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The Domesticated Silver Fox

Description: "In the following pages are considered facts relative to the development of silver fox farming; the precautions necessary to be taken with the animals in breeding and in sickness and health; the construction of inclosures and nesting dens; the expenses of the business as well as its profits; and, in general, how and where fox farming may be undertaken with the promise of any degree of success. The distinction between red, cross, silveer, and black foxes is explained and the relative values of the pelts discussed." -- p. 2
Date: 1917
Creator: Dearborn, Ned
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Self-Characterization of Lillian Hellman in The Little Foxes and Another Part of the Forest

Description: This study analyzed the personalities and actions of Regina, Birdie, Alexandra, and Lavinia from Lillian Hellman's The Little Foxes and Another Part of the Forest. The analysis was focused on the relationship between the life and personality of Lillian Hellman and each of the characters. The method of character analysis that was used was that described by David Grote in Script Analysis, but the effect of cultural history on the characters and on Lillian Hellman was examined as well. It was discovered that Lillian Hellman had infused the characters with many aspects her own personality. In the case of Regina and Lavinia, Hellman also used the characterizations to sort out her mixed feelings toward her parents.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Vickery, Melissa J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Types of Love in Selected Plays by Lillian Hellman

Description: This study analyzed The Children's Hour, The Little Foxes, Watch on the Rhine, Toys in the Attic in terms of the forms of human love delineated by Erich Fromm in The Art of Loving. The motives and actions of one or more principal characters and their dramatic situations were studied. It was discovered that, in the plays that were examined, each character responded to his or her situation in a loving or a hateful manner and that these choices with regard to love provided the dramatic matrix of the play.
Date: August 1983
Creator: Beck-Horn, Debrah A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Conservation plan for protected species on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

Description: Habitats in and around Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) support populations of various vertebrates and plants, including a number of threatened and endangered species. Adequate conservation of habitats and species, particularly protected species, can be facilitated through development and implementation of management plans. This document provides a comprehensive plan for the conservation of protected species on NPR-1, through compliance with terms and conditions expressed in Biological Opinions rendered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for NPR-1 activities. Six conservation strategies by which threatened and endangered species have been, and will be, protected are described: population monitoring, mitigation strategies, special studies, operating guidelines and policies, information transfer and outreach, and the endangered species conservation area. Population monitoring programs are essential for determining population densities and for assessing the effects of oil field developments and environmental factors on protected species. Mitigation strategies (preactivity surveys and habitat reclamation) are employed to minimize the loss of important habitats components and to restore previously disturbed lands to conditions more suitable for species` use. A number of special studies were undertaken between 1985 and 1995 to investigate the effectiveness of a variety of population and habitat management techniques with the goal of increasing the density of protected species. Operating guidelines and policies governing routine oil field activities continue to be implemented to minimize the potential for the incidental take of protected species and minimize damage to wildlife habitats. Information transfer and outreach activities are important means by which technical and nontechnical information concerning protected species conservation on NPR-1 is shared with both the scientific and non-scientific public.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Otten, M.R.M. & Cypher, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Silver Fox Farming

Description: "The present bulletin furnishes information as to the possibilities of the propagation of silver, or silver-black, foxes and the best methods of conducting the business. The silver-black fox is one of the highest priced of fur-bearers, and hence offers a tempting field for experiment. The business of raising this animal is believed to promise fair if not large returns for skill, experience, and the investment of moderate capital." -- p. 2
Date: 1908
Creator: Osgood, Wilfred Hudson, 1875-1947
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, annual report FY97

Description: The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are oil fields administered by the DOE in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Four federally endangered animal species and one federally threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides), and Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The DOE/NPRC is obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The primary objective of the Endangered Species and Cultural Resources Program is to provide NPRC with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the ESA, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress, results, and accomplishments of the program during fiscal year 1997 (FY97).
Date: May 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

Description: Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and mortality due to coyote predation was documented and disease was a major mortality source for foxes. ...
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Willingham, Alison N. & U., /Ohio State
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endangered species and cultural resources program Naval petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY96

Description: In FY96, Enterprise Advisory Services, Inc. (EASI) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on federal properties. Population monitoring activities were conducted for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. Kit fox abundance and distribution was assessed by live-trapping over a 329-km{sup 2} area. Kit fox reproduction and mortality were assessed by radiocollaring and monitoring 22 adults and two pups. Reproductive success and litter size were determined through live-trapping and den observations. Rates and sources of kit fox mortality were assessed by recovering dead radiocollared kit foxes and conducting necropsies to determine cause of death. Abundance of coyotes and bobcats, which compete with kit foxes, was determined by conducting scent station surveys. Kit fox diet was assessed through analysis of fecal samples collected from live-trapped foxes. Abundance of potential prey for kit foxes was determined by conducting transect surveys for lagornorphs and live-trapping small mammals.
Date: July 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endangered species program Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY94

Description: In FY94, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to conserve endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 400 preactivity surveys covering approximately 315 acres were conducted in FY94. Mitigation measures implemented as a result of survey findings resulted in avoidance of incidental takes of listed species during construction activities. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. Third-party projects in FY94 included three pipeline projects and two well abandonment/clean-up projects. Cultural resource support provided to NPRC consisted primarily of conducting preliminary surveys for cultural resources, and preparing a Cultural Resource Management Plan and Programmatic Agreement for NPR-1. These two documents will be finalized in FY95. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY94, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was initiated to assess reclamation efficacy. Results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In addition to this effort, 347 reclaimed sites were assessed to evaluate reclamation success.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California. Annual report FY93

Description: The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. Production Company (CPDN). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, giant kangaroo rat, Tipton kangaroo rat, and Hoover`s wooly-star. All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which declares that it is ``...the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered species and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act.`` DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPRC is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise necessary for compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during fiscal year 1993.
Date: February 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Habitat reclamation plan to mitigate for the loss of habitat due to oil and gas production activities under maximum efficient rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

Description: Activities associated with oil and gas development under the Maximum Efficiency Rate (MER) from 1975 to 2025 will disturb approximately 3,354 acres. Based on 1976 aerial photographs and using a dot grid methodology, the amount of land disturbed prior to MER is estimated to be 3,603 acres. Disturbances on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) were mapped using 1988 aerial photography and a geographical information system. A total of 6,079 acres were classified as disturbed as of June, 1988. The overall objective of this document is to provide specific information relating to the on-site habitat restoration program at NPRC. The specific objectives, which relate to the terms and conditions that must be met by DOE as a means of protecting the San Joaquin kit fox from incidental take are to: (1) determine the amount and location of disturbed lands on NPR-1 and the number of acres disturbed as a result of MER activities, (2) develop a long term (10 year) program to restore an equivalent on-site acres to that lost from prior project-related actions, and (3) examine alternative means to offset kit fox habitat loss.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Anderson, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Script: Foxes]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about about a fox call and a man who enjoys seeing them in their natural habitat.
Date: June 17, 1957
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Suter, G. W. II; Rosen, A. E.; Beauchamp, J. J. & Kato, T. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Population trends of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

Description: Population trends of a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1989 through August 1991. Six semiannual livetrapping sessions and eight scent-station survey sessions were conducted. Livetrapping results and radiotelemetry data were used to calculate minimum population size, density, and distribution. A total of 175 individual foxes were trapped 463 times. The number of individuals trapped and minimum population size calculations showed a decline over time. The highest minimum population (109) was observed in winter 1988. Summer 1991 had the lowest minimum population size (45). No evidence was found to indicate that the apparent population decline was a result of military-authorized activities.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Berry, W. H. & Standley, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

Description: During a long-term study on tortoise growth within 3 fenced 9-ha enclosures in Rock Valley, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, USA, tortoises have been captured annually since 1964 (Medica et al. 1975. Copeia 1975:630-643; Turner et al. 1987. Copeia 1987:974-979). Between early August and mid October 2003 we observed a significant mortality event. The Rock Valley enclosures were constructed of 6 x 6 mm mesh 1.2 m wide hardware cloth, buried 0.3 m in the soil with deflective flashing on both sides on the top to restrict the movement of small mammals and lizards from entering or leaving the enclosures (Rundel and Gibson 1996, Ecological communities and process in a Mojave Desert ecosystem: Rock Valley, Nevada, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. 369 pp.). On August 6, 2003, the carcass of an adult female Desert Tortoise No.1411 (carapace length 234 mm when alive) was collected while adult male tortoise No.4414 (carapace length 269 mm) was observed alive and in good health on the same day. Subsequently the carcass of No.4414 was found on October 16, 2003. Between October 16-17, 2003, the remains of 6 (5 adult and 1 juvenile) Desert Tortoises were found, some within each of the 3 enclosures in Rock Valley. A seventh adult tortoise was found on September 26, 2006, its death also attributed to the 2003 mortality event based upon the forensic evidence. Each of the 7 adult Desert Tortoises had the central portion of their carapace broken open approximately to the dorsal portion of the marginal scutes while the plastron was still intact (Figure 1A). Adjacent to 7 of the 8 remains we located numerous bone fragments including parts of the carapace and limbs as well as dried intestines in a nearby Range Rhatany (Krameria parvifolia) shrub. The significance of the frequent use of ...
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Greger, Paul D. & Medica, Philip A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Script: Fox hunt]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about workers from the Fort Worth city pound attempting to catch a fox running around a neighborhood that turned out to be a family pet.
Date: October 16, 1957
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

[News Script: Furs]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about Nieman Marcus declaring a good year in fur sales.
Date: August 18, 1958
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Effects of military-authorized activities on the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

Description: The effects of military-authorized activities on San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site from 1988 to 1991. Military-authorized activities included military training exercises, facilities maintenance, new construction, controlled burning, livestock grazing, and public-access hunting. Positive effects of the military included habitat preservation, preactivity surveys, and natural resources management practices designed to conserve kit foxes and their habitat. Perceived negative effects such as entrapment in dens, shootings during military exercises, and accidental poisoning were not observed. Foxes were observed in areas being used simultaneously by military units. Authorized activities were known to have caused the deaths of three of 52 radiocollared foxes recovered dead: one became entangled in concertina wire, one was believed shot by a hunter, and one was struck by a vehicle. Entanglement in communication wire may have contributed to the death of another radiocollared fox that was killed by a predator. Approximately 10% of kit fox dens encountered showed evidence of vehicle traffic, but denning sites did not appear to be a limiting factor for kit foxes.
Date: October 1, 1992
Creator: Berry, W. H.; Standley, W. G.; O`Farrell, T. P. & Kato, T. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department