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Aid Transparency Country Pilot Assessment

Description: The primary goals of this report is to find how much demand partnering countries have for information the U.S. Government is making available for international aid, review how well partnering countries are able to access the information, inform partnering countries of the available international aid data, and recommend ways to improve data sharing and use.
Date: May 2014
Creator: Unites States. Agency International Development.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Donation of U.S. Planting Seed to Russia in 1999 Had Weaknesses

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on weaknesses in the donation of U.S. planting seed to Russia in 1999, focusing on: (1) how the seed was procured in the United States; (2) how seeds were distributed and monitored in Russia; and (3) what the process was for selling the seed and distributing the proceeds to agricultural development institutions."
Date: March 9, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: U.S. Democracy Programs in Six Latin American Countries Have Yielded Modest Results

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Supporting democracy abroad is a major U.S. foreign policy objective. To better understand how this assistance has been implemented in Latin America, GAO was asked to review programs in six countries--Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Peru--that have been of particular importance to U.S. interests in Central and South America. Between fiscal years 1992 and 2002, U.S. agencies have funded more than $580 million in democracy-related programs in these countries. This report discusses the impact of and factors affecting this assistance and the overarching management issues that have affected program planning and implementation."
Date: March 18, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: U.S. Programs Involving the Palestine Investment Fund

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "U.S. agencies and implementing partners participate in various programs with the Palestine Investment Fund (PIF) or PIF-owned entities that include home mortgage financing, loan guarantees, and educational initiatives. First, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) along with PIF and other entities have committed to lend $485 million to the Affordable Mortgage and Loan Company (AMAL) to support mortgages for low- and medium-income borrowers in the West Bank. OPIC has committed to lend about $313 million; PIF has committed about $72 million, and two banks account for the balance of the committed lending. However, as of April 2013, OPIC and PIF had not yet disbursed any funds. Second, OPIC and PIF are co-guarantors in a Loan Guarantee Facility (LGF) program in the West Bank, guaranteeing up to $110 million and $50 million in loans, respectively, to nine regional banks to support lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises. Third, USAID officials stated that, in 2009, USAID provided a U.S. implementing partner $2.1 million for technical assistance and training to enhance the lending practices of participating banks in support of the LGF. Finally, according to USAID, it provided about $1.3 million from 2010 to 2013 to three U.S. implementing partners to provide technical, in-kind, and scholarship assistance to the American International School in Gaza (AISG), which is owned by the Palestine Technology and Education Complex, a PIF-owned entity. According to USAID, its involvement with AISG ended in June 2013."
Date: July 25, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: U.S. Economic and Democratic Assistance to the Central Asian Republics

Description: A chapter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO examined the economic and democratic assistance that the United States has provided to the Central Asian Republics (CAR) of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, focusing on: (1) what the Agency for International Development's (AID) economic and democratic reform initiatives in the CAR were designed to achieve, what has been accomplished, and what factors, if any, have limited the implementation of reforms; (2) whether lessons learned from similar AID programs in Central Europe and Russia have been applied in CAR; and (3) how AID ensures that its assistance funds in CAR are spent for intended purposes."
Date: August 11, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Observations on Post-Conflict Assistance in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The circumstances of armed conflicts in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan differed in many respects, but in all three cases the United States and the international community became involved in the wars and post-conflict assistance because of important national and international interests. Over the past 10 years, GAO has done extensive work assessing post-conflict assistance in Bosnia and Kosovo and, more recently, has evaluated such assistance to Afghanistan. GAO was asked to provide observations on assistance efforts in these countries that may be applicable to ongoing assistance in Iraq. Specifically, GAO assessed (1) the nature and extent of post-conflict assistance in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan; (2) essential components for carrying out assistance effectively; (3) challenges to implementation; and (4) mechanisms used for accountability and oversight."
Date: July 18, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: U.S. Rule of Law Assistance to Five Latin American Countries

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO examined U.S. rule of law assistance programs in five Latin American countries--Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama, focusing on: (1) what U.S. rule of law assistance has helped each country achieve; (2) what factors have affected the implementation of reforms in the respective criminal justice systems; and (3) how U.S. missions in each country plan and coordinate their rule of law assistance programs."
Date: August 4, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Continued Efforts Needed to Strengthen USAID's Oversight of U.S. Democracy Assistance for Cuba

