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Filial Therapy and the Family: Examining the Impact of Child Parent Relationship Therapy (Cprt) on Family Functioning

Description: Research has indicated that filial therapy, an approach in which parents conduct play sessions with their young children, has strong effects on the participating parents and children. As a result, some have speculated that filial therapy improves the family system; however, minimal research exists to support this claim. Using a single-case, time-series design, I examined the impact of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT), a filial therapy approach, on the functioning of 8 diverse families (two-parent, biological children = 4; two-parent, adopted children = 3; single-parent, biological children = 1). 15 parents and 17 children (male = 15, female = 17) participated in the study. All but 1 parent was Caucasian. The children were more ethnically diverse (Caucasian = 5, Hispanic/Caucasian = 5, Hispanic = 3, Asian = 2). Parents’ ages ranged from 29 to 49 and children’s from 2 to 13. Results from simulation modeling analyses (SMA) indicated that 6 of 7 families experienced a statistically significant improvement in their targeted areas of family functioning, and the average effect size was moderate. Results from self-reported measures indicated that 7 families experienced notable improvements in family satisfaction, 4 in cohesion, 3 in communication, and 1 in flexibility. Data from an observational measure rated by independent assessors also indicated improvements pre- to post-intervention: 5 families in flexibility, 4 families in cohesion, and 4 families in communication. All families reported improved functioning in post-intervention interviews. The results support that the benefits of filial therapy may indeed extend to the family system.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Cornett, Nicholas A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparative Analysis of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with Child Witnesses of Domestic Violence

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy in: (a) improving the self-concept of child witnesses of domestic violence; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (c) reducing externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and delinquency, of child witnesses of domestic violence; (d) reducing overall behavior problems of child witnesses of domestic violence; and (e) increasing communication of empathy between mothers and child witnesses of domestic violence. A second objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Intensive Filial Therapy with Intensive Individual Play Therapy and Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy with child witnesses of domestic violence. The experimental group consisted of 11 child witnesses of domestic violence whose mothers received 12 Intensive Filial Therapy training sessions within a three week period and had 12 mother-child play sessions. The Intensive Individual Play Therapy comparison group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, and the non-treatment control group, consisting of 11 child witnesses, were utilized from the Kot (1995) study. The Intensive Sibling Group Play Therapy comparison group was utilized from the Tyndall-Lind (1999) study. Children in all studies completed the Joseph Preschool and Primary Self-concept Screening Test and the Child Behavior Checklist. Mothers who received Intensive Filial Therapy training conducted pretest and posttest play sessions for the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction. Analyses of Covariance revealed the children in the experimental group significantly increased in self-concept, and significantly reduced overall behavior problems. A comparison of t-test scores of the pretests and posttests revealed mothers in the experimental group significantly increased communication of empathy to their children.
Date: December 2000
Creator: Smith, Nancy Renfer
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effectiveness of Filial/Play Therapy Training on High School Students' Empathic Behavior with Young Children

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a filial/play therapy training model with high school juniors and seniors enrolled in a Peer Assistance and Leadership program (PALs). Filial/play therapy is an intervention that focuses on strengthening and enhancing adult-child relationships. The high students are trained to be a therapeutic change agent for primary school children identified as having adjustment difficulties by utilizing basic child-centered play therapy skills in weekly play sessions with young children. Specifically, this study is designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy in increasing: 1) the high school students' observed empathic behavior with young children, 2) the high school students' observed attitude of acceptance toward young children, 3) the high school students' observed ability to allow self-direction in young children, and 4) the high school students' observed level of involvement with young children. The experimental group, consisting of 16 volunteer high school students enrolled in a PALs class for high school credit, received a total of 24 weeks of filial/play therapy didactic training, application, and supervision for the playtimes they conducted with pre-kindergarten/kindergarten students identified with adjustment difficulties. The comparison group consisted of 15 volunteer high school students enrolled in a PALs class for high school credit. The comparison group received the standard PALs class curriculum. All students were videotaped playing with a young child 4 to 6 years of age before and after the training as a means of measuring empathic behavior with young children. An Analysis of Covariance revealed statistically significant findings in all four hypotheses. Specifically, the experimental group of high school students exhibited statistically significant increases in empathic interactions with young children when compared to the comparison group. The experimental group also exhibited statistically significant increases in communication of acceptance of young children's feelings and behaviors, acceptance and behavioral willingness ...
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Date: May 2001
Creator: Jones, Leslie D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Efficacy of Filial Therapy with Families with Chronically Ill Children

