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Teaching Behavior Professionals to Use the Interview-Informed Synthesized Contingency Analysis (IISCA): A Preliminary Investigation

Description: We assessed the implementation accuracy and fidelity of two board certified behavior analysts (BCBAs) using the open-ended interview from Hanley. Participants interviewed a confederate using the open-ended interview, and were then asked to use information gathered from the interview to create operational definitions of target behaviors as well as test and control condition procedures for a subsequent matched test-control functional analysis as is characteristic of the interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) strategy. Brief behavioral skills training (BST) was then implemented with all participants to increase the accuracy of constructing both target behavior definitions and functional analysis procedures. Preliminary results show moderate rates of accuracy of target behavior definitions and functional analysis procedures prior to BST, and high rates of accuracy following BST. The results also suggest high implementation fidelity on the open-ended interview may not be necessary to achieve high accuracy when constructing target behavior definitions and functional analysis procedures.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Metras, Rachel
Partner: UNT Libraries

Response Patterns in Functional Analyses: a Preliminary Analysis

Description: Functional assessment procedures have proven effective in identifying the operant contingencies that maintain problem behavior. Typically, the evaluation of responding during functional analyses is conducted at the condition level. However, some variables affecting occurrences of behavior cannot be evaluated solely through the use of a cross-session analysis. Evaluating within-session patterns of responding may provide information about variables such as extinction bursts, discriminative stimuli, and motivating operations such as deprivation and satiation. The current study was designed to identify some typical response patterns that are generated when data are displayed across and within sessions of functional analyses, discuss some variables that may cause these trends, and evaluate the utility of within-session analyses. Results revealed that several specific patterns of responding were identified for both across- and within-session analyses, which may be useful in clarifying the function of behavior.
Date: August 2012
Creator: Gibson, Christine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Decision-Making Model for Safe and Effective Use of Functional Analysis Procedures

Description: While functional analysis provides the standard methodology for the assessment of problem behavior, procedures still pose potential risk when assessing severe problem behavior. Previous studies have examined several strategies to improve the efficiency of and reduce risks related to the functional analysis process. The purpose of the present series of studies was to replicate and extend previous research on the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior for one participant diagnosed with an intellectual disability. By incorporating strategies within a systematic decision-making framework, functional analysis procedures were implemented to conduct the assessment of precursors, determine maintaining contingencies for severe problem behavior, and evaluate the effects of a treatment based on the results of a functional analysis.
Date: August 2017
Creator: Vega, Gabrielle M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Post-Hoc Analysis of Challenging Behavior by Function: A Comparison of Multiple-Respondent Anecdotal Assessments, Functional Analyses, and Treatments

Description: The current study examines anecdotal assessment, functional analysis, and treatment outcomes from 44 participants. Agreement across Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS), Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF), and Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST) assessments, agreement between those anecdotal assessments and functional analyses, and agreement between those anecdotal assessments and treatment outcomes were analyzed across maintaining variables and topography categories of challenging behaviors. Overall, the QABF had the highest agreement results with functional analyses and treatment with 70% and 92% of cases respectively. Patterns in the distribution of maintaining variables was examined across behavior topography categories.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Dignan, Kathleen
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Evaluation of Outcomes between Indirect Analyses and Functional Analytic Procedures

Description: While descriptive assessment outcomes show limited correspondence with experimental analysis outcomes, they are still often used in the treatment of problem behavior. The most effective way of treating problem behavior is by manipulating its controlling variables; however, if descriptive analyses are not depicting accurate environment-behavior relations, then treatments based off of descriptive analysis results have a higher chance of failing. The current study looks to replicate and extend the literature on utility descriptive assessments by analyzing three different data analysis methods. Three children with a diagnosis of autism were exposed to two types of experimental analyses. Following experimental analyses, descriptive assessments were completed and analyzed to determine correlations between the behavior and environmental events. The results from the three investigated data analysis methods were then compared to the outcomes of the experimental analyses.
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Date: August 2018
Creator: Basham, Annika J
Partner: UNT Libraries

Assessment and Treatment of Multiple Topographies of Self-injury Maintained by Separate Reinforcement Contingencies

Description: Functional analysis procedures were used to assess and treat multiple topographies of self-injurious behavior exhibited by an individual. An experimental functional analysis indicated that one topography, hand biting, appeared to be maintained by social positive reinforcement in the form of delivery of tangible items. The analysis also provided evidence that a second form of self-injury, skin picking, was automatically reinforced. To treat positively reinforced hand biting, access to a preferred tangible was arranged contingent on the omission of biting for a prespecified time interval. Hand biting was nearly eliminated, and low rates were maintained as the schedule of reinforcement was thinned to 10 min. Competing stimulus assessments identified that magazines effectively suppressed all occurrences of skin picking; therefore, noncontingent access to magazines was implemented. Using a combination of multielement and multiple baseline designs, we were able to demonstrate that the two topographies of self-injury were maintained by independent reinforcement contingencies and that interventions corresponding to each topography and function effectively treated both behaviors.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Pace, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Inf-sup estimates for the Stokes problem in a periodic channel

Description: We derive estimates of the Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup constant {beta} for two-dimensional incompressible flow in a periodic channel with one flat boundary and the other given by a periodic, Lipschitz continuous function h. If h is a constant function (so the domain is rectangular), we show that periodicity in one direction but not the other leads to an interesting connection between {beta} and the unitary operator mapping the Fourier sine coefficients of a function to its Fourier cosine coefficients. We exploit this connection to determine the dependence of {beta} on the aspect ratio of the rectangle. We then show how to transfer this result to the case that h is C{sup 1,1} or even C{sup 0,1} by a change of variables. We avoid non-constructive theorems of functional analysis in order to explicitly exhibit the dependence of {beta} on features of the geometry such as the aspect ratio, the maximum slope, and the minimum gap thickness (if h passes near the substrate). We give an example to show that our estimates are optimal in their dependence on the minimum gap thickness in the C{sup 1,1} case, and nearly optimal in the Lipschitz case.
Date: December 10, 2008
Creator: Wilkening, Jon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Agreement among Respondents to Anecdotal Assessments and Correspondence between Anecdotal and Experimental Analysis Outcomes

Description: Study 1 evaluated agreement among five respondents using the Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST), the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF). Respondents provided ratings for 20 target behaviors exhibited by 10 individuals. At least 4/5 raters agreed on the primary maintaining variable in 80% of cases with the FAST, 70% of cases with the MAS, and 55% of cases with the QABF. Study 2 evaluated correspondence between results of anecdotal assessments and experimental functional analysis for 10 target behaviors selected from Study 1. Correspondence between the experimental functional analyses was 60% with the FAST and the MAS, 50% with the QABF.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Frusha, Caroline J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Correspondence between Multiple-Respondent Anecdotal Assessments and Functional Analysis: Analyses of Rank-Order, Magnitude-of-Difference, and Overall Outcomes

Description: We administered the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) to five raters and compared the results with functional analysis outcomes for 12 cases in which agreement was obtained for at least four out of five raters on either anecdotal assessment. The scores for functional categories on the MAS and QABF were ranked by averaging the scores for the raters who agreed on the primary maintaining variable. Functional analysis results were ranked by examining average responding across all conditions. A comparison showed correspondence between the highest category and the highest functional analysis condition for 10 out of 11 cases for the MAS and all 10 cases for the QABF. Correspondence for the category and condition ranked second was found for 2 out of 11 cases for the MAS and 2 out of 10 cases for the QABF. The magnitude of difference between categories on the MAS/QABF did not appear to predict the amount of difference in responding in the corresponding functional analyses.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Arnalds, Holmfridur Osk
Partner: UNT Libraries

