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Periodic Heat Transfer at Small Pressure Fluctuations

Description: The effect of cyclic gas pressure variations on the periodic heat transfer at a flat wall is theoretically analyzed and the differential equation describing the process and its solution for relatively. Small pressure fluctuations developed, thus explaining the periodic heat cycle between gas and wall surface. The processes for pure harmonic pressure and temperature oscillations, respectively, in the gas space are described by means of a constant heat transfer coefficient and the equally constant phase angle between the appearance of the maximum values of the pressure and heat flow most conveniently expressed mathematically in the form of a complex heat transfer coefficient. Any cyclic pressure oscillations, can be reduced by Fourier analysis to harmonic oscillations, which result in specific, mutual relationships of heat-transfer coefficients and phase angles for the different harmonics.
Date: September 1, 1943
Creator: Pfriem, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Flow Resistance for Streams of High Velocity

Description: Problems of hydraulic flow resistance and heat transfer for streams with velocities comparable with acoustic have present great importance for various fields of technical science. Especially, they have great importance for the field of heat transfer in designing and constructing boilers.of the "Velox" type. In this article a description of experiments and their results as regards definition of the laws of heat transfer in differential form for high velocity air streams inside smooth tubes are given.
Date: December 1, 1943
Creator: Lelchuk, V. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equations for Adiabatic but Rotational Steady Gas Flows without Friction

Description: This paper makes the following assumptions: 1) The flowing gases are assumed to have uniform energy distribution. ("Isoenergetic gas flows," that is valid with the same constants for the the energy equation entire flow.) This is correct, for example, for gas flows issuing from a region of constant pressure, density, temperature, end velocity. This property is not destroyed by compression shocks because of the universal validity of the energy law. 2) The gas behaves adiabatically, not during the compression shock itself but both before and after the shock. However, the adiabatic equation (p/rho(sup kappa) = C) is not valid for the entire gas flow with the same constant C but rather with an appropriate individual constant for each portion of the gas. For steady flows, this means that the constant C of the adiabatic equation is a function of the stream function. Consequently, a gas that has been flowing "isentropically",that is, with the same constant C of the adiabatic equation throughout (for example, in origination from a region of constant density, temperature, and velocity) no longer remains isentropic after a compression shock if the compression shock is not extremely simple (wedge shaped in a two-dimensional flow or cone shaped in a rotationally symmetrical flow). The solution of nonisentropic flows is therefore an urgent necessity.
Date: August 1, 1947
Creator: Schaefer, Manfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical Treatment of Normal Condensation Shock

Description: The condensation of water vapor in an air consequences: acquisition of heat (liberated heat vaporization; loss of mass on the part of the flowing gas (water vapor is converted to liquid); change in the specific gas constants and of the ratio k of the specific heats (caused by change of gas composition). A discontinuous change of state is therefore connected with the condensation; schlieren photographs of supersonic flows in two-dimensional Laval nozzles show two intersecting oblique shock fronts that in the case of high humidities may merge near the point of intersection into one normal shock front.
Date: July 1, 1947
Creator: Heybey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Transfer in a Turbulent Liquid or Gas Stream

Description: The,theory of heat.transfer from a solid body to a liquid stream could he presented previously** only with limiting assumptions about the movement of the fluid (potential flow, laminar frictional flow). (See references 1, 2, and 3). For turbulent flow, the most important practical case, the previous theoretical considerations did not go beyond dimensionless formulas and certain conclusions as to the analogy between the friction factor and the unit thermal conductance, (See references 4, 5, 6, and 7,) In order to obtain numerical results, an experimental treatment of the problem was resorted to, which gave rise to numerous investigations because of the importance of this problem in many branches of technology. However, the results of these investigations frequently deviate from one another. The experimental results are especially dependent upon the overall dimensions and the specific proportions of the equipment. In the present work, the attempt will be made to develop systematically the theory of the heat transfer and of the dependence of the unit thermal conductance upon shape and dimensions, using as a basis the velocity distribution for turbulent flow set up by Prandtl and Von Karman.
Date: October 1, 1944
Creator: Latzko, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on Investigation of Developed Turbulence

