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Studies of layered double hydroxides

Description: This work concerns some synthetic processes and basic properties of layered double hydroxides (LDHs). A series of LDHs, a family of newly developed materials found to have many potential uses in industry, were investigated in relating to the origin of life on early Earth.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Zhao, Jingxian
Partner: UNT Libraries

Thermodynamic and Structural Studies of Layered Double Hydroxides

Description: The preparation of layered double hydroxides via titration with sodium hydroxide was thoroughly investigated for a number of M(II)/M(III) combinations. These titration curves were examined and used to calculate nominal solubility product constants and other thermodynamic quantities for the various LDH chloride systems.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Boclair, Joseph W. (Joseph Walter)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Hydrolytic polymerization of chromium (III) hydroxides in the aquatic environment

Description: Products of hydrolytic polymerization of Cr(III) hydroxide were investigated in Milli-Q water and in natural water matrices. Products were first fractionated on Sephadex column using eluents of increasing strength. Ion chromatography (IC) with UV detection at 436 nm was then used to separate the ionic species.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Mbamalu, Godwin E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Layered Double Hydroxides as Anion- and Cation-Exchanging Materials

Description: Layered double hydroxides (LDH) have been principally known as anion-exchanging, clay-like materials for several decades, and continues to be the main driving force for current and future research. The chemical interactions of LDH, with transition metallocyanides, have been a popular topic of investigation for many years, partly due to the use of powder x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy as the main characterization tools. Each transition metallocyanide has a characteristic infrared stretching frequency that can be easily observed, and their respective sizes can be observed while intercalated within the interlayer of the LDH. The ability of LDH to incorporate metal cations or any ions/molecules/complexes, that have a postive charge, have not been previously investigated, mainly due to the chemical and physical nature of LDH. The possibility of cationic incorporation with LDH would most likely occur by surface adsorption, lattice metal replacement, or by intercalation into the LDH interlayers. Although infrared spectroscopy finds it main use through the identification of the anions incorporated with LDH, it can also be used to study and identify the various active and inactive bending and stretching modes that the metal hydroxide layers have.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Richardson, Mickey Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis and Characterization of Copper(II) Complexes

Description: A series of dihydroxy bridged copper(II) complexes of the type [(L)Cu(OH)₂Cu(L)]x₂ * nH₂0, where L is 2,2'-bipyridine, 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline, x is a counter ion, and n is the number of water molecules, was synthesized. In the case of monohydroxy bridged copper(II) complexes, we have found a new method of synthesis for [ (L)₂Cu(OH)Cu(L)₂ ] (ClO₄)₃, where L is 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline. We have synthesized five new monohydroxy bridged copper(II) complexes, thus increasing the number of monohydroxy bridged copper(II) complexes to nine. All complexes have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, magnetic moments, and elemental analysis. The electron spin resonance results establish that the fulvic acids contain organic free radicals as an internal part of their molecular structure. The concentration of unpaired electrons will increase by increasing the pH. The unpaired electron in fulvic acid interacts with the unpaired electron on copper(II) through the Π system, and this will decrease the spin concentration of fulvic acid complexed with copper(II). The displacement of titration curve from a free ligand (fructose-1,6-diphosphate, ribulose-1,5-diphosphate, phospherine, phosphothreonine, and 3-phosphoglyceric acid, to a ligand plus copper(II) (1:1 ratio) shows there is a strong interaction between copper(II) and the corresponding ligand. All complexes absorb UV-visible at 250-300 nm. The absorption intensity changes as a function of pH. Copper (II) forms a complex with fructose-1,6-diphosphate, ribulose-1,5-diphosphate, phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, and 3-phosphoglyceric acid by the ratio of 1:3, 1:3, 1:1, 1:1, and 1:2, respectively.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Amani, Saeid
Partner: UNT Libraries

``In-situ'' spectro-electrochemical studies of radionuclide-contaminated surface films on metals

Description: The incorporation of heavy metal ions and radioactive contaminants into hydrous oxide films has been investigated in order to provide fundamental knowledge that could lead to the technological development of cost-effective processes and techniques for the decontamination of storage tanks, piping systems, surfaces, etc., in DOE nuclear facilities. The formation of oxide/hydroxide films was simulated by electrodeposition onto a graphite substrate from solutions of the appropriate metal salt. Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), supplemented by Laser Raman Spectroscopy (LRS), was used to determine the structure and composition of the host oxide film, as well as the impurity ion. Results have been obtained for the incorporation of Ce, Sr, Cr, Fe, and U into hydrous nickel oxide films. Ce and Sr oxides/hydroxides are co-precipitated with the nickel oxides in separate phase domains. Cr and Fe, on the other hand, are able to substitute into Ni lattice sites or intercalate in the interlamellar positions of the brucite structure of Ni(OH){sub 2}. U was found to co-deposit as a U(VI) hydroxide. The mode of incorporation of metal ions depends both on the size and charge of the metal ion. The structure of iron oxide (hydroxide) films prepared by both anodic and cathodic deposition has also been extensively studied. The structure of Fe(OH){sub 2} was determined to be similar to that of {alpha}-Ni(OH){sub 2}. Anodic deposition from solutions containing Fe{sup 2+} results in a film with a structure similar to {gamma}-FeOOH. From the knowledge gained from the present studies, principles and methods for decontamination have become apparent. Contaminants sorbed on oxide surfaces or co-precipitated may be removed by acid wash and selective dissolution or complexation. Ions incorporated into lattice sites and interlamellar layers will require more drastic cleaning procedures. Electropolishing and the use of an electrochemical brush are among concepts that should be considered ...
Date: February 16, 2000
Creator: Melendres, C.A.; Mini, S. & Mansour, A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Aging Quartz Sand and Hanford Site Sediment with Sodium Hydroxide on Radionuclide Sorption Coefficients and Sediment Physical and Hydrologic Properties: Final Report for Subtask 2a

Description: Column and batch experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the effect of varying concentrations of NaOH on the sorptive, physical, and hydraulic properties of two media, a quartz sand and a composite subsurface sediment from the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. The NaOH solutions were used as a simplified effluent from a low-activity glass waste form. These experiments were conducted over a limited (O-to 10-month) contact time, with respect to the 10,000-to 100,000-year scenarios described in the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste- Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA). Wheq these two solids were put in contact with the NaOH solutions, dissolution was evident by a substantial increase in dissolved Si concentrations in the leachates. Incremental increases in NaOH con- centrations, resulted in corresponding increases in Si concentrations. A number of physical and hydraulic properties also changed as the NaOH concentrations were changed. It was observed that quartz sand was less reactive than the composite sediment. Further, moisture- retention measurements were made on the quartz sand and composite sedimen$ which showed that the NaOH-treated solids retained more water than the non-NaOH-treated solids. Because the other chemical, physical, and hydraulic measurements did not change dramatically after the high-NaOH treatments, the greater moisture retention of the high-NaOH treatments was attributed to a "salt effect" and not to the formation of small particles during the dissolution (weathering). The distribution coefficients (IQ) for Cs and Sr were measured on the NaOH-treated sediments, with decreases from -3,000 to 1,000 and 1,300 to 300 mL/g noted, respectively, at the 0.01-to 1.O-M NaOH levels. There was no apparent trend for the Sr & values with contact time. The lack of such a trend sug- gests that dissolution of sediment particles is not controlling the drop in IQ rather, it is the competition of the ...
Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Kaplan, DI; Ritter, JC & Parker, KE
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of Substituted Benzenesulfonate-Containing Layered Double Hydroxides and Investigation of the Hexamethylenetetramine Route of LDH Synthesis

Description: Benzenesulfonates, para-substituted with amine, chloride and methyl groups were successfully incorporated into layered double hydroxides of two different compositions, 2:1 Mg-Al LDH and 2:1 Zn-Al LDH. These parent materials were also doped with small amounts of nickel and the differences in the two systems were studied. The hexamethylenetetramine route of layered double hydroxide synthesis was investigated to verify if the mechanism is indeed homogeneous. This included attempting preparation of 2:1 Mg-Al LDH, 2:1 Zn-Al LDH and 2:1 Zn-Cr LDH with two different concentrations of hexamethylenetetramine. The analytical data of the products suggest that the homogeneous precipitation may not be the true mechanism of reaction involved in LDH synthesis by this method.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Ambadapadi, Sriram
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electrochemical Synthesis and Applications of Layered Double Hydroxides and Derivatives

Description: Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are a class of anionic clay with alternating layers of positive and negative charge. A metal hydroxide layer with divalent and trivalent metals with a positive charge is complemented by an interlayer region containing anions and water with a negative charge. The anions can be exchanged under favorable conditions. Hydrotalcite (Mg6Al2(OH)16[CO3]·4H2O) and other variations are naturally occurring minerals. Synthetic LDH can be prepared as a powder or film by numerous methods. Synthetic LDH is used in electrode materials, adsorbents, nuclear waste treatment, drug delivery systems, water treatment, corrosion protection coatings, and catalysis. In this dissertation Zn-Al-NO3 derivatives of zaccagnaite (Zn4Al2(OH)12[CO3]·3H2O) are electrochemically synthesized as films and applied to sensing and corrosion resistance applications. First, Zn-Al-NO3 LDH was potentiostatically electrosynthesized on glassy carbon substrates and applied to the electrochemical detection of gallic acid and caffeic acid in aqueous solutions. The modified electrode was then applied to the detection of gallic acid in green tea samples. The focus of the work shifts to corrosion protection of stainless steel. Modified zaccagnaite films were electrodeposited onto stainless steel in multiples layers to reduce defects caused by drying of the films. The films were deposited using a step potential method. The corrosion resistance of the films in a marine environment was investigated while immersed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl environments. Next modified zaccagnaite films were potentiostatically electrodeposited onto stainless steel followed by a hydrophobization reaction with palmitic acid in order to prepare superhydrophobic (>150° contact angle) surfaces. Each parameter of the film synthesis was optimized to produce a surface with the highest possible contact angle. The fifth chapter examines the corrosion resistance of the optimized superhydrophobic film and a hydrophobic film. The hydrophobic film is prepared using the same procedure as the superhydrophobic film except for a difference in electrodeposition potential. The ...
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Date: August 2015
Creator: Kahl, Michael S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) for the PUREX facility MC-312 cargo tank

Description: This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes transport of sodium hydroxide solutions, potassium hydroxide solutions, and water in the MC-312 cargo tank, registration number HO-64-05473,on the Hanford Site without a complete U.S. Department of Transportation maintenance inspection. These materials are acceptable for transport in the MC- 312 cargo tank per 49 CFR172.101.
Date: July 18, 1996
Creator: Flanagan, B. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cesium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution of Analytical Reference Glass-1 in Both Powder and Shard Form

Description: CsOH has been shown to be an effective and convenient dissolution reagent for Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1). This glass standard was prepared from nonradioactive DWPF Start-up Glass. Therefore, its composition is similar to DWPF product glass and many of the glass matrices prepared at SRTC.The principal advantage of the CsOH fusion dissolution is that the reagent does not add the alkali metals Li, Na, and K usually needed by SRS customers. Commercially available CsOH is quite pure so that alkali metals can be measured accurately, often without blank corrections. CsOH fusions provide a single dissolution method for applicable glass to replace multiple dissolution schemes used by most laboratories. For example, SRTC glass samples are most commonly dissolved with a Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}-NaOH fusion (ref.1) and a microwave- assisted acid dissolution with HNO{sub 3}-HF-H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}-HCl (ref.2). Othe laboratories use fusion methods based on KOH, LiBO{sub 2}, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} CsOH fusion approach reduces by half not only the work in the dissolution laboratory, but also in the spectroscopy laboratories that must analyze each solution.Experiments also revealed that glass shards or pellets are rapidly attacked if the flux temperature is raised considerably above the glass softening point. The softening point of ARG-1 glass is near 650 degrees C. Fusions performed at 750 degrees C provided complete dissolutions and accurate elemental analyses of shards. Successful dissolution of glass shards was demonstrated with CsOH, Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}, NaOH, KOH, and RbOH. Ability to dissolve glass shards is of considerable practical importance. Crushing glass to a fine powder is a slow and tedious task, especially for radioactive glasses dissolved in shielded cells. CsOH fusion of glass powder or shards is a convenient, cost-effective dissolution scheme applicable in SRTC, the DWPF, and the commercial glass industry.
Date: April 1998
Creator: Coleman, C. J. & Spencer, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Layered Double Hydroxides: Synthesis, Characterization, and Interaction of Mg-Al Systems with Intercalated Tetracyanonickelate(II)

Description: The square-planar tetracyanonickelate(II) anion was intercalated into 2:1 and 3:1 Mg-Al layered double hydroxide systems (LDHs). In the 2:1 material, the anion holds itself at an angle of about 30° to the layers, whereas in the 3:1 material it lies more or less parallel to the layers. This is confirmed by orientation effects in the infrared spectra of the intercalated materials and by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. The measured basal spacings for the intercalated LDH hosts are approximately 11 Å for the 2:1 and approximately 8 Å for the 3:1. The IR of the 2:1 material shows a slight splitting in the ν(CN) peak, which is suppressed in that compound's oriented IR spectrum, indicating that at least some of the intercalated anion's polarization is along the z-axis. This effect is not seen in the 3:1 material. A comparison between chloride LDHs and nitrate LDHs was made with respect to intercalation of tetracyanonickelate(II) anions. Both XRD data and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) data of the LDH tetracyanonickelates confirms that there are no significant differences between the products from the two types of starting materials. The presence of a weak ν(NO) peak in the IR spectra of those samples made from nitrate parents indicates the presence of small amounts of residual [NO3]- in those systems. Small amounts of Cl- present in the chloride-derived samples, while perhaps detectable using AAS, would not be detectable in this manner. An attempted synthesis of Mg-Al LDH carbonates starting from reduced Mg and Al was unsuccessful due to pH constraints on hydroxide solubility in the solvent system used (water). The pH required to precipitate Al(OH)3 in the system was too high to allow precipitation of Mg(OH)2. Consequently, we found it impossible to have both of the required metal hydroxides present simultaneously in the system. An additional synthesis ...
Date: August 2004
Creator: Brister, Fang Wei
Partner: UNT Libraries

Layered Double Hydroxides: Morphology, Interlayer Anion, and the Origins of Life

Description: The preparation of layered double hydroxides via co-precipitation of a divalent/trivalent metal solution against a base results in 1 mm LDH particles with a disorganized metal lattice. Research was performed to address these morphological issues using techniques such as Ostwald ripening and precipitation via aluminate. Another interesting issue in layered double hydroxide materials is the uptake and orientation of anions into the interlayer. Questions about iron cyanide interlayer anions have been posed. Fourier transform infared spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction have been used to investigate these topics. It was found that factors such as orientation, anion charge, and anion structure depended on the divalent/trivalent metal ratio of the hydroxide layer and reactivity time. The cyanide self-addition reaction is an important reaction of classical prebiotic chemistry. This reaction has been shown to give rise to amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. At cyanide concentrations similar to that expected on the early earth, hydrolysis to formamide rather than self-addition occurs. One theory to alleviate this side reaction is the use of minerals or clays that are thought to concentrate and catalyze prebiotics of interest. Layered double hydroxides have been studied as a catalyst for this reaction.
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Date: December 2002
Creator: Halcom-Yarberry, Faith Marie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

Description: The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of possible physical-chemical processes that might lead to separations of actinides in ORNL waste tanks

Description: The concern that there might be some physical-chemical process which would lead to a separation of the poisoning actinides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U) from the fissionable ones ({sup 239}Pu, {sup 235}U) in waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to a paper study of potential separations processes involving these elements. At the relatively high pH values (>8), the actinides are normally present as precipitated hydroxides. Mechanisms that might then selectively dissolve and reprecipitate the actinides through thermal processes or additions of reagents were addressed. Although redox reactions, pH changes, and complexation reactions were all considered, only the last type was regarded as having any significant probability. Furthermore, only carbonate accumulation, through continual unmonitored air sparging of the tank contents, could credibly account for gross transport and separation of the actinide components. From the large amount of equilibrium data in the literature, concentration differences in Th, U, and Pu due to carbonate complexation as a function of pH have been presented to demonstrate this phenomenon. While the carbonate effect does represent a potential separations process, control of long-term air sparging and solution pH, accompanied by routine determinations of soluble carbonate concentration, should ensure that this separations process does not occur.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.; Bond, W.D. & Dai, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Importance of electronic relaxation for inter-coulombic decay in aqueous systems

Description: Inspired by recent photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments on hydroxide solutions, we have examined the conditions necessary for enhanced (and, in the case of solutions, detectable) intercoulombic decay (ICD)--Auger emission from an atomic site other than that originally excited. We present general guidelines, based on energetic and spatial overlap of molecular orbitals, for this enhancement of ICDbased energy transfer in solutions. These guidelines indicate that this decay process should be exhibited by broad classes of biomolecules and suggest a design criterion for targeted radiooncology protocols. Our findings show that PES cannot resolve the current hydroxide coordination controversy.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Schwartz, Craig P.; Fatehi, Shervin; Saykally, Richard J. & Prendergast, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Planning and Implementation of an Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) Field Project

Description: The Warden ASP project has progressed from the initial planning stage to construction of an injection plant. An ASP chemical system was designed based on laboratory evaluations that included interfacial tension, mobility requirements, rock-alkali interaction, fluid capabilities, and core tests. Field cores were obtained from the Permian No. 5 and No. 6 sands on the Warden lease in Sho-Vel-Tum oil field. A separate tank battery for the pilot pattern area was installed, and a field tracer test is currently being evaluated. Tracer test results to date indicate that there is no major fracturing in the No. 5 sand. There is indication, however, of some channeling through high permeability sand. The field injection plant was designed, and construction is in progress. Several variations of injection plant design have been evaluated. Some plant design details, such as alkali storage, were found to be dependent on the availability of use equipment and project budget. The surfactant storage facility design was shown to be dependent on surfactant rheology.
Date: March 5, 1999
Creator: French, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NICKEL HYDROXIDES

Description: Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.
Date: November 1997
Creator: McBreen, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department