Inf-sup estimates for the Stokes problem in a periodic channel

Description: We derive estimates of the Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup constant {beta} for two-dimensional incompressible flow in a periodic channel with one flat boundary and the other given by a periodic, Lipschitz continuous function h. If h is a constant function (so the domain is rectangular), we show that periodicity in one direction but not the other leads to an interesting connection between {beta} and the unitary operator mapping the Fourier sine coefficients of a function to its Fourier cosine coefficients. We exploit this connection to determine the dependence of {beta} on the aspect ratio of the rectangle. We then show how to transfer this result to the case that h is C{sup 1,1} or even C{sup 0,1} by a change of variables. We avoid non-constructive theorems of functional analysis in order to explicitly exhibit the dependence of {beta} on features of the geometry such as the aspect ratio, the maximum slope, and the minimum gap thickness (if h passes near the substrate). We give an example to show that our estimates are optimal in their dependence on the minimum gap thickness in the C{sup 1,1} case, and nearly optimal in the Lipschitz case.
Date: June 27, 2007
Creator: Wilkening, Jon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Constructional Approach to Establishing and Maintaining Calm Canine Behavior

Description: Very few behavior-change programs with canines produce effects that persist beyond the training condition. The present study is an experimental demonstration of a constructional program that established calm patterns of behavior as alternatives to hyperactive ones. Three dogs that exhibited hyperactive patterns were chosen as subjects. Seven conditions common to canine-caretaker relationships were used to determine which factors resulted in the hyperactive patterns. Then, sitting and lying down were taught as beginning points using touch as a reinforcer. The final behavior, maintained by naturally occurring reinforcers, was established errorlessly. The study used a control-analysis strategy of behavior change with a changing-criterion design. The intervention resulted in an immediate reduction in hyperactivity and an increase in sitting and lying down for all dogs.
Date: May 2017
Creator: Owens, Chase
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Riesz Representation Theorem

Description: In 1909, F. Riesz succeeded in giving an integral represntation for continuous linear functionals on C[0,1]. Although other authors, notably Hadamard and Frechet, had given representations for continuous linear functionals on C[0,1], their results lacked the clarity, elegance, and some of the substance (uniqueness) of Riesz's theorem. Subsequently, the integral representation of continuous linear functionals has been known as the Riesz Representation Theorem. In this paper, three different proofs of the Riesz Representation Theorem are presented. The first approach uses the denseness of the Bernstein polynomials in C[0,1] along with results of Helly to write the continuous linear functionals as Stieltjes integrals. The second approach makes use of the Hahn-Banach Theorem in order to write the functional as an integral. The paper concludes with a detailed presentation of a Daniell integral development of the Riesz Representation Theorem.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Williams, Stanley C. (Stanley Carl)
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparative Evaluation of Functional Analytic Methods

Description: The individual functional analysis (FA) is the most widely used method to identify variables that influence the occurrence of problem behavior. Researchers often modify the FA after the analysis reveals undifferentiated responding. The interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) is one of the most substantial variations of the FA that builds upon the FA modifications. We evaluated the use of the two different functional analytic methods, the FA and IISCA, and the subsequent function-based treatment to reduce problem behavior for three children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The individual FA and the IISCA demonstrated differentiated responding for all participants. The treatment based on the results from the traditional FA was effective for all children. We discuss the implications of these findings.
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Date: May 2018
Creator: Perkins, Crysta
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measurement of Fidelity and Social Validity: Caregiver Application of Trial-Based Functional Analysis Procedures

Description: The present study utilized multiple-baseline and multi-probe across participants designs to measure both fidelity and efficacy of caregivers as primary interventionists when using trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) procedures. Participants included any caregiver of a child with a medical or educational diagnosis of autism and challenging behavior. Caregiver fidelity of implementation of TBFA procedures was measured across three phases: baseline, training, and independent implementation or generalization. Within the implementation phase, caregivers independently conducted TBFAs on their respective children within the home setting. Fidelity, efficacy, and social validity across each participant were measured. Each caregiver was able to reach fidelity during the training phase, and three out of five caregivers were able to identify a clear behavior function for their child's behavior within the implementation phase of the study. Social validity was evaluated. Results indicate that caregivers may be able to supplement traditional interventionists during the TBFA process. Implications for future practice are reviewed.
Date: August 2018
Creator: Feldman, Sara P
Partner: UNT Libraries

Product Measure

Description: In this paper we will present two different approaches to the development of product measures. In the second chapter we follow the lead of H. L. Royden in his book Real Analysis and develop product measure in the context of outer measure. The approach in the third and fourth chapters will be the one taken by N. Dunford and J. Schwartz in their book Linear Operators Part I. Specifically, in the fourth chapter, product measures arise almost entirely as a consequence of integration theory. Both developments culminate with proofs of well known theorems due to Fubini and Tonelli.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Race, David M. (David Michael)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Multiple-Respondent Anecdotal Assessments for Behavior Disorders: An Analysis of Interrater Agreement and Correspondence With Functional Analysis Outcomes

Description: An analysis of interrater agreement across multiple respondents on anecdotal assessments and correspondence between functional analysis outcomes was completed. Experiment I evaluated overall agreement among multiple respondents (direct-care staff) on the hypothesized function of each residents (28 adults with mental retardation) problematic behavior using the Motivational Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST). Results of the questionnaires indicated that respondents agreed on the function of the problematic behavior for 10 of the 28 residents. Experiment II examined whether, for selected cases in which 4 out of 5 respondents agreed on the function of the problematic behavior, correspondence occurred between functional analyses and anecdotal assessments outcomes. Two of the 6 functional analyses did not evoke the problematic behavior. However, 4 functional analyses did produce corresponding outcomes suggesting that, when the functional analyses produced interpretable data, the results of the functional analyses corresponded with those of the anecdotal assessments.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Fahrenholz, Anney Renee
Partner: UNT Libraries

High Throughput Technologies for Functional Analysis of Archael Genomics

Description: The specific aims of this project were as follows: (1) to design primers to each predicted open reading frame (ORF) in M. jannaschii and M. thermoautotrophicum to allow the amplification of a unique target sequence that will represent the corresponding coding region on a complete genome chip (2) to amplify each target sequence from M. jannaschii and M. thermoautotrophicum and verify that these PCR products are the expected DNA fragment (3) to establish a relational database that will track the production of target DNAs and the nucleotide sequence used to represent each ORF.
Date: September 25, 1998
Creator: El-Sayed, Najib M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linear Operators

Description: This paper is a study of linear operators defined on normed linear spaces. A basic knowledge of set theory and vector spaces is assumed, and all spaces considered have real vector spaces. The first chapter is a general introduction that contains assumed definitions and theorems. Included in this chapter is material concerning linear functionals, continuity, and boundedness. The second chapter contains the proofs of three fundamental theorems of linear analysis: the Open Mapping Theorem, the Hahn-Banach Theorem, and the Uniform Boundedness Principle. The third chapter is concerned with applying some of the results established in earlier chapters. In particular, the concepts of compact operators and Schauder bases are introduced, and a proof that an operator is compact if and only if its adjoint is compact is included. This chapter concludes with a proof of an important application of the Open Mapping Theorem, namely, the Closed Graph Theorem.
Date: December 1975
Creator: Malhotra, Vijay Kumar
Partner: UNT Libraries

7th International Workshop on the Identification of Transcribed Sequences. Beyond the Identification of Transcribed Sequences

Description: The Seventh Annual Human Genome Conference: Beyond the Identification of Transcribed Sequences (BITS) was held November 16-19, 1997 at the Asilomar Conference Center in Monterey, California. The format for the meeting was a combination of oral presentations, group discussions and poster sessions. The original workshop was held to discuss methodologies for the identification of transcribed sequences in mammalian genomes. Over the years, the focus of the workshops has gradually shifted towards functional analysis, with the most dramatic change in emphasis at this meeting, as reflected in the modest change in the workshop title. Topics presented and discussed included: (1) large scale expression and mutational analysis in yeast, C. elegans, Drosophila and zebrafish, (2) comparative mapping of zebrafish, chicken and Fugu; (3) functional analysis in mouse using promoter traps, mutational analysis of biochemical pathways, and Cre/lox constructs; (4) construction of 5 foot end and complete cDNA libraries; (5) expression analysis in mammalian organisms by array screening and differential display; (6) genome organization as determined by detailed transcriptional mapping and genomic sequence analysis; (7) analysis of genomic sequence, including gene and regulatory sequence predictions, annotation of genomic sequence, development of expression databases and verification of sequence analysis predictions; and (8) structural/functional relationships as determined by RNA secondary structure analysis and evolutionary conservation of non-coding sequences.
Date: November 19, 1997
Creator: Gardner, Kathleen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department