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of Filial Therapy as a method of intervention with families with chronically ill children. Filial Therapy is an intervention that focuses on strengthening and enhancing the parent-child relationship. Parents are trained to become the agents of change for their children's behaviors by utilizing basic child-centered play therapy skills in weekly play sessions. The purpose of this study was to a) determine the effectiveness in decreasing parental stress, b) determine the effectiveness in increasing parental acceptance, and c) determine the effectiveness in decreasing problematic behaviors in the chronically ill child as assessed by their parents.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Tew, Kristi L. (Kristi Lee)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship between Parental Empathy and Parental Acceptance and the Effect of Filial Therapy Training on this Relationship

Description: This study was conducted to determine the relationship between parental empathy (PE) and parental acceptance (PA) and the effect of filial therapy training (FTT) on this relationship. Filial therapy training is a parent education program in which the goal is the development of PE and PA. The Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction (MEACI) and the Porter Parental Acceptance Scale (PPAS) are two widely used instruments in filial therapy studies to measure PE and PA, respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between parental empathy and parental acceptance, and the effect of filial therapy training on this relationship. Specifically, this study was designed to investigate the correlations between the MEACI and the PPAS.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Poon, Wai-Chi Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Incarcerated Mothers

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy with incarcerated mothers as a method of increasing empathic behaviors with their children, increasing attitudes of acceptance toward their children, and reducing stress related to parenting. Filial therapy, a method of training parents to respond and interact therapeutically with their children, focuses on enhancing the parent-child relationship. The sample population of 22 volunteer subjects was drawn from a pool of incarcerated mothers in the Denton County Jail who had children between three and ten years of age. The experimental group parents, consisting of 12 incarcerated mothers, received 2-hour filial therapy training sessions biweekly for five weeks and participated in biweekly 30-minute play sessions with one of their children. The control group parents, consisting of 10 incarcerated mothers, received no treatment during the five weeks. The three written self-report instruments completed for pretesting and posttesting purposes by both groups were The Porter Parental Acceptance Scale, The Parenting Stress Index, and The Filial Problem Checklist. The parents were also videotaped in play sessions with their child before and after training as a means of measuring change in empathic behavior. Analysis of Covariance revealed that incarcerated mothers in the experimental group had significant change in 9 of 13 hypotheses, including (a) a significant increase in their level of empathic interactions with their children, (b) a significant increase in their attitude of acceptance toward their children, and (c) a significant reduction in the number of reported problems with their children's behavior. This study supports filial therapy as an effective intervention for enhancing the parent-child relationship with incarcerated mothers and their children. Utilizing instruction and practical application of positive therapeutic methods, filial therapy training empowers parents by increasing their parenting knowledge and skills, and indirectly empowers children who experience the parent-child relationship with an ...
Date: August 1995
Creator: Harris, Zella Lois
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship among Single Parents' Parental Stress, Empathy, Level of Acceptance, Perceived Problems of the Child, and Child Gender and the Effect of Filial Therapy

