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Homeless Predictors in the Older Adult Population

Description: This secondary research study uses data from two convenience samples of homeless persons in Central Arkansas collected during 2004 and 2011 Point in Time Counts. The prevalence of predictors of homelessness are compared across years, and also compared by age (<50 and > 50) controlling for year of survey. The number of older adults increased significantly between 2004 and 2011 surveys, and reporting serious mental illness and veteran status significantly decreased from 2004 to 2011. Age differences were noted in 2004 with older adults more likely to report serious mental illness in comparison to younger adults. Older adults were also more likely to report veteran status in comparison to younger adults during both the 2004 and 2011 surveys. The predictors of homelessness -- including serious health problems, substance abuse, race, age, and developmental disabilities-- remained fairly consistent from 2004 to 2011 and across "age groups". In addition to Point in Time data, qualitative surveys and interviews of providers were performed for their observations of the older homeless population. Providers indicated their belief that the older homeless population is increasing. Providers suggested possible challenges and reasons for the increase among older adults who are homeless. In central Arkansas, service providers feel the current economy, programs, and agencies that provide homeless services and funding sources are adequate at this time as evidenced by no increase in numbers. Due to new funding, improvement has occurred with the veteran population through VA programs. Even though this research did not find any change in gender, the providers feel that for future homeless, trends in gender (women in poverty), as well as older adults becoming homeless for the first time, should be watched in addition to other predictive factors such as the economy, increase in substance abuse, and physical and mental health concerns.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Lewallen, Jina P.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Homelessness: Consolidating HUD's McKinney Programs

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the potential need to consolidate homeless assistance programs administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), focusing on the: (1) different program requirements for HUD's four Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act programs--the Emergency Shelter Grants Program, the Supportive Housing Program, the Shelter Plus Care Program, and the Section 8 Single-Room Occupancy Program; (2) coordination and administrative challenges that the four programs pose; and (3) actions that HUD has taken to overcome these challenges."
Date: May 23, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeless Abjection and the Uncanny “Place” of the National Imagination

Description: This project examines the effects of the homeless body and the threat of homelessness on constructing a national imaginary that relies on the trope of locatability for recognition as a citizen-subject. The thesis argues that homelessness, the oft-figured specter of public space, functions as bodies that are “pushed out” as citizen-subjects due to their inability maintain both discursive and material location. I argue that figures of “home” rely on the ever-present threat of dislocation to maintain a privileged position as the location of the consuming citizen-subject. That is, the presence of the dislocated homeless body haunts the discursive and material construction of home and its inhabitants. Homeless then becomes the uncanny inverse of home, functioning as an abjection that reifies home “place” as an arbiter of recognition in a neoliberal national imaginary. The chapters proceed to examine what some consider homeless “homes,” focusing on the reduction of the homeless condition to a place of inhabitance, or the lack thereof. This attempt to locate the homeless body becomes a symptom of the desire for recognition as a placed body. The thesis ends on a note of political possibility, figuring the uncanny as a rupture that evacuates language of signification and opens up space for a form of recognition without an over-determined identity.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Sloss, Eric J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Exploring Ahope Client Satisfaction and Attitudes

Description: I led a participatory action research (PAR) project with the staff and homeless clients of Ahope Day Center in Asheville, North Carolina, which was meant to evaluate client satisfaction with services and attitudes about certain issues. Project is led by an inquiry group consisting of members of Ahope staff and Ahope clients. The project is a co-designed, co-implemented, and co-interpreted mixed-method evaluation of Ahope's services, client attitudes about education and the environment, client adaptive strategies, optimism levels, and a mapping of client daily routines. The data was collected through participant observation, document analysis, surveys, a listing activity, and informal interviews. Documents were coded using grounded theory and themes emerged related to the value of the intangibles of security, community, and ‘being seen' at Ahope while some suggestions were also made. Findings included client attitudes indicating the importance of the environment and education to clients, high optimism levels among clients, and a number of suggestions for the improvement of Ahope's services.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Johnston, Josiah Ramsay
Partner: UNT Libraries

Veteran Homelessness: VA and HUD Are Working to Improve Data on Supportive Housing Program