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID)Cuba Program provides assistance to support human rights and promote nonviolent democratic change in Cuba. From 1996 through 2008, the program awarded $83 million in grants to nongovernmental organizations and universities. In 2006, GAO found weaknesses in program oversight that increased the risk of grantees' improperly using grant funds and failing to comply with U.S. laws. In 2008, misuse of grant funds at organizations with the program's two largest grants was detected. GAO was asked to examine (1) actions that USAID has taken since 2006, or plans to take, to improve its award and oversight of the Cuba Program's grants and (2) actions that USAID has taken in response to the recently detected misuses of grant funds. GAO analyzed USAID and grantee records, conducted limited reviews at five grantees, and interviewed agency and grantee officials."
Date: November 24, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: U.S. Russia Fund Is Following Its Investment Selection Process and Criteria

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "This report summarizes GAO's findings on the United States Russia Fund and its investment selection process and criteria. The United States established enterprise funds to support private sector development in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union as they move from centrally planned to market-oriented economies. Enterprise funds are private, nonprofit U.S. corporations that are supposed to make loans to, or invest in, small, medium, and large businesses in which other financial institutions are reluctant to invest. The Fund is authorized to receive $440 million through the Agency for International Development. As of March 2000, the Fund had invested $114.4 million in 30 projects through its direct investment program which provides loans and equity capital to businesses in Russia. GAO found that the Fund followed its review process and criteria for selecting direct investments."
Date: October 2, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Any Further Aid to Haitian Justice System Should Be Linked to Performance-Related Conditions

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "In 1994, the United States and other countries intervened militarily in Haiti to restore the democratically elected government that had been overthrown by the Haitian military several years earlier. During the last 6 years, the United States provided assistance to help Haiti establish its first civilian-controlled police and improve its judicial system. About $70 million in U.S. assistance helped Haiti recruit, train, organize, and equip a basic police force, including specialized units. However, despite these achievements, the police and judicial sector have displayed several weaknesses. The Haitian government's lack of a clear commitment to addressing the major problems of its police and judicial institutions has been the key factor affecting the success of the U.S. assistance provided to these institutions. The United States is reassessing several aspects of its relationship with Haiti because of concerns about how votes were counted in Haiti's May 2000 elections. The United States and Haiti have been unable to negotiate an agreement for continuing this assistance. At this time, any further aid to the Haitian Justice System should be linked to performance-related conditions."
Date: October 17, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Status of Rule of Law Program Coordination

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Department of State's efforts to coordinate rule of law assistance programs at the Washington, D.C., headquarters level, focusing on: (1) the status of State and the Department of Justice's efforts to resolve issues raised about Justice's International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program, which provides police training and related assistance; and (2) issues related to Justice's role in planning police training and certain personnel matters that may have adversely affected the program's activities."
Date: October 13, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Enterprise Funds' Contributions to Private Sector Development Vary

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the enterprise funds, established to support private sector development in selected countries of Eastern and Central Europe, focusing on: (1) whether enterprise funds are assisting private sector development; (2) what factors have affected the funds' ability to carry out their activities; (3) whether funds still have a role in private sector development, given other private investment and international donor efforts; (4) whether the funds are likely to recoup their authorized capital; and (5) whether the funds are complying with recent changes in the Agency for International Development (AID) reporting requirements."
Date: September 14, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: USAID Relies Heavily on Nongovernmental Organizations, but Better Data Needed to Evaluate Approaches

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "U.S. officials are interested in transferring some government social welfare functions to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). One area is in the delivery of foreign assistance to developing countries and countries transitioning from communism to market-oriented democracy. Many NGOs active in international development have years of experience working overseas and have received millions of dollars in funds from private sources as well as the U.S. government. USAID directed $4 billion of its $7.2 billion assistance funding to NGOs in fiscal year 2000. However, the amount of funding provided by specific types of assistance is unknown, because USAID lacks comprehensive and reliable data. USAID uses various types of contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements to provide assistance through NGOs. This range of funding mechanisms allows USAID flexibility to draw on the strengths and expertise of a large community of experienced NGOs. The different mechanisms have advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost, time, selection of potential implementers, and USAID's authority to oversee assistance activities. Compared with USAID, official donors provide more of their funding to foreign governments and private donors and spend more of their funding on unsolicited proposals. USAID emphasizes the use of funding mechanisms that involve greater programmatic and financial controls and competition for funding among NGOs."
Date: April 25, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Effectiveness and Accountability Problems Common in U.S. Programs to Assist Two Micronesian Nations

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The United States has extended to Micronesia and the Marshall Islands a number of domestic programs in such critical areas as health care, education, job training, and telecommunications. GAO found that geographic, economic, and social conditions in both countries have limited the effectiveness of nine of the 13 programs, which were originally designed for the United States. Nine of the 13 programs experienced accountability problems, including theft or misuse of program funds. The two island nations lacked the administrative skills to meet the federal government's complex accountability requirements, and federal managers did not provide the necessary training. Although some federal agencies tried to provide oversight, their efforts at ensuring accountability fell short because of several factors, including time, distance, and travel costs and the relatively small size of the programs in the region."
Date: January 22, 2002
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: USAID Compliance With Family Planning Restrictions

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The United States has provided international family planning assistance through the Agency for International Development (AID) since the mid-1960s. U.S. law prohibits the use of international family planning funds for abortions and requires that all family planning programs supported by AID be voluntary. This report discusses: (1) how much family planning assistance AID provided in fiscal years 1996-1999 and plans to provide in fiscal year 2000, and (2) what procedures have been established to ensure that funds are not being used for prohibited activities. GAO found that AID provided $432 million in assistance in fiscal year 1996 and $385 million in each of fiscal years 1997-1999. AID has established multiple procedures to ensure that family planning funds are not used for prohibited activities, including specifying the restrictions in grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements."
Date: October 2, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Actions Needed to Help Ensure Quality and Sustainability of USAID Road in Indonesia

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "From August 2005 to September 2010, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) awarded five contracts to reconstruct a major coastal road in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Three of the contracts were for construction, one contract was for design and supervision, and one contract was for project management. Several factors delayed the roadÂ’s completion and increased costs. For example, according to USAID, when one contractor did not make acceptable progress, the agency reduced the scope of work, terminated construction of an 8-mile road section, and hired another contractor to complete the section. Other factors included the Indonesian governmentÂ’s difficulty in acquiring land for the road and local opposition to the new road alignment."
Date: July 19, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Rule of Law Funding Worldwide for Fiscal Years 1993-1998

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on U.S. rule of law assistance programs and activities, focusing on the: (1) amount of U.S. rule of law funding provided worldwide in fiscal years 1993-1998; and (2) U.S. Departments and agencies involved in providing rule of law assistance."
Date: June 30, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Observations on USAID's Commodity Import Program in Egypt

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The Commodity Import Program (CIP), managed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), is intended to foster a competitive private sector in Egypt, in addition to assisting U.S. exporters. The program also supports the government of Egypt and USAID activities and expenses in Egypt. Since 1992, Congress has appropriated at least $200 million per year for the CIP. In 1998, the United States negotiated a reduction in its economic assistance to Egypt, including the CIP, through fiscal year 2009. In this context, GAO was asked to discuss its ongoing analysis of (1) program participants' use of the CIP and the Egyptian government's and USAID's use of program funds and (2) factors that have affected the CIP's ability to foster a competitive private sector in Egypt. We received comments on a draft of this statement from USAID, which we incorporated where appropriate. In general, USAID agreed with our observations."
Date: June 17, 2004
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Lack of Haitian Commitment Limited Success of U.S. Aid to Justice System

Description: Testimony issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the preliminary results of its review of U.S. assistance provided to Haiti's justice system, focusing on the: (1) results of the U.S. assistance provided to the Haitian police and judicial sector and the major problems that continue to affect these justice institutions; and (2) primary factors that have affected the success of the assistance."
Date: September 19, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: U.S. Assistance to the West Bank and Gaza for Fiscal Years 2010 and 2011

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "USAID obligated and expended most of the ESF assistance to the West Bank and Gaza appropriated for fiscal years 2010 and 2011. Of the total $789 million provided for West Bank and Gaza assistance over the 2 years, USAID had obligated 96 percent and expended 70 percent by the end of April 2012. USAID obligated about $410 million for 26 development projects and $350 million in budget support to the PA over the 2 fiscal years. USAID provided the most assistance to the water resources and infrastructure sector, about 56 percent of total project obligations."
Date: July 13, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: U.S. Assistance to the West Bank and Gaza for Fiscal Years 2005 and 2006

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "For decades, the United States has worked toward the resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, most recently under the 2003 Roadmap for Peace, which calls for an independent Palestinian state coexisting peacefully with the State of Israel. Since fiscal year 1993, the United States has provided more than $2.2 billion in assistance to the West Bank and Gaza to support the Middle East peace process and encourage progress in reforming the Palestinian Authority. In fiscal years 2005 and 2006 alone, the United States provided over $420 million in Economic Support Funds for the West Bank and Gaza; this funding is primarily administered by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). In the conference report accompanying the 2005 supplemental appropriation legislation, the Congress directed that the assistance be allocated to two broad development categories--economic revitalization and infrastructure development--each with five subcategories. In January 2006, Hamas--designated a terrorist organization by the United States and others--won a majority of the seats in the Palestinian parliament. On January 30, 2006, the United Nations (UN), the United States, the European Union, and Russia--known as the Quartet on the Middle East--stated that they would provide support and assistance to the Hamas-led government only if it agreed to nonviolence, to recognize the State of Israel, and to respect previous Israeli-Palestinian peace agreements. In June 2006, the Congress directed that the Department of State (State) submit a new assistance plan. For fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the Congress mandated that the Comptroller General of the United States report to the Congress on U.S. assistance to the West Bank and Gaza. In response to this mandate, we reported in September 2006 on the steps USAID had taken to help ensure that U.S. assistance did not support terrorist activities ...
Date: March 5, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Middle East Partnership Initiative Offers Tools for Supporting Reform, but Project Monitoring Needs Improvement

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In December 2002, the U.S. Department of State (State) established the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) to promote democracy in the Middle East and North Africa. MEPI provides assistance for political, economic, and educational reform and women's empowerment. In fiscal years 2002-2004, State and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) reviewed U.S. bilateral economic assistance programs in the region to ensure they were aligned with the new U.S. policy focus on promoting democracy and reform. In this report, GAO (1) describes MEPI's structure for managing projects and allocating funding, (2) examines MEPI's uses of the reviews, and (3) evaluates MEPI's project monitoring."
Date: August 8, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Recent Improvements Made, but USAID Should Do More to Help Ensure Aid Is Not Provided for Terrorist Activities in West Bank and Gaza

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The United States has worked for decades to achieve a resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict through initiatives such as the 1993 Oslo Accords and the more recent 2003 Roadmap for Peace. During fiscal years 1993 through 2005, the United States provided more than $2 billion in assistance to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza, including nearly $275 million in fiscal year 2005, to help achieve this goal. In particular, the 2005 assistance was provided to support the president of the Palestinian Authority, elected in January 2005, and to facilitate the Israeli disengagement from parts of the West Bank and Gaza, among other things. This assistance, primarily administered by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), has been directed mainly toward five development sectors: economic growth, water and infrastructure, democracy and governance, health, and higher education. In recent years, the United States has taken several steps to help ensure that U.S. resources, including its aid to the West Bank and Gaza, do not support terrorist activities. On September 23, 2001, President Bush issued an executive order prohibiting the support of any organization or individuals that have been designated as terrorists. Since 2001, to implement the executive order and other antiterrorism provisions in various subsequent appropriations acts, USAID, in consultation with the Department of State, Congress, and others, developed a number of provisions to help ensure that its assistance is not delivered to or through terrorists. In addition, the USAID mission for the West Bank and Gaza (the mission) developed policies and procedures to implement antiterrorism provisions for the awards it administers. The provisions that were in effect for assistance delivered through contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements active in 2005 included (1) the vetting of certain non-U.S. prime awardees ...
Date: September 29, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance: Clearer Guidance Needed on Compliance Overseas with Legislation Prohibiting Abortion-Related Lobbying

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Following a 2007 disputed election and widespread violence, Kenya reformed its constitution, which its voters approved in August 2010. The United States has provided over $18 million to support this process to date. GAO was asked to (1) describe any involvement that U.S. officials have had in Kenya's constitutional reform process relating to abortion; (2) describe any support that U.S.-funded award recipients and subrecipients have provided in Kenya's constitutional reform process relating to abortion; and (3) assess the extent to which agencies have developed and implemented guidance on compliance with the Siljander Amendment, which prohibits using certain assistance funds to lobby either for or against abortion. GAO analyzed documents and interviewed officials from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Department of State (State), award recipients and subrecipients, and the Kenyan government, and conducted an extensive media search."
Date: October 13, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department