronic Records Archive (ERA), including a base system for federal records and a separate system for presidential records, known as the Executive Office of the President (EOP) system. As mandated by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008, NARA must submit an expenditure plan to the Congress that satisfies six conditions. GAO was asked to determine the extent to which NARA's fiscal year 2008 expenditure plan satisfies the conditions and provide any other observations about the plan and the ERA acquisition. To do this, GAO reviewed the expenditure plan, interviewed NARA and contractor officials, and reviewed additional documentation."
Date: September 26, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department