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) rely on VA medical centers (VAMC) and public housing agencies (PHA) that serve veterans directly to determine participant eligibility for the HUD-VA Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) program. VAMC staff GAO contacted said that they interview veterans interested in the HUD-VASH program to assess whether the veteran met the program’s definition of homelessness, check VA’s electronic patient record system to determine whether the veteran was eligible for VA health care, and obtain the veteran’s agreement to participate in case management. VAMCs refer eligible veterans to partnering PHAs (subject to rental assistance voucher availability) and are required to place them on an interest list when no vouchers are available. PHA staff GAO contacted said that they compare the veteran’s reported income to information provided by third-party sources, such as the Social Security Administration, to verify that the veteran’s household income did not exceed HUD-VASH program limits and check state sex offender registries to help ensure that no member of the veteran’s household was subject to a lifetime registration requirement."
Date: June 26, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homelessness: Information on Administrative Costs for HUD's Emergency Shelter Grants Program

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act of 2009 (HEARTH Act) directed GAO to study the appropriate administrative costs of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Emergency Shelter Grants Program (ESG)--a widely used, formula-based program that supports services to persons experiencing homelessness. This report discusses (1) for selected recipients, the types of administrative activities performed and administrative costs incurred under the ESG program, and the extent to which grant proceeds cover these administrative costs; (2) how the ESG program's allowance for administrative costs compares with administrative cost allowances for selected other targeted federal homeless grant programs, plus selected other HUD formula-based grant programs; and (3) how the nature or amount of administrative costs might be different under changes Congress made to the ESG program in the HEARTH Act that expand the types of activities that may be funded. To address these issues, GAO reviewed relevant policies and documents, interviewed officials of HUD and other agencies, made site visits in four states, reviewed HUD and other available standards on eligible administrative costs for federal grants, and reviewed cost allowances for homeless programs of the Departments of Education, Labor, and Health and Human Services. GAO makes no recommendations in this report."
Date: May 20, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rural Homelessness: Better Collaboration by HHS and HUD Could Improve Delivery of Services in Rural Areas

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing (HEARTH) Act of 2009 directed GAO to conduct a broad study of homelessness in rural areas. In this report, we provide information about rural homelessness issues, based in significant part on our work in rural areas within six selected states. Specifically, the report addresses the following questions: (1) What are the characteristics of homelessness in rural areas? (2) What assistance is available to individuals or families experiencing homelessness and what amount of funding have the federal departments and agencies awarded to organizations that assist persons experiencing homelessness in rural areas? (3) What barriers do persons experiencing homelessness and homeless service providers encounter when seeking assistance or funding to provide assistance? To address these issues, GAO reviewed relevant literature, conducted site visits, and interviewed agency officials."
Date: July 20, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homelessness: A Common Vocabulary Could Help Agencies Collaborate and Collect More Consistent Data

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Multiple federal programs provide homelessness assistance through programs targeted to those experiencing homelessness or through mainstream programs that broadly assist low-income populations. Programs' definitions of homelessness range from including primarily people in homeless shelters or on the street to also including those living with others because of economic hardship. GAO was asked to address (1) the availability, completeness, and usefulness of federal data on homelessness, (2) the extent to which research identifies factors associated with experiencing homelessness, and (3) how differences in definitions and other factors impact the effectiveness of programs serving those experiencing homelessness. GAO reviewed laws, agency regulations, performance and planning documents, and data as well as literature on homelessness, and spoke with stakeholders, such as government officials and service providers, about potential barriers."
Date: June 30, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homelessness: Barriers to Using Mainstream Programs

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the ability of homeless people to obtain assistance through mainstram federal programs, focusing on: (1) why homeless people cannot always access or effectively use federal mainstream programs; and (2) how the federal government can improve homeless people's access to, and use of, these programs."
Date: July 6, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homelessness: Grant Applicants' Characteristics and Views on the Supportive Housing Program

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Supportive Housing Program, focusing on the: (1) characteristics of Supportive Housing Program applicants; (2) types of programs and services for homeless people that this program supports; (3) importance of Supportive Housing Program grants to applicants' programs for the homeless; and (4) various funding sources, in addition to Supportive Housing Program grants, that applicants rely on for their programs and services for homeless people."
Date: August 12, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homelessness: HUD Funds Eligible Projects According to Communities' Priorities

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) funding of Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act projects, focusing on: (1) what process HUD uses to select projects for funding, whether this process is consistent with relevant statutes, and how HUD treats new projects and projects that have been funded in the past (renewal projects); (2) the extent to which HUD funds projects that communities rank as high-priority under their Continuums of Care, and why some high-priority projects are not funded while some low-priority projects are funded; and (3) whether communities face any common problems when applying for funds from HUD, and what actions are needed to correct these problems."
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homelessness: State and Local Efforts to Integrate and Evaluate Homeless Assistance Programs

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO described some notable examples of efforts by states or localities to: (1) link and integrate their homeless assistance programs with mainstream systems; and (2) measure and evaluate outcomes for their homeless assistance programs."
Date: June 29, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homelessness: Coordination and Evaluation of Programs Are Essential

