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Effects of Aging on ACTH-Stimulated Steroidogenesis in Subcellular Fractions from Rat Adrenal Glands

Description: Young, middle-aged and old rat adrenal gland steroidogenesis was measured in isolated, superfused glands and in their subcellular fractions before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. In the latter experiment, five corticosteroids were extracted from six different subcellular fractions. Superfused glands initially produced relatively high glucocorticoid levels; thereafter, production decayed asymptotically. Steroidogenesis by young and middle-aged glands was maintained at least 1.5 to 2.5 hours before it decayed; old glands were 50% less active than younger ones and production decayed within one hour. High cholesterol and progesterone levels in certain old gland fractions were associated with correspondingly reduced 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone. It is suggested that synthesis of these glucocorticoids from their accumulating precursors weakens with age.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Sawada, Tadao
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Long Term Modernate Ethanol Intake on Plasma Levels of ACTH, Beta Endorphin, and Corticosterone in Rats

Description: The effects of single injections and daily oral administration of ethanol on plasma levels of ACTH, beta endorphin, and corticosterone in response to cold stress were examined. The long-term experimental animals were given 0.25 ml of 28% ethanol or water orally once a day, five days a week, for fourteen months. Plasma levels of ACTH, beta endorphin, and corticosterone were lower in alcohol-treated rats as compared with water-treated rats when exposed to cold stress. The effects of a single injection of ethanol significantly elevated plasma levels of all three hormones. Mortality in sham-treated males was higher than ethanol-treated.
Date: December 1990
Creator: Breedlove, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Acute Hormonal Response to the Kettlebell Swing Exercise

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute hormonal response to a bout of kettlebell swing exercise. Ten healthy men (19-30 y, 23.6 ± 3.5 y, 174.6 ± 5.7 cm, 78.7 ± 9.9 kg) who were engaged in resistance training at least twice per week but were inexperienced with kettlebell swings participated in this study. Participants were familiarized with the kettlebell swing exercise during an initial visit. During the subsequent experimental protocol visit, participants performed 12 rounds of 30 seconds of 16-kg kettlebell swings alternated with 30 seconds of rest. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the end of every round of swings. Fasted blood samples were collected pre-exercise (PRE), immediately post (IP), 15 minutes post (P15), and 30 minutes post exercise (P30) and analyzed for total testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and lactate concentrations. Participants completed a total of 227 ± 23 swings (average swings per round: 19 ± 2). HR and RPE increased significantly (P < 0.05) throughout the exercise protocol. Lactate concentrations were significantly increased at all post exercise time points compared to PRE. T was significantly increased at IP compared to PRE. GH was significantly increased at IP, P15, and P30 compared to PRE. Cortisol was significantly increased at IP and P15 compared to PRE. 12 rounds of 30 seconds of kettlebell swing exercise induced an acute increase in T, GH, and cortisol concentrations in resistance trained men. Additionally, this exercise protocol induced a large increase in HR and lactate concentration. Thus, the kettlebell swing exercise might provide an effective method for simultaneous endurance and resistance training.
Date: December 2013
Creator: Budnar Jr., Ronald Gene
Partner: UNT Libraries

A possible mechanism for steroid transport and corticosterone release in the zona fasciculata-reticularis of rat adrenal cortex

Description: The mechanism of steroid transport and corticosterone secretion in the zona fasciculata-reticularis of rat adrenal cortex was investigated by measuring the subcellular distribution and concentrations of steroids following ACTH stimulation.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Mathew, Joseph K.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of the Resistance Exercise-Induced Hormonal Changes on Satellite Cell Myogenic State

Description: Skeletal muscle satellite cells are important for muscle repairing and muscle mass growth. For a successful muscle regenerative process, satellite cells have to sequentially undergoing different stages of myogenic process, i.e. proliferative state and differentiation state. To support this process, the presence of different circulating factors, such as immune cells, cytokines, and hormones, at the appropriate time course is critical. Among these factors, hormones, such as testosterone, cortisol, and IGF-1, have shown to play an important role in satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Studies investigated the effect of testosterone on satellite cell using a supraphysiological dose in human or in cell culture demonstrated that testosterone is critical in satellite cell myogenic process. Due to the anabolic effect of testosterone on muscle, studies had been focused on the physiological means to increase the circulating testosterone concentration in the body to maximize the muscle mass growth from resistance exercise. The acute and transient increase in testosterone has shown to be beneficial to muscle mass growth and strength gain; however, this change in physiological testosterone concentration on satellite cell myogenesis is not known. Therefore the purpose of this dissertation is to first determine the effect of acute change in exercise-induced hormones on satellite cell myogenic state, then to determine if testosterone promotes satellite cell proliferation.
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Date: May 2018
Creator: Luk, Hui Ying
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Post-exercise Ethanol Consumption on the Acute Hormonal Response to Heavy Resistance Exercise in Women

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the hormonal response to acute ethanol ingestion following a bout of heavy resistance exercise in women. Eight resistance trained women completed two identical acute heavy resistance exercise tasks (AHRET). From 10-20 minutes post-AHRET, participants consumed either a grain ethanol or a placebo beverage. Blood was collected before (PRE) and immediately after the AHRET (IP) and then every 20 minutes for five hours. Blood collected after beverage ingestion was pooled into 3 batches (phases: 20-40 minutes, 60-120 minutes, and 140-300 minutes post-exercise) and analyzed for serum total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), human growth hormone (GH), cortisol (COR), and estradiol (E2) concentrations. Circulating concentrations of TT were significantly greater at P20-40 than at PRE, P60-120, and P140-300. Circulating concentrations of FT were significantly greater at P20-40 than at all other times. Circulating concentrations of GH were significantly greater at IP than at PRE, P60-120, and P140-300. Circulating concentrations of COR were significantly greater at P20-40 than at all other times. Additionally, COR concentrations at P140-300 were significantly lower than at all other times. Circulating concentrations of IGF-1 were significantly greater at P20-40 than at P60-120 and P140-300. Circulating concentrations of E2 were significantly greater at P20-40 than at all other times. In summary, the present study demonstrated an acute modulation of the neuroendocrine milieu following a heavy resistance exercise bout in women. Ethanol ingestion appeared to have no significant effect on the characteristics of acute hormonal augmentation in TT, FT, GH, COR, IGF-1, or E2.
Date: December 2015
Creator: Budnar, Jr., Ronald G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pathophysiology of Stress-Induced Limbic Lobe Dysfunction: A Hypothesis for NDEs

Description: This paper discusses the strong resemblance of near-death experiences (NDEs) to complex hallucinations associated with limbic lobe dysfunction. The paper presents the hypothesis that neurohormones with the capacity to influence hippocampal activity may also cause characteristics of NDE limbic lobe syndrome.
Date: June 1982
Creator: Carr, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Phytohormones on Scenedesmus quadricauda

Description: The literature on the effects of phytohormone on algae is clouded with contradictory reports. Reports have been published which substantiate and deny the effects of phytohormones in enhancing the growth and developmental processes in algae. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the response, if any, of the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid A3 (GA) and kinetin on the physiology of the green alga, Scenedesmus quadricauda. Results obtained for the uptake of 14^C-IAA an(j l4C-kinetin by Scenedesmus strongly support the presumption that the alga does not absorb the hormones. The retention of the phytohormones by the alga is due to adsorption, and is independent of hormone concentration. Most of the label was adsorbed by the outer pectic layers of the cell wall.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Alam, Mohammad Ihtisham
Partner: UNT Libraries

Non-carrier-added 186, 188Re labeled 17a-ethynylestradiol : a potential breast cancer imaging and therapy agent