Description: This investigation was designed to determine the relationships among single parents' parental stress, empathy, level of acceptance, perception of child problems, and child gender, and the effect of filial therapy training on these relationships. Filial therapy is a parent training approach utilized by play therapists to train parents to be therapeutic agents of change with their own children using child-centered play therapy skills. Parents are taught and given support in a group format. Data from a previous filial therapy study with single parents was utilized in this investigation. Correlational research methods were employed to examine the relationships among the variables measured. Correlation coefficients were obtained between each of the following five variables: parental stress, level of acceptance, empathy, perceived problems of the child, and child gender. Additionally, multiple and logistic regression was utilized in search of a possible predictive model. Significant correlations were found between parental stress and acceptance, parental stress and perception of child problems, parental empathy and acceptance, parental empathy and perception of child problems, and between parental acceptance and perception of child problems. No significant correlations were found between child gender and any of the variables. Significant correlation changes were found in several of the measured variables (from pre- to post-) due to the filial therapy intervention. Regression analysis indicated that parental acceptance was predictive of parental empathy, parental empathy was predictive of parental acceptance, and parental stress was predictive of parental perception of problems. No significant findings of prediction were obtained with child gender. This study supports filial therapy as an effective intervention with single parents, as well as the appropriateness of the assessment instruments commonly used in filial therapy research. The results of this research provide insight into those areas of the parent-child relationship impacted by filial therapy, as well as the relationships between the ...
Date: August 1996
Creator: Sweeney, Daniel S.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Parents of Children Experiencing Learning Difficulties

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the Landreth 10-week filial therapy model as an intervention for the parents of children experiencing learning difficulties.The purpose of this study was to determine if filial therapy is effective in: 1) increasing parental acceptance of children with a learning difficulty; 2) reducing the stress level of parents of children with learning difficulties; 3) decreasing social problems and total behavior problems of children with learning difficulties as reported by parents and teachers.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Kale, Amy L. (Amy Louise)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Israeli Parents

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an intensive version of the Landreth (2002) 10-week filial therapy model as a method of intervention for children of Israeli parents living in Israel. This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of intensive filial therapy training in (a) reducing internalizing behavior problems of Israeli children; (b) reducing externalizing behavior problems of Israeli children; and (c) reducing overall behavior problems of Israeli children. A second purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intensive filial therapy training with Israeli parents in increasing the parents' (a) empathic responsiveness with their children; (b) communication of acceptance to their children; (c) allowance of self-direction by their children; (d) involvement in their children's play activities; (e) feelings of efficacy as parents; and (f) reduction of parental stress. The experimental group consisted of fourteen Israeli children who their parents received nine intensive Filial Therapy training sessions within a five week period and had seven parent-child play sessions. The non-treatment comparison group consisted of thirteen Israeli children whose parents received no treatment. Parents in the study completed the Hebrew version of the Child Behavior Checklist, the Parenting Stress Index, and conducted pre-test and post-test play sessions for the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction. Multivariate Analysis of Covariance revealed the children in the experimental group significantly reduced external behavior problems. The results also revealed the parents in the experimental group significantly reduced parental stress and significantly increased communication of empathy to their children.
Date: December 2003
Creator: Kidron, Michal
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of an Intensive Format of the Landreth Filial Therapy Training Model Compared to the Traditional Landreth Filial Therapy Model

Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of an intensive format of the traditional Landreth filial therapy training (LFTT) model compared to the traditional LFTT model. Specifically, this study compared the intensive LFTT group and the traditional LFTT group at post-testing in the areas of: (a) reducing stress related to parenting, (b) increasing parental empathic behavior with their children, (c) increasing parental acceptance toward their children, and (d) reducing perceived child behavior problems. The traditional LFTT group consisted of 13 parents in groups of up to six members for 10 90-minute weekly sessions. Traditional LFTT involved didactic instruction, required at-home laboratory playtimes, and supervision. Parents were taught child-centered play therapy skills of responsive listening, recognizing children's emotional needs, therapeutic limit setting, building children's self-esteem, and structuring required weekly playtimes with their children using a kit of specially selected toys. The intensive LFTT group consisted of 13 parents in groups of up to four members who met on four Saturdays for 4 hours each. The traditional LFTT model was modified to teach the same material over fewer sessions. The difference in this delivery was fewer opportunities for parents to have home playtimes and receive feedback from the researcher. To compensate for this difference and attempt to maintain the effectiveness of the traditional model, the researcher had parents bring their children to training. The researcher used the parents' children in live demonstrations of the skills being taught. Parents were able to practice the new skills with their own children under direct supervision from the researcher followed by immediate feedback. This modification provided supervision equivalent to that of the traditional LFTT model. The results of this study were no statistically significant differences between the intensive and traditional groups at post-testing on overall parenting stress, parental acceptance and empathic behaviors with their children, and in ...
Date: December 2003
Creator: Ferrell, Lisa G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Skill Level of Parents Trained in the Landreth Filial Therapy Model and Graduate Students Trained in Play Therapy

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if parents trained in the Landreth Filial Therapy Model could demonstrate child-centered play therapy skills as effectively as graduate play therapy students who completed an Introduction to Play Therapy course. The participants in both the parent group and the graduate student group were videotaped in play sessions with children pre- and post-training in order to measure change in adult empathic behavior as defined on the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction (MEACI). The specific skills measured in this study were (a) communicating acceptance to the child, (b) allowing the child to direct his or her own play during the play sessions, (c) demonstrating appropriate levels of involvement in the child's play, and (d) demonstrating empathic behavior toward the child. The Landreth Filial Therapy Model is a training system that utilizes both didactic and dynamic means to train parents and other paraprofessionals to be therapeutic agents of change with children. Parents are taught child-centered play therapy skills to use in weekly home play sessions with their children in order to strengthen the emotional bond between parent and child. The Introduction to Play Therapy course is a graduate-level counseling course at the University of North Texas taught by Dr. Garry Landreth. The course focuses on the philosophy, theory, and skills of child-centered play therapy. Students enrolled in this course typically plan to use play therapy in professional settings. The filial-trained parent group (n = 21) consisted of the experimental group of single parents from Bratton and Landreth's (1995) study, Filial Therapy with Single Parents, Effects of Parental Acceptance, Empathy and Stress. The parents met for weekly 2-hour filial therapy sessions over the course of 10 weeks and conducted six or seven 30-minute play sessions at home with their child-of-focus. The graduate student group (n ...
Date: May 2003
Creator: Elling, Roseanne Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Adapting Filial Therapy for Families who have a Child with a Life-Threatening Illness

Description: Utilizing a collective case study design, I examined and described the filial therapy (FT) process and adaptations discovered to be necessary and unnecessary in working with families who have a child with a life-threatening illness in the hospital setting. Data from a total of 7 parents was utilized, including those who terminated early, in order to gain a greater understanding of adapting FT for families who have a child with a life-threatening illness and their participation patterns. The parents attended 10 one- to two-hour FT sessions. The data was analyzed to examine for themes, patterns and relationships intrinsically with each case participant, as well as across cases. Analysis indicated that parents with a child with a life-threatening illness had great difficulty committing to attend FT; and a high rate of attrition occurred for those who did commit. A theme regarding flexibility was found to be of eminent importance in a variety of manifestations including therapeutic methods, session format, location and time of sessions, and intense vs traditional FT. Therapeutic adaptations in flexibility found to be important including openness to cathartic and personal parenting sessions, tolerance of forgetfulness, and lowering typical therapeutic concerns of dependency in the relationship. An inability for parents in this situation to benefit from intense FT methods was also noted. Changes noted in the child of focus included increased confidence, increased cooperation in the medical setting, increased communication with the parent and with medical staff regarding medical issues, and increased communication with the parent regarding personal feelings and issues. Changes noted in the parents included increased confidence in parenting skills, increased awareness of the child's perceptions of the environment, increased tolerance in allowing the child to struggle in and out of the medical setting, with both emotional and physical pain in order to gain coping skills, increased ...
Date: August 2004
Creator: Steen, Rheta LeAnne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fifth Grade Students as Emotional Helpers with Kindergarten Children, Using Play Therapy Procedures and Skills

Description: This research study investigated the effectiveness of a filial therapy training model as a method to train fifth grade students in child-centered play therapy skills and procedures. Filial therapy is an intervention that focuses on strengthening and enhancing adult-child relationships. The fifth grade students were trained to be a therapeutic change agent for kindergarten children identified as having adjustment difficulties, by utilizing basic child-centered play therapy skills in weekly play sessions with the kindergarten children. Specifically, this research determined the effectiveness of filial therapy in increasing the fifth grade students': 1) empathic responses with kindergarten children; 2) communication of acceptance with kindergarten children; 3) allowance of self-direction with kindergarten children, and 4) involvement in play activities of kindergarten children. The experimental group of fifth grade students (N=12) received thirty-five minutes of training twice a week for 5 weeks and then once a week for the duration of the 10 weeks of play sessions. The control group (N=11) received no training during the 15 weeks of the project. Fifth grade student participants were videotaped playing with a kindergarten child identified as having adjustment difficulties in 20-minute play sessions before and after the training to measure empathic behavior in adult-child interactions. Analysis of Covariance on adjusted post test means revealed that fifth grade children in the experimental group demonstrated statistically significant increases in empathic responses, acceptance, and behavioral willingness to follow the kindergarten children's lead, and involvement. A measure of communication of acceptance of kindergarten children's feelings and behaviors although not statistically significant indicated a positive trend. This study supports the use of filial therapy as an effective training model for increasing fifth grade students' empathic behavior with kindergarten children experiencing adjustment difficulties. Filial therapy offers significant possibilities for training fifth grade students in a developmentally appropriate model for working with kindergarten ...
Date: December 2001
Creator: Robinson, Julianna M. Ziegler
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Non-Offending Parents of Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy as a method of intervention for non-offending parents and their children who have experienced sexual abuse. Filial therapy is a didactic/dynamic approach used by play therapists to train parents to be therapeutic agents with their children. Parents are taught basic child-centered play therapy skills and the utilization of these skills in weekly play sessions with their children. Parents learn to create a special environment which enhances and strengthens the parent-child relationship, thus assisting in personal growth and change for both the parent and child. The purpose of this study was to determine if filial therapy is effective in: (a) increasing the acceptance of non-offending parents of their sexually abused children; (b) reducing the stress level of non-offending parents; (c) improving empathic behaviors of non-offending parents toward their sexually abused child; (d) decreasing the anxiety of sexually abused children; (e) enhancing the self-concept of sexually abused children; (f) decreasing behavior problems of sexually abused children as reported by their non-offending parents; and (g) enhancing the emotional adjustment of sexually abused children.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Costas, Mary Bassett
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Chinese Parents

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy in: (a) increasing Chinese parents' empathic behavior with their children; (b) increasing Chinese parents' attitude of acceptance toward their children; and (c) reducing Chinese parents' stress related to parenting. The experimental group, consisting of 18 Chinese parents, received 10 weekly 2-hour filial therapy training sessions and conducted a weekly 3 0-minute play session with one of their children. The control group, consisting of 16 Chinese parents, received no treatment during the ten weeks. All the parents were videotaped playing with their child before and after the training as a means of measuring change in empathic behavior. The two written self-report instruments completed for pretesting and posttesting purposes were the Porter Parental Acceptance Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Analyses of Covariance revealed that the Chinese parents in the experimental group had significant changes in all 12 hypotheses, including (a) a significant increase in their level of empathic interactions with their children; (b) a significant increase in their attitude of acceptance toward their children; and (c) a significant reduction in their level of stress related to parenting. This study supports filial therapy as an effective intervention for Chinese parents and their children. Filial therapy equips Chinese parents with healthy parenting skills and knowledge and indirectly empowers Chinese children who experience an increase in parental empathy and acceptance. Thus, filial therapy offers significant possibilities for promoting the parent-child relationship and well-being of Chinese families.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Chau, Iris Yuen-Fan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Facilitating Healthy Parenting Attitudes Among Adolescents Using Filial Therapy in a High School Curriculum

Description: This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a filial therapy training model with high school students enrolled in a Peer Assistance Leadership (PAL) program. Specifically, this study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy in: (1) increasing observed empathic behavior with children, (2) increasing acceptance toward children, (3) increasing the ability to allow children self-direction, and (4) increasing the level of involvement with children. Additionally, this study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy in facilitating healthy parenting attitudes of nonparenting adolescents. A research question was presented to determine if a relationship exists between empathy, acceptance, involvement and allowing children self-direction and other factors considered to be healthy parenting attitudes. An Analysis of Covariance on post-test scores revealed significant findings in the high school students ability to demonstrate empathy towards children, allowing the child self direction, communication of acceptance, and involvement as measured by the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interactions (MEACI). An Analysis of Covariance on post-test scores revealed no significant changes in parenting attitudes as measured by Adult- Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2). A Bivariate Correlation revealed a statistically significant correlation between the Empathy, Acceptance, Allowing the Child Self-Direction and Involvement scales on the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interactions (MEACI) and the Oppressing Children's Power and Independence scale on the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI-2). This study supports the use of filial therapy as an effective training model for increasing high school students' empathic behavior with children. Filial therapy training offers significant possibilities for future use in high school curricula to facilitate the development of healthy parenting attitudes and interactions between future parents and children.
Date: August 2001
Creator: Hilpl, Kimberly A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Mixed-Methods Approach to the Experiences of Non-Offending Parents of Children who have Experienced Sexual Abuse Participating in Child Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT)

Description: When a child has been sexually abused, the non-offending parent and child may benefit from an intervention aimed at enhancing the parent child relationship. This mixed-methods study examined the process of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) with non-offending parents of children who had been sexually abused. One purpose of the present study was to examine change in parent-child relationship, child behavior, and parent empathy of non-offending parents whose children have been sexually abused after participation in CPRT. A secondary purpose of this study was to explore subjective experiences of non-offending parents who participate in CPRT. Participants (N = 8) completed 11 weeks of CPRT in either Spanish speaking (n = 4) or English speaking (n = 4) groups. All participants completed pretest and posttest instruments including Child Behavior Checklist, Parenting Stress Index, and Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction. Pretest and posttest means were reported but because of small sample size, only descriptive statistics are reported. Possible trends in pretest/posttest mean scores of the quantitative instruments are discussed. All participants also completed a post semi-structured interview to account for the experience of participants qualitatively. Analysis of the qualitative data revealed enhanced parent-child relationships, improved communication, greater acceptance, positive parental internal changes, positive behavioral changes in child, and positive changes in discipline.
Date: August 2010
Creator: West, Brooke E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Teachers of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Preschool Children

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Filial Therapy training in increasing teachers of deaf and hard of hearing preschool students': 1) empathic responsiveness with their students; 2) communication of acceptance to their students; 3) allowance of self-direction by their students. A second purpose was to determine the effectiveness of Filial Therapy training in reducing experimental group students': 1) overall behavior problems; 2) internalizing behaviors; and 3) externalizing behavior problems. Filial Therapy is a didactic/dynamic modality used by play therapists to train parents and teachers to be therapeutic agents with their children and students. Teachers are taught primary child-centered play therapy skills for use with their own students in weekly play sessions with their students. Teachers learn to create a special environment that enhances and strengthens the teacher-student emotional bond by means of which both teacher and child are assisted in personal growth and change. The experimental group (N=24) consisted of 12 teachers, who participated in 11 weekly Filial Therapy training sessions (22 total instructional hours) during the fall semester at the preschool of a center for communications disorders, and 12 students chosen by the teachers as their student of focus. Teachers and students met once a week during the training for 30 minute teacher student play sessions in a room specified for this purpose. The non-treatment comparison group received no training during the 11 weeks. Teacher participants completed two written instruments: the Child Behavior Checklist/Caregiver-Teacher Report Form and the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for Deaf and Hearing Impaired Students. Teachers who received Filial Therapy training were videotaped during student teacher play sessions. The videotaped sessions were used for pretest and posttest evaluation for the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction. Analysis of covariance revealed the children in the experimental group significantly decreased overall behavior problems. ...
Date: May 2002
Creator: Smith, David Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries

Filial Therapy with Immigrant Korean Parents in the United States

Description: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy training in: (a) increasing immigrant Korean parents' empathic behavior with their children; (b) increasing immigrant Korean parents' acceptance level toward their children; and (c) reducing immigrant Korean parents' stress related to parenting.The experimental group, consisting of 17 immigrant Korean parents in the United States, received 10 weekly 2-hour filial therapy training sessions and participated in weekly 30-minute play sessions with one of their children. The control group, consisting of 15 immigrant Korean parents in the United States, received no treatment during the ten weeks. All the parents were videotaped playing with their child before and after the training as a means of measuring change in empathic behavior. The two written self-report instruments completed for pretesting and posttesting purposes were the Porter Parental Acceptance Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Analyses of covariance revealed that the immigrant Korean parents in the experimental group had significant changes in 10 of 12 hypotheses, including (a) a significant increase in their level of empathic interactions with their children; (b) a significant increase in their attitude of acceptance toward their children; and (c) a significant reduction in their level of stress related to parenting. This study supports the use of filial therapy for promoting the parent-child relationship in immigrant Korean families in the United States. Filial therapy helps immigrant Korean parents to be therapeutic agents for their children. It helps them regain their own power as parents and restore positive relationships with their children.
Date: August 2002
Creator: Lee, Mi-Kyong
Partner: UNT Libraries

An investigation of beliefs and practices of conservative Protestant parents and the cultural applicability of child parent relationship therapy.

Description: The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey to identify the beliefs and practices of conservative Protestant parents, which assisted in clarifying the assertions in the current literature regarding conservative Protestant parenting. Additionally, this researcher sought to determine the applicability of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT), a filial therapy model based upon the principles of child centered play therapy, for conservative Protestant parents by ascertaining the need for cultural modifications. Beliefs and practices of conservative Protestants were measured using the Protestant Parenting Inventory (PPI), an original instrument developed through a series of focus groups and pilot testings. The population comprised 148 mothers and fathers from 4 Southern Baptist churches in and around the Dallas/Fort Worth metroplex. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the data in order to increase internal consistency estimates and percent of explained variance. Criterion coding of demographic data allowed a multiple regression analysis to determine which demographic variables were significant predictors of participant responses on the PPI. Descriptive statistics allowed the researcher to investigate the compatibility of conservative Protestants and CPRT. Results of this study both confirm and refute past findings regarding conservative Protestants. Results also revealed the need for some cultural modifications to CPRT in order to make it an acceptable parenting resource for conservative Protestant parents.
Date: May 2007
Creator: McClung, Tracy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Early Mental Health Intervention for Disadvantaged Preschool Children with Behavior Problems: The Effectiveness of Training Head Start Teachers in Child Teacher Relationship Training (CTRT)

Description: This study examined the effectiveness of training Head Start teachers and aides in child teacher relationship training (CTRT). CTRT is based on child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) (Landreth & Bratton, 2006), a filial therapy model based on the principles of child-centered play therapy, and was adapted for the classroom. In this quasi-experimental design, 12 teacher/aide pairs (n = 24) were assigned to the experimental (n = 12) or active control group (n = 12). Children who scored in the Borderline or Clinical range on at least one scale of the Child Behavior Checklist-Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) at pretest qualified for the study (n = 54). Nine hypotheses were analyzed using a two factor repeated measures multivariate analysis to determine if the CTRT group and the active control group performed differently across time according to pre-, mid-, and posttest results of the C-TRF. Additionally, effect sizes were calculated to determine practical significance. Five hypotheses were retained at the .05 level of significance. Post hoc analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the two phases of treatment. Results indicated that children in the experimental group made statistically significant improvements in externalizing problems (p = .003). Children of focus made statistically significant improvements in externalizing (p = .003) and total behavior (p = .01) problems. Results are particularly significant for the non-children of focus, who only received the in-classroom intervention. The non-children of focus made statistically significant improvements in externalizing behavior problems (p = .04) and practical significance was large. Results indicate that a school based intervention such as CTRT is a viable treatment option for many children with externalizing behavior problems.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Morrison, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries