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Waste of Oil and Gas in the Mid-Continent Fields

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies of waste in oil and gas fields in the mid-continent area. As stated in the introduction, this report "describes the general amounts and kinds of waste, and attempts to show the importance of conserving these natural resources" (p. 5). This paper includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: May 1914
Creator: Blatchley, Raymond S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum and Natural-Gas Fields in Wyoming

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing 75 petroleum and natural gas fields studied throughout Wyoming. History, geographic location, geology, drilling methods, and detailed analyses are presented. This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Date: 1941
Creator: Espach, Ralph H. & Nichols, H. Dale
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground Wastes in Oil and Gas Fields and Methods of Prevention

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over the underground wastes of oil and gas in drilling fields. As stated in the introduction, "the writers have endeavored to establish the manner and importance of underground waste by citing a few cases and to show the means whereby it can be prevented" (p. 5). This paper includes illustrations.
Date: July 1916
Creator: McMurray, William F. & Lewis, James O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE/FETC Gasis Project

Description: Technical progress on the GAS IS project during the quarter for contract no. DE-AC21 -93 MC281 39 is described. During this period, work was performed on Task 4 Technology Transfer, Task 7: Software Enhancement, Task 8: Reservoir Data System Updates, and Task 9: Supplemental Reservoir Studies.
Date: November 12, 1998
Creator: Hugman, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilotin Northern California

Description: A geologic sequestration pilot in the Thornton gas field in Northern California, USA involves injection of up to 4000 tons of CO{sub 2} into a stacked gas and saline formation reservoir. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is leading the pilot test in collaboration with Rosetta Resources, Inc. and Calpine Corporation under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy and California Energy Commission's WESTCARB, Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership. The goals of the pilot include: (1) Demonstrate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} storage in saline formations representative of major geologic sinks in California; (2) Test the feasibility of Enhanced Gas Recovery associated with the early stages of a CO{sub 2} storage project in a depleting gas field; (3) Obtain site-specific information to improve capacity estimation, risk assessment, and performance prediction; (4) Demonstrate and test methods for monitoring CO{sub 2} storage in saline formations and storage/enhanced recovery projects in gas fields; and (5) Gain experience with regulatory permitting and public outreach associated with CO{sub 2} storage in California. Test design is currently underway and field work begins in August 2006.
Date: April 28, 2006
Creator: Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas & Seeman, Ed
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geophysical Techniques for Monitoring CO2 Movement During Sequestration

Description: The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques for two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.
Date: November 15, 2005
Creator: Gasperikova, Erika & Hoversten, G. Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB)

Description: This report provides a brief summary of the milestone for Quarter 1 of 2006 of the NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB) This milestone assigns consistent symbology to the ''National CO{sub 2} Facilities'' GIS layer on the NATCARB website. As a default, CO{sub 2} sources provided by the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and the National Group are now all one symbol type. In addition for sinks such as oil and gas fields where data is drawn from multiple partnerships, the symbology is given a single color. All these modifications are accomplished as the layer is passed through the national portal (www.natcarb.org). This documentation is sent to National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a Topical Report and will be included in the next Annual Report.
Date: January 9, 2006
Creator: Carr, Timothy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluid pressure arrival time tomography: Estimation and assessment in the presence of inequality constraints, with an application to a producing gas field at Krechba, Algeria

Description: Deformation in the overburden proves useful in deducing spatial and temporal changes in the volume of a producing reservoir. Based upon these changes we estimate diffusive travel times associated with the transient flow due to production, and then, as the solution of a linear inverse problem, the effective permeability of the reservoir. An advantage an approach based upon travel times, as opposed to one based upon the amplitude of surface deformation, is that it is much less sensitive to the exact geomechanical properties of the reservoir and overburden. Inequalities constrain the inversion, under the assumption that the fluid production only results in pore volume decreases within the reservoir. We apply the formulation to satellite-based estimates of deformation in the material overlying a thin gas production zone at the Krechba field in Algeria. The peak displacement after three years of gas production is approximately 0.5 cm, overlying the eastern margin of the anticlinal structure defining the gas field. Using data from 15 irregularly-spaced images of range change, we calculate the diffusive travel times associated with the startup of a gas production well. The inequality constraints are incorporated into the estimates of model parameter resolution and covariance, improving the resolution by roughly 30 to 40%.
Date: April 1, 2010
Creator: Rucci, A.; Vasco, D.W. & Novali, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing a monitoring and verification plan with reference to the Australian Otway CO2 pilot project

Description: The Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC) is currently injecting 100,000 tons of CO{sub 2} in a large-scale test of storage technology in a pilot project in southeastern Australia called the CO2CRC Otway Project. The Otway Basin, with its natural CO{sub 2} accumulations and many depleted gas fields, offers an appropriate site for such a pilot project. An 80% CO{sub 2} stream is produced from a well (Buttress) near the depleted gas reservoir (Naylor) used for storage (Figure 1). The goal of this project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} can be safely transported, stored underground, and its behavior tracked and monitored. The monitoring and verification framework has been developed to monitor for the presence and behavior of CO{sub 2} in the subsurface reservoir, near surface, and atmosphere. This monitoring framework addresses areas, identified by a rigorous risk assessment, to verify conformance to clearly identifiable performance criteria. These criteria have been agreed with the regulatory authorities to manage the project through all phases addressing responsibilities, liabilities, and to assure the public of safe storage.
Date: May 1, 2009
Creator: Dodds, K.; Daley, T.; Freifeld, B.; Urosevic, M.; Kepic, A. & Sharma, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manual for Oil and Gas Operations [Part 1]

Description: Part one of a bulletin from the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing oil and gas field waste prevention, and policies on field operation. According to the introduction, "Part I of this manual points out types of oil and gas wastes and suggest, in detail or by reference, the most practical and effective methods in current practice for stopping these wastes. Throughout Part I the department's operating policy is given, with interpretations of the 'Operating Regulations' for enforcing every practical measure of conservation" (p. 1).
Date: 1923
Creator: Swigart, T. E. & Beecher, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Manual for Oil and Gas Operations [Part 2]

Description: Part two of a bulletin from the U.S. Bureau of Mines discussing oil and gas field waste prevention, and policies on field operation. According to the introduction (from part 1), "Part II comprises the revised 'Operating Regulations' which supersede all previous regulations and will govern future operations on public lands" (p. 1).
Date: 1923
Creator: Swigart, T. E. & Beecher, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crater Wells, Richland Gas Field, Louisiana

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over "the history of the craters in the Richland gas field. The data have been collected at various times over a period of four years. The equipment and methods of control are discussed, and photographs show the surface conditions at various intervals in the life of the craters" (p. 1). This paper includes tables, maps, photographs, and illustrations.
Date: 1932
Creator: Hill, Harry Blackburn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) The search for another field site was abandoned after discussion with DOE. There is a clear absence of willing industry partners to ...
Date: March 1, 2003
Creator: Reeves, Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During precommissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and Butcher agreed that MTR would be free to select another partner for this project.
Date: April 10, 2003
Creator: Costa, Dr. Andre Da
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: As domestic oil and gas fields approach maturity or even abandonment, new methods are being tested to add life to the fields. One area being addressed is the reduction of water production to extend the economic life of a field. In many fields a very common problem is permeability heterogeneity from matrix variations, fractures, or both. Conventional procedures to remediate high water rates in fractured networks, including cement squeezing, openhole packers, and liners are generally unsuccessful. The objective of this project was to test the viability of using sequential treatment of a production well with a cross-linked polymer to restrict water production from highly permeable and fractured zones. The field used for testing was the Ashley Valley field in northeastern Utah. The process proposed for testing in this field was the sequential application of small batches of a cross-linked polymer, chromium (III) polyacrylamide polymer (Marcit{trademark}). First, the highest permeability fractures were to be blocked, followed progressively by smaller fractures, and finally the higher permeability matrix channels. The initial application of this polymer in September 1997 in the Ashley Valley (AV) well No.2 did increase oil production while decreasing both water production and the relative permeability to water. The successive application of the polymer was considered as a method to increase both daily and ultimate oil production and reduce produced water. The second polymer treatment was conducted in October 1999 in AV No.2. The treatment consisted of 4,994 barrels of 1,500-mg/l to 9,000-mg/l polymer at surface injection pressures no higher than 380 psig. During injection, four offset wells showed polymer breakthrough and were shut in during the remaining treatment. Present oil and water production rates for AV No.2 are 14 BOPD and 2,700 BWPD, which is a 44% decrease in the oil rate and a 40% reduction in water from the ...
Date: July 31, 2001
Creator: Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

Description: Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.
Date: June 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced gas production and carbon sequestration

Description: Analyses suggest that carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be injected into depleted gas reservoirs to enhance methane (CH{sub 4}) recovery for periods on the order of 10 years, while simultaneously sequestering large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations applicable to the Rio Vista Gas Field in California show that mixing between CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is slow relative to repressurization, and that vertical density stratification favors enhanced gas recovery.
Date: November 15, 2001
Creator: Oldenburg, Curtis M. & Benson, Sally M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrasonic and numerical modeling of reflections from simulated fractured reservoirs

Description: In order to develop modeling techniques for the characterization of fracture properties in tight gas sands from surface seismic reflection data we examine seismic waves scattered from anisotropic heterogeneity with laboratory data and numerical modeling. Laboratory models representing features of a fractured reservoir were constructed using Phenolite embedded in a Lucite background, and seismic surveys were gathered over these models. In parallel with laboratory measurement, finite-difference modeling of reflections from a fractured medium were carried out. Fracture zone properties were calculated using an effective medium theory, the variation of fracture density produced a heterogeneous medium. The heterogeneity was modeled with a stochastic process, characterized by a probability density function and an auto-correlation function. Results from both modeling efforts show that prestacked AVO data can contain important information describing reservoir heterogeneity.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Stephen, T. & Zhu, Xiang,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

Description: The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H. & Calogero, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

Description: In March, work continued on characterizing probabilities for determining natural fracturing associated with the GGRB for the Upper Cretaceous tight gas plays. Structural complexity, based on potential field data and remote sensing data was completed. A resource estimate for the Frontier and Mesa Verde play was also completed. Further, work was also conducted to determine threshold economics for the play based on limited current production in the plays in the Wamsutter Ridge area. These analyses culminated in a presentation at FETC on 24 March 1999 where quantified natural fracture domains, mapped on a partition basis, which establish ''sweet spot'' probability for natural fracturing, were reviewed. That presentation is reproduced here as Appendix 1. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1999--March 31, 1999 comprised five tasks: (1) Evaluation of the GGRB partitions for structural complexity that can be associated with natural fractures, (2) Continued resource analysis of the balance of the partitions to determine areas with higher relative gas richness, (3) Gas field studies, (4) Threshold resource economics to determine which partitions would be the most prospective, and (5) Examination of the area around the Table Rock 4H well.
Date: April 30, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extent and Availability of Natural Gas Reserves in Michigan "Stray" Sandstone Horizon of Central Michigan

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on studies of the known natural gas reserves in central Michigan sandstone deposits. The geology and methods used to estimate the reserves are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and maps.
Date: July 1936
Creator: Rawlins, E. L. & Schellhardt, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum and Natural Gas Fields in Wyoming

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the oil and gas fields of Wyoming. As stated in the summary, "this study contains individual reports on 271 oil and gas fields in Wyoming. The location of each field is given; and, where available, maps of the fields, surface formations, and elevations" (p. 1).
Date: 1960
Creator: Biggs, Paul & Espach, Ralph H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department