Description: The recent experiments by Jakob and Erk, on the resistance of flowing water in smooth pipes, which are in good agreement with earlier measurements by Stenton and Pannell, have caused me to change my opinion that the empirical Blasius law (resistance proportional to the 7/4 power of the mean velocity) was applicable up to arbitrarily high Reynolds numbers. According to the new tests the exponent approaches 2 with increasing Reynolds number, where it remains an open question whether or not a specific finite limiting value of the resistance factor lambda is obtained at R = infinity. With the collapse of Blasius' law the requirements which produced the relation that the velocity in the proximity of the wall varied in proportion to the 7th root of the wall distance must also become void. However, it is found that the fundamental assumption that led to this relationship can be generalized so as to furnish a velocity distribution for any empirical resistance law. These fundamental assumptions can be so expressed that for the law of velocity distribution in proximity of the wall as well as for that of friction at the wall, a form can be found in which the pipe diameter no longer occurs, or in other words, that the processes in proximity of a wall are not dependent upon the distance of the opposite wall.
Date: January 18, 1949
Creator: Prandtl, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of Heat Transfer in Smooth and Rough Pipes

Description: The heat transfer accompanying turbulent flow in tubes has been treated by a new theory of wall turbulence, and a formula for smooth tubes has been derived which is asymptotic at Re approaches infinity. It agrees very well with the data available to date. The formula also holds for the flow along a flat plate if lambda is based on the velocity far away. For rough tubes, the unit conductance is shown to be a function of kv*/upsilon; the two empirical constants (delta(r), n) which appear in equation (52) cannot yet be determined because of lack of experimental data.
Date: December 1, 1942
Creator: Mattioli, G. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary Layer Theory, Part 2, Turbulent Flows

Description: The flow laws of the actual flows at high Reynolds numbers differ considerably from those of the laminar flows treated in the preceding part. These actual flows show a special characteristic, denoted as turbulence. The character of a turbulent flow is most easily understood the case of the pipe flow. Consider the flow through a straight pipe of circular cross section and with a smooth wall. For laminar flow each fluid particle moves with uniform velocity along a rectilinear path. Because of viscosity, the velocity of the particles near the wall is smaller than that of the particles at the center. i% order to maintain the motion, a pressure decrease is required which, for laminar flow, is proportional to the first power of the mean flow velocity. Actually, however, one ob~erves that, for larger Reynolds numbers, the pressure drop increases almost with the square of the velocity and is very much larger then that given by the Hagen Poiseuille law. One may conclude that the actual flow is very different from that of the Poiseuille flow.
Date: April 1, 1949
Creator: Schlichting, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Turbulent Flow in Diffusers of Small Divergence Angle

Description: The turbulent flow in a conical diffuser represents the type of turbulent boundary layer with positive longitudinal pressure gradient. In contrast to the boundary layer problem, however, it is not necessary that the pressure distribution along the limits of the boundary layer(along the axis of the diffuser) be given, since this distribution can be obtained from the computation. This circumstance, together with the greater simplicity of the problem as a whole, provides a useful basis for the study of the extension of the results of semiempirical theories to the case of motion with a positive pressure gradient. In the first part of the paper,formulas are derived for the computation of the velocity and.pressure distributions in the turbulent flow along, and at right angles to, the axis of a diffuser of small cone angle. The problem is solved.
Date: October 1, 1947
Creator: Gourzhienko, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Formation of Shock Waves in Subsonic Flows With Local Supersonic Velocities

Description: In the flow about a body with large subsonic velocity if the velocity of the approaching flow is sufficiently large, regions of local supersonic velocities are formed about the body. It is known from experiment that these regions downstream of the flow are always bounded by shock waves; a continuous transition of the supersonic velocity to the subsonic under the conditions indicated has never been observed. A similar phenomenon occurs in pipes. If at two cross sections of the pipe the velocity is subsonic and between these sections regions of local supersonic velocity are formed without completely occupying a single cross section, these regions are always bounded by shock waves.
Date: April 1, 1950
Creator: Frankl, F. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-Dimensional Potential Flows

Description: Contents include the following: Characteristic differential equations - initial and boundary conditions. Integration of the second characteristic differential equations. Direct application of Meyer's characteristic hodograph table for construction of two-dimensional potential flows. Prandtl-Busemann method. Development of the pressure variation for small deflection angles. Numerical table: relation between deflection, pressure, velocity, mach number and mach angle for isentropic changes of state according to Prandtl-Meyer for air (k = 1.405). References.
Date: November 1, 1949
Creator: Schaefer, Manfred & Tollmien, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lift Force of an Arrow-Shaped Wing

Description: The flow about a conical body of an ideal compressible fluid is considered. Assume that the velocity of the oncoming flow at infinity W is directed along the z-axis. The system of Cartesian coordinates x, y, z with origin at the vertex of the cone O is shown. From the considerations,of the dimensional theory, it may be found that along any ray issuing from O the components of the velocity u, v, W+w along the coordinate axes will maintain a constant value. It is further assumed that the conical body has such shape and disposition relative to the flow that u, v, and w are small in comparison with W.
Date: October 1, 1949
Creator: Gurevich, M. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subsonic Gas Flow Past A Wing Profile

Description: The use of the linearized equations of Chaplygin to calculate the subsonic flow of a gas permits solving the problem of the flow about a wing profile for absence and presence of circulation. The solution is obtained in a practical convenient form that permits finding all the required magnitudes for the gas flow (lift, lift moment velocity distribution over the profile, and critical Mach number). This solution is not expressed in simple closed form; for a certain simplifying assumption, however, the equations of Chaplygin can be reduced to equations with constant coefficients, and solutions are obtained by using only the mathematical apparatus of the theory of functions of a complex variable. The method for simplifying the equations was pointed out by Chaplygin himself. These applied similar equations to the solution of the flow problem and obtained a solution for the case of the absence of circulation.
Date: July 1, 1950
Creator: Christianovich, S. A. & Yuriev, I. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Characteristics Method Applied to Stationary Two-Dimensional and Rotationally Symmetrical Gas Flows

Description: By means of characteristics theory, formulas for the numerical treatment of stationary compressible supersonic flows for the two-dimensional and rotationally symmetrical cases have been obtained from their differential equations.
Date: March 1, 1949
Creator: Pfeiffer, F. & Meyer-Koenig, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Theory of the Laval Nozzle

Description: In the present paper, the motion of a gas in a plane-parallel Laval nozzle in the neighborhood of the transition from subsonic to supersonic velocities is studied. In a recently published paper, F. I. Frankl, applying the holograph method of Chaplygin, undertook a detailed investigation of the character of the flow near the line of transition from subsonic to supersonic velocities. From the results of Tricomi's investigation on the theory of differential equations of the mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type, Frankl introduced as one of the independent variables in place of the modulus of the velocity, a certain specially chosen function of this modulus. He thereby succeeded in explaining the character of the flow at the point of intersection of the transition line and the axis of symmetry (center of the nozzle) and in studying the behavior of the stream function in the neighborhood of this point by separating out the principal term having, together with its derivatives, the maximum value as compared with the corresponding corrections. This principal term is represented in Frankl's paper in the form of a linear combination of two hypergeometric functions. In order to find this linear combination, it is necessary to solve a number of boundary problems, which results in a complex analysis. In the investigation of the flow with which this paper is concerned, a second method is applied. This method is based on the transformation of the equations of motion to a form that may be called canonical for the system of differential equations of the mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type to which the system of equations of the motion of an ideal compressible fluid refers. By studying the behavior of the integrals of this system in the neighborhood of the parabolic line, the principal term of the solution is easily separated out in the form ...
Date: April 1, 1949
Creator: Falkovich, S. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas Motion in a Local Supersonic Region and Conditions of Potential-Flow Breakdown

Description: For a certain Mach number of the oncoming flow, the local velocity first reaches the value of the local velocity of sound (M = 1) at some point on the surface of the body located within the flow. This Mach number is designated the critical Mach number M(sub cr). By increasing the flow velocity, a supersonic local region is formed bounded by the body contour and the line of transition from subsonic to supersonic velocity. As is shown by observations with the Toepler apparatus, at a certain flow Mach number M > M(sub cr) a shock wave is formed near the body that closes the local supersonic region from behind. The formation of the shock wave is associated with the appearance of an additional resistance defined as the wave drag. In this paper, certain features are described of the flow in the local supersonic region, which is bounded by the contour of the body and the transition line, and conditions are sought for which the potential flow with the local supersonic region becomes impossible and a shock wave occurs. In the first part of the paper, the general properties of the potential flow in the local supersonic region, bounded by the contour of the profile and the transition line, are established. It is found that at the transition line, if it is not a line of discontinuity, the law of monotonic variation of the angle of inclination of the velocity vector holds (monotonic law). An approximation is given for the change in velocity at the contour of the body. The flow about a contour having a straight part is studied. In the second part of the paper, an approximation is given of the magnitudes of the accelerations at the interior points of the supersonic region. With the aid of these ...
Date: May 1, 1949
Creator: Nikolskii, A. A. & Taganov, G. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Behavior of the Laminar Boundary Layer for Periodically Oscillating Pressure Variation

Description: The calculation of the phenomena within the boundary layer of bodies immersed in a flow underwent a decisive development on the basis of L. Prandtl's trains of thought, stated more than forth years ago, and by numerous later treatises again and again touching upon them. The requirements of the steadily improving aerodynamics of airplanes have greatly increased with the passing of time and recently research became particularly interested in such phenomena in the boundary layer as are caused by small external disturbances. Experimental results suggest that, for instance, slight fluctuations in the free stream velocities as they occur in wind tunnels or slight wavelike deviations of outer wing contours from the prescribed smooth course as they originate due to construction inaccuracies may exert strong effects on the extent of the laminar boundary layer on the body and thus on the drag. The development of turbulence in the last part of the laminar portion of the boundary layer is, therefore, the main problem, the solution of which explains the behavior of the transition point of the boundary layer. A number of reports in literature deal with this problem,for instance, those of Tollmien, Schlichting, Dryden, and Pretsch. The following discussion of the behavior of the laminar boundary layer for periodically oscillating pressure variation also purports to make a contribution to that subject.
Date: September 1, 1949
Creator: Quick, august Wilhelm & Schroeder, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Transmission in the Boundary Layer

Description: In the present paper which deals with the heat transfer between the gas and the wall for large temperature drops and large velocities use is made of the method of Dorodnitsyn of the introduction of a new independent variable, with this difference, however, that the relation between the temperature field (that is, density) and the velocity field in the general case considered is not assumed given but is determined from the solution of the problem. The effect of the compressibility arising from the heat transfer is thus taken into account (at the same time as the effect of the compressibility at the large velocities). A method is given for determining the coefficients of heat transfer and the friction coefficients required in many technical problems for a curved wall in a gas flow at large Mach numbers and temperature drops. The method proposed is applicable both for Prandtl number P = 1 and for P not equal to 1.
Date: April 1, 1949
Creator: Kalikhman, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Transfer from High-Temperature Surfaces to Fluids. III - Correlation of Heat-Transfer Data for Air Flowing in Silicon Carbide Tube with Rounded Entrance, Inside Diameter of 3/4 Inch, and Effective Length of 12 Inches, Part 3, Correlation of Heat-Transfer Data for Air Flowing in Silicon Carbide Tube with Rounded Entrance, Inside Diameter of 3/4 Inch, and Effective Length of 12 Inches

Description: A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with air flowing through an electrically heated silicon carbide tube with a rounded entrance, an inside diameter of 3/4 inch, and an effective heat-transfer length of 12 inches over a range of Reynolds numbers up to 300,000 and a range of average inside-tube-wall temperature up to 2500 R. The highest corresponding local outside-tube-wall temperature was 3010 R. Correlation of the heat-transfer data using the conventional Nueselt relation wherein physical properties of the fluid were evaluated at average bulk temperature resulted in a separation of data with tube-wall-temperature level. A satisfactory correlation of the heat-transfer data was obtained, however, by the use of modified correlation parameters wherein the mass velocity G (or product of average air density and velocity evaluated at bulk temperature P(sub b)V(sub b)) in the Reynolds number was replaced by the product of average air velocity evaluated at the bulk temperature and density evaluated at either the average inside-tube-wall temperature or the average film temperature; in addition, all the physical properties of air were correspondingly evaluated at either the average inside-tube-wall temperature or the average film temperature.
Date: June 23, 1949
Creator: Sams, Eldon W. & Desmon, Leland G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Compressibility on the Flow Past Thick Airfoil Sections

Description: Six, 3-inch-chord symmetrical airfoil sections having systematic variations in thickness and thickness location were tested at Mach numbers near flight values for propeller-shank sections. The tests, the results of which are presented in the form of schlieren photographs of the flow past each model and pressure-distribution charts for two of the model, were performed to illustrate the effects of compressibility on the flow past thick symmetrical airfoil sections. Representative flow photographs indicated that at Mach numbers approximately 0.05 above the critical Mach number a speed region was reached in which the flow oscillated rapidly and the separation point and the location of the shock wave were unstable. Fixing the transition on both surfaces of the airfoil was effective in reducing these rapid oscillations. The pressure distributions showed that the section normal-force coefficients for thick airfoils were very erratic at subcritical speeds; at supercritical speeds the section normal-force coefficients for the thick airfoils became more regular. Drag coefficients showed that considerable drag decreases can be expected by decreasing the model thickness ratio.
Date: January 30, 1947
Creator: Daley, Bernard N. & Humphreys, Milton D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat of Combustion of the Product Formed by the Reaction of Acetylene, Ethylene, and Diborane

Description: The net heat of combustion of the product formed by the reaction of diborane with a mixture of acetylene and ethylene was found to be 20,440 +/- 150 Btu per pound for the reaction of liquid fuel to gaseous carbon dioxide, gaseous water, and solid boric oxide. The measurements were made in a Parr oxygen-bomb calorimeter, and the combustion was believed to be 98 percent complete. The estimated net-heat of combustion for complete combustion would therefore be 20,850 +/- 150 Btu per pound.
Date: October 24, 1957
Creator: Tannenbaum, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds of a Fighter Model Employing a Low-aspect-ratio Unswept Wing and a Horizontal Tail Mounted Well above the Wing Plane - Lateral and Directional Stability

Description: The static lateral- and directional-stability characteristics of a high-speed fighter-type airplane, obtained from wind-tunnel tests of a model, are presented. The model consisted of a thin, unswept wing of aspect ratio 2.3 and taper ratio 0.385, a body, and a horizontal tail mounted in a high position on a vertical tail. Rolling-moment, yawing moment, and cross-wind-force coefficients are presented for a range of sideslip angles of -5 deg. to +5 deg, for Mach numbers of 0.90, 1.45, and 1.90. Data are presented which show the effects on the lateral and directional stability of: (1) component parts of the complete model, (2) modification of the empennage so as to provide different heights of the horizontal tail above the wing plane, (3) angle of attack, and (4) dihedral of the wing.
Date: August 26, 1954
Creator: Wetzel, Benton E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Notes on the Prediction of Shock-induced Boundary-layer Separation

Description: The present status of available information relative to the prediction of shock-induced boundary-layer separation is discussed. Experimental results showing the effects of Reynolds number and Mach number on the separation of both laminar and turbulent boundary layer are given and compared with available methods for predicting separation. The flow phenomena associated with separation caused by forward-facing steps, wedges, and incident shock waves are discussed. Applications of the flat-plate data to problems of separation on spoilers, diffusers, and scoop inlets are indicated for turbulent boundary layers.
Date: September 16, 1953
Creator: Lange, Roy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department