Description: Receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals constitute potential agents for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of diagnosed cancer in women in the United States, and it accounts for the second highest number of cases of cancer fatalities (1). In Approximately two-thirds of the breast tumors, estrogen and progesterone steroid hormone receptors can be found. Such tumors can often be treated successfully with anti-estrogen hormone therapy (2). Hence, the ability to determine the estrogen receptor (ER) contend of the breast tumor is essential for making the most appropriate choice of treatment for the patient. Along with this diagnostic aspect, steroid-based radiopharmaceuticals with high specific activity offer an encouraging prospect for therapeutic applications: {sup 186,188}Re labeled steroids binding to receptors expressed by cancer cells appear to be potential agents for the irradiation of small to medium-sized tumors. {sup 186}Re has been regarded as an ideal radionuclide for radiotherapy due to its appropriate half-live of 90 h and {beta}-energy of 1.07 MeV. Moreover, the {gamma}-emission of 137 keV that allows in vivo imaging while in therapy is an additional bonus. {sup 188}Re is obtained from a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re radionuclide generator system, representing an advantage for availability at radiopharmacy laboratory by daily elution. In addition, {sup 188}Re emits high energy beta particles with an average energy of 769 keV, and the emission of the 155 keV allows simultaneous imaging for biodistribution evaluation in vivo. In order to avoid competitive saturation of the binding sites of the ligand receptor, Re labeled steroids with high specific activity are required, and the removal of all excess unlabeled ligands is mandatory. {sup 188}Re is eluted from a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator produced and provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (3). This paper outlines the solid phase-supported preparation of an n.c.a. [{sup 188}Re]Re-imido estradiol ...
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Fassbender, M. E. (Michael E.); Phillips, Dennis R.; Peterson, E. J. (Eugene J.); Ott, K. C. (Kevin C.) & Arterburn, J. B. (Jeffrey B.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laminin Mediates Tissue-specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia

Description: Tissue-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium is dependent on the extracellular matrix as well as hormones. There is good evidence that the basement membrane provides signals for regulating beta-casein expression, and that integrins are involved in this process. Here, we demonstrate that in the presence of lactogenic hormones, laminin can direct expression of the beta-casein gene. Mouse mammary epithelial cells plated on gels of native laminin or laminin-entactin undergo functional differentiation. On tissue culture plastic, mammary cells respond to soluble basement membrane or purified laminin, but not other extracellular matrix components, by synthesizing beta-casein. In mammary cells transfected with chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter constructs, laminin activates transcription from the beta-casein promoter through a specific enhancer element. The inductive effect of laminin on casein expression was specifically blocked by the E3 fragment of the carboxy terminal region of the alpha 1 chain of laminin, by antisera raised against the E3 fragment, and by a peptide corresponding to a sequence within this region. Our results demonstrate that laminin can direct tissue-specific gene expression in epithelial cells through its globular domain.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Streuli, Charles H; Schmidhauser, Christian; Bailey, Nina; Yurchenco, Peter; Skubitz, Amy P. N.; Roskelley, Calvin et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Hormone-Regulated Differential Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis

Description: The authors have utilized the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to the plant hormone ethylene to identify new genes involved in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and differential cell growth. In building a genetic framework for the action of these genes, they developed a molecular model that has facilitated the understanding of the molecular requirements of ethylene for cell elongation processes. The ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis appears to be primarily linear and is defined by the genes: ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, ERS2, EIN4, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, EIN5 EIN6, and EIN. Downstream branches identified by the HLS1, EIR1, and AUX1 genes involve interactions with other hormonal (auxin) signals in the process of differential cell elongation in the hypocotyl hook. Cloning and characterization of HLS1 and three HLS1-LIKE genes in the laboratory has been supported under this award. HLS1 is required for differential elongation of cells in the hypocotyl and may act in the establishment of hormone gradients. Also during the award period, they have identified and begun preliminary characterization of two genes that genetically act upstream of the ethylene receptors. ETO1 and RAN1 encode negative regulators of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling respectively. Progress on the analysis of these genes along with HOOKLESS1 is described.
Date: December 3, 2002
Creator: Ecker, Joseph R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of PIK3CA, PTEN and AKT mutations in breast cancer

Description: Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway aberrations are common in cancer. By applying mass spectroscopy-based sequencing and reverse phase protein arrays to 547 human breast cancers and 41 cell lines, we determined the subtype specificity and signaling effects of PIK3CA, AKT and PTEN mutations, and the effects of PIK3CA mutations on responsiveness to PI3K inhibition in-vitro and on outcome after adjuvant tamoxifen. PIK3CA mutations were more common in hormone receptor positive (33.8%) and HER2-positive (24.6%) than in basal-like tumors (8.3%). AKT1 (1.4%) and PTEN (2.3%) mutations were restricted to hormone receptor-positive cancers with PTEN protein levels also being significantly lower in hormone receptor-positive cancers. Unlike AKT1 mutations, PIK3CA (39%) and PTEN (20%) mutations were more common in cell lines than tumors, suggesting a selection for these but not AKT1 mutations during adaptation to culture. PIK3CA mutations did not have a significant impact on outcome in 166 hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients after adjuvant tamoxifen. PIK3CA mutations, in comparison with PTEN loss and AKT1 mutations, were associated with significantly less and indeed inconsistent activation of AKT and of downstream PI3K/AKT signaling in tumors and cell lines, and PTEN loss and PIK3CA mutation were frequently concordant, suggesting different contributions to pathophysiology. PTEN loss but not PIK3CA mutations rendered cells sensitive to growth inhibition by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Thus, PI3K pathway aberrations likely play a distinct role in the pathogenesis of different breast cancer subtypes. The specific aberration may have implications for the selection of PI3K-targeted therapies in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
Date: May 6, 2008
Creator: Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Lluch, Ana; Neve, Richard M.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Davies, Michael et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Breast cancer by proxy: Can the microenvironment be both the cause and consequence?

Description: Breast cancer is one of the most clear-cut examples of a solid tumor in which systemic cues play a decisive part in its development. The breast tissue is constantly subjected to changes in hormone levels and modifications in the microenvironment. This scenario is even more striking during tumor development because of the dramatic loss or aberration of basement membrane (BM) and myoepithelial cells and the gain of peritumoral myofibroblasts. We suggest that the microenvironment, defined here as all components of the mammary gland other than luminal and/or tumor epithelial cells, might be instrumental in maintaining organ integrity and in promoting, and at times even initiating, breast cancer development. As such, the tumor microenvironment and its constituents, alone or in combination, might serve as promising targets for therapy.
Date: November 16, 2008
Creator: Ronnov-Jessen, Lone & Bissell, Mina J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

Description: The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Hansen, R K & Bissell, M J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Epinephrine injection has been shown to produce a two and three fold increase of the higher Sf classes of serum lipoproteins in the rabbit. The previously observed elevation of serum lipids was confirmed. The hyperlipoproteinemia following epinephrine injection appears about the same time as in certain conditions of stress. (auth)
Date: November 21, 1957
Creator: Young, W. & Hayes, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Anterior or Ventromedial Hypothalamic Stimulation on Immunoglobulin G

Description: Although research has linked central nervous system activity with changes in immunoresponsivity, research on the possible role of the central nervous system in altering a specific class of antibody is lacking. This study was an investigation of the possible relationship between anterior or medial hypothalamic functions on Immunoglobulin G. concentrations in rat serum. Thirty-six male albino rats were randomly assigned to three groups of equal size. Animals within the anterior hypothalamic group received bilateral electrode implants in the anterior hypothalamus while animals in the medial hypothalamic group received electrode implants within the ventromedial area of the hypothalamus. A control group received bilateral electrode implants within the lateral hypothalamus. Electrical brain stimulation was administered to animals in both experimental groups. Control animals spent a comparable time in an operant chamber but did not receive electrical brain stimulation. Following brain stimulation of animals within the experimental groups, Immunoglobulin G. concentrations were determined for all groups 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-stimulation sessions.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Lambert, Paul L. (Paul Louis)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Exogenous Steroids on the Adrenal Plasma Membrane Alteration of Steroidogenesis and Cell Morphology

Description: Using cultured Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cells which produce the steroid 20(-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (20-DHP), it was found that 10-5 M corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone increased basal and inhibited ACTH-induced 20-DHP production. The steroid effects were concentration-dependent, reversible, and specific since six other steroids did not stimulate steroidogenesis and varied in their ability to inhibit ACTH-induced steroidogenesis. Cytochalasin D inhibited steroid-stimulated 20-DHP production, suggesting a mechanism of steroid stimulation similar to that of ACTH. Steroidogenesis stimulated by cholera toxin, (Bu) 2 cAMP, or pregnenolone was not inhibited by exogenous steroid; corticosterone increased basal and inhibited ACTH-induced intracellular cAMP production. Steroids altered cell surface morphology. These findings suggest that steroids alter adrenal steroidogenesis by acting within the plasma membrane.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Mattson, Mark Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Enkephalin Metabolism in Exercise Stress

Description: Investigators have suggested that opiate peptide hormones released during exercise stress may play an important role in athletic performance or perceived effort. Their enzymatic inactivation in the periphery is of considerable interest since the opiate peptides may be regulated by enkephalin hydrolyzing enzyme (EHA). In this study, the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO_2max) and EHA activity was examined in two distinct fitness groups. When the metabolic capacity was evaluated in whole blood, the unfit subjects metabolized the peptides significantly faster than their fit counterparts. Since the total enzyme activity of the two groups is similar, the difference in metabolism must result from circulating factors in the trained athletes, which slow the rate of peptide inactivation.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Jaskowski, Margaret Anne
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Intermediate Filament Inhibitors on Steroidogenesis and Cytoskeleton in Y-1 Mouse Adrenal Tumor Cells

Description: When Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cells were treated with sodium orthovanadate, an intermediate filament (IF) inhibitor in BHK21-F cells, there was no change in the amount of 20α-dihydroprogesterone produced. A neurofilament inhibitor, β, β'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), enhanced the ability of Y-1 cells to produce steroid in response to ACTH by acting on the plasma membrane. Electron microscopy of Y-1 cells extracted with Triton X-100 revealed that both vanadate and IDPN caused the aggregation of cytoskeletal and granular structures in the perinuclear area. The steroidogenic effects of IDPN suggest that the perinuclear aggrergation of cytoskeletal structures may result from the detachment of IF from the plasma membrane, while the reason for the cytoskeletal changes by vanadate is unknown.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Lee, Hyun Sook
Partner: UNT Libraries

Morphological and physiological developmental consequences of parental effects in the chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the zebrafish larva (Danio rerio).

Description: Cardiac, metabolic and growth response of early-stage chicken embryos to perturbations in yolk environment was investigated. Also, effects of parental hypoxia exposure on hypoxia resistance, thermal tolerance and body length of zebrafish larvae were investigated. In the first study, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and testosterone produced differential effects on heart rate and development rate of chicken embryos during the first 4 days of development. Triiodothyronine caused a dose-dependent increase in heart rate when applied at 40 or 70 hours of age, while thyroxine caused a dose-dependent increase in heart rate when applied at 40 hours only. Testosterone and propyl-thiouracil (deiodinase antagonist) did not have an effect on heart rate. Development rate was not changed by thyroxine, triiodothyronine, testosterone or propyl-thiouracil, which suggested that heart rate changes did not result from changes in embryo maturity. In the second study, chicken embryos exposed to yolks of different bird species during early-stage embryonic development showed changes in heart rate, mass-specific oxygen consumption and body mass that scaled with the egg mass, incubation period length, and yolk triiodothyronine and testosterone levels of the species from which yolk was derived. In the third study, this phenomenon was investigated between layer and broiler chickens. Heart rate, oxygen consumption and body mass of broiler and layer embryos were significantly changed by a breed-specific change in yolk environment. Yolk triiodothyronine and testosterone concentrations of broiler and layer eggs did not suggest that these hormones were responsible for physiological and morphological changes observed. The final study demonstrated that hypoxia resistance and body lengths, but not thermal tolerance of zebrafish larvae was increased by parental hypoxia exposure.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Ho, Dao H.
Partner: UNT Libraries