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the federal approach to meeting the needs of the homeless, focusing on: (1) identifying and describing characteristics of the federal programs specifically targeted, or reserved, for the homeless, and key nontargeted programs available to assist low-income people generally; (2) identifying the amounts and types of funding for these programs in fiscal year (FY) 1997; and (3) determining if federal agencies have coordinated their efforts to assist homeless people and developed outcome measures for their targeted programs."
Date: February 26, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homelessness: Improving Program Coordination and Client Access to Programs

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Many people are homeless for only a short time and get back on their feet with minimal assistance, but others are chronically homeless and need intensive and ongoing assistance. Fifty federal programs exist to help the homeless with housing. Sixteen of these are targeted exclusively to the homeless, and the others are mainstream programs. Targeted programs were funded at $1.7 billion in fiscal year 2001. GAO found that the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has been unable to ensure that adequate coordination occurs among the programs without creating undue administrative burdens for the states and communities. Steps have been taken to improve the coordination of homeless assistance programs within communities and to reduce some of the administrative burdens caused by separate programs. Although low-income populations face barriers to obtaining services provided by mainstream programs, these barriers are compounded by homelessness. In addition, the underlying structure and operations of federal mainstream programs do not ensure that the special needs of homeless people are met. Consolidating HUD's McKinney-Vento programs could help reduce the administrative burden. However, to end chronic homelessness in 10 years, federal agencies must strive to eliminate the barriers that homeless people encounter as they seek services from mainstream programs."
Date: March 6, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"The Eviction"

Description: The Eviction is a film about the forced eviction of a large homeless encampment in Dallas. In an effort to understand the gravity over a month of filming I will capture the stories of people, events, and the trials of those who are trying to offer a hand up.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Galloway, Andrew Reynolds
Partner: UNT Libraries

No place to call home: Cultural homelessness, self-esteem and cross-cultural identities.

Description: The study examined relations between a cross-cultural geographically mobile childhood and adult cultural identity, attachment to cross-cultural identities (CCIs) and self-esteem. CCIs are loosely defined identities (e.g., third culture kids [TCKs], military brats, missionary kids) that describe some individuals' childhood cross-cultural experience. The 475 participants spent at least two years before age 18 in a culture different from their parents' and completed an online survey including childhood cross-cultural experiences, Cultural Homelessness Criteria, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and Self Label Identity Measure (SLIM) that captured strength of affirmation, belonging and commitment to any CCI. Cultural homelessness (CH) was related to lower self-esteem; higher SLIM scores was related to higher self-esteem and lower CH. TCKs reported lower self-esteem than non-TCKs and older participants experienced less CH and higher self-esteem. SLIM scores buffered the CH-self-esteem relationship, whereas a TCK CCI and having more cross-culturally experienced social networks did not.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Hoersting, Raquel Carvalho
Partner: UNT Libraries

Homelessness: Fragmentation and Overlap in Programs Highlight the Need to Identify, Assess, and Reduce Inefficiencies

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Homelessness programs are fragmented across multiple agencies and some show evidence of overlap. In fiscal year 2010, eight federal agencies obligated roughly $2.8 billion to administer 26 homelessness programs. Three agencies—the Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS), Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and Veterans Affairs (VA)—are responsible for the majority of programs and dollars, 22 of 26 programs, and 89 percent of total funds. GAO found that these agencies and the Department of Labor (Labor) have multiple programs that offer similar services to similar beneficiaries. Fragmentation of services and overlap in some programs is partly due to their legislative creation and partly due to programs evolving to offer services that meet the variety of needs of persons experiencing homelessness. Fragmentation and overlap can lead to inefficient use of resources. For example, both HHS and VA have programs that provide similar services, but each agency separately manages its programs under different administrative units. In addition, some local service providers told us that managing multiple applications and reporting requirements was burdensome, difficult, and costly. Moreover, according to providers, persons experiencing homelessness have difficulties navigating services that are fragmented across agencies."
Date: May 10, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Squatters]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story. B-roll video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story.
Date: November 29, 1979, 6:00 p.m.
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Shelters]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story by reporter Tim Herrera about decreasing access to shelter for the homeless in Downtown Dallas. Footage includes a Thanksgiving dinner for the homeless at City Hall Plaza. The story aired at 5:00 P.M.
Date: November 24, 1985
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Clip: Outcasts]

Description: B-roll video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering homeless people curled up in several blankets on the streets. This story aired at 6pm.
Date: December 15, 1989, 6:00 p.m.
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections