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The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate

Description: The 109th Congress may consider legislation to renew and to reauthorize the Export Administration Act (EAA). Said legislation would revise the EAA, especially in the areas of penalties, enforcement, and U.S. policy towards multilateral export control regimes. Through the EAA, Congress delegates to the executive branch its express constitutional authority to regulate foreign commerce by controlling exports. EAA confers upon the President the power to control exports for national security, foreign policy or short supply purposes. Conflicting views on the liberalization of export administration controls, especially concerning particular exports such as high performance computers, encryption technology, stealth materials, satellites, machine tools, "hot-section" aerospace technology, and the issue of "deemed exports."
Date: June 7, 2006
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Export Administration Act: Controversy and Prospects

Description: In the 107th Congress, renewed efforts are underway to enact a permanent replacement for the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA), temporarily reauthorized in the 106th Congress until August 20, 2001. The Export Administration Act of 2001 (S. 149) was introduced on January 23, 2001. Hearings were held by the Senate Banking Committee, and the bill was reported for consideration by the full Senate by a vote of 19-1 to March 22, 2001. The difficulty in passing a comprehensive rewrite of the EAA has resulted, in part, from the continuing tension between national security and commercial concerns. Industry groups, proponents of heightened export controls, the Administration, and Congress have all participated in the reauthorization debate.
Date: March 26, 2001
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Export Administration Act: Controversy and Prospects

Description: The 108th Congress again is expected to consider legislation to rewrite or to reauthorize the Export Administration Act (EAA). In the 107th Congress, the Export Administration Act of 2001 (S. 149) was introduced on January 23, 2001. The Senate passed S. 149 on September 6, 2001 by a vote of 85-14. A companion version in the House, H.R. 2581, was introduced by Rep. Gilman on July 20, 2001. The House International Relations Committee reported the measure with 35 amendments on August 1. The House Armed Services Committee further amended H.R. 2581 and reported out the bill on March 6, 2002. The difficulty in passing a comprehensive rewrite of the EAA has resulted, in part, from the continuing tension between national security and commercial concerns. Industry groups, proponents of heightened export controls, the Administration, and Congress have all participated in the reauthorization debate.
Date: January 2, 2003
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate

Description: This paper discusses the Export Administration Act in terms of its evolution in the 20th century, its major features including the types of controls authorized by the act, the Commerce Control List and export licensing procedures, and issues concerning the maintenance of export controls under IEEPA. It then highlights several controlled commodities that have been featured prominently in export control discussions. Finally, it discusses competing business and national security perspectives concerning several of more contentious themes in the export control debate: the controllability of technology, the effectiveness of multilateral control regimes, the organization of the export control system, and the impact of export controls on the U.S. economy and business.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Export Administration Act: Controversy and Prospects

Description: In the 107th Congress, renewed efforts are underway to enact a permanent replacement for the Export Adminstration Act of 1979 (EAA), temporarily reauthorized in the 106th Congress until August 20, 2001. The Export Administration Act of 2001 (S. 149) was introduced on January 23, 2001. Hearings were held by the Senate Banking Committee, and the bill was reported for consideration by the full Senate by a vote of 19-1 to March 22, 2001. The difficulty in passing a comprehensive rewrite of the EAA has resulted, in part, from the continuing tension between national security and commercial concerns. Industry groups, proponents of heightened export controls, the Administration, and Congress have all participated in the reauthorization debate.
Date: March 11, 2002
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Export Control System and the Export Control Reform Initiative

Description: This report discusses the U.S. export control system and the initiative started by President Obama to study and make recommendations for reform of the export control system by streamlining processes and consolidating control of the program in one agency.
Date: January 8, 2018
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate

Description: This paper discusses the Export Administration Act in terms of its evolution in the 20th century, its major features including the types of controls authorized by the act, the Commerce Control List and export licensing procedures, and issues concerning the maintenance of export controls under IEEPA. It then highlights several controlled commodities that have been featured prominently in export control discussions. Finally, it discusses competing business and national security perspectives concerning several of more contentious themes in the export control debate: the controllability of technology, the effectiveness of multilateral control regimes, the organization of the export control system, and the impact of export controls on the U.S. economy and business.
Date: May 5, 2005
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Export Administration Act: Evolution, Provisions, and Debate

Description: This paper discusses the Export Administration Act in terms of its evolution in the 20th century, its major features including the types of controls authorized by the act, the Commerce Control List and export licensing procedures, and issues concerning the maintenance of export controls under IEEPA. It then highlights several controlled commodities that have been featured prominently in export control discussions. Finally, it discusses competing business and national security perspectives concerning several of more contentious themes in the export control debate: the controllability of technology, the effectiveness of multilateral control regimes, the organization of the export control system, and the impact of export controls on the U.S. economy and business.
Date: June 7, 2006
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

Description: This report discusses some of the proposed legislation and other issues related to the U.S. export control system. In considering the future of the U.S. export control system, Congress may weigh the merits of a unified export control system -- the end result of the President's proposal -- or the continuation of the present bifurcated system by reauthorizing the present Export Administration Act (EAA) or writing new legislation. In doing so, Congress may debate the record of the present dual-use system maintained by emergency authority, the aims and effectiveness of the present non-proliferation control regimes, the maintenance of the defense industrial base, and the delicate balance between the maintenance of economic competitiveness and the preservation of national security.
Date: September 20, 2013
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Encryption Export Controls

Description: This report discusses encryption export controls, beginning with background on the development and use of encryption, and continuing with a description of export controls imposed under the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) and the Export Administration Act (EAA); a discussion of recent federal court rulings in First Amendment challenges to AECA and EAA regulations; and a summary of 106th Congress legislation aimed at liberalizing law and policy affecting encryption exports.
Date: January 11, 2001
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export Administration Legislation

Description: This report discusses briefly the major export control provisions that existed under EAA-1979 and the current authorities for regulating exports. It then summarizes the major export control provisions of the proposed EAA-1996 and discusses some aspects of the bill that may be debated in Congress and the press. Highlighted are implications for nonproliferation policy, for national security and foreign policy, and for business; other topics covered are foreign boycott provisions, criminal and civil penalties, and judicial review.
Date: August 27, 1996
Creator: Harrison, Glennon J.; Shuey, Robert; Bowman, Steven R.; Grimmett, Jeanne J. & Davis, Zachary S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

Description: This report discusses the U.S. export control system that is diffused among several different licensing and enforcement agencies. Exports of dual-use goods and technologies--as well as some military items, are licensed by the Department of Commerce, munitions are licensed by the Department of State, and restrictions on exports based on U.S. sanctions are administered by the U.S. Treasury.
Date: May 7, 2013
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

Description: The balance between national security and export competitiveness has made the subject of export controls controversial for decades. On August 13, 2009, President Obama announced the launch of a comprehensive review of the U.S. export control system. This report discusses this reform initiative, after discussing the existing system.
Date: January 11, 2013
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

Description: The 112th Congress may consider reforms of the U.S. export control system. The balance between national security and export competitiveness has made the subject of export controls controversial for decades. Through the Export Administration Act (EAA), the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA), and other authorities, the United States restricts the export of defense items or munitions; so-called “dual-use” goods and technology—items with both civilian and military applications; certain nuclear materials and technology; and items that would assist in the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons or the missile technology used to deliver them. U.S. export controls are also used to restrict exports to certain countries on which the United States imposes economic sanctions. At present, the EAA has expired and dual-use controls are maintained under IEEPA authorities.
Date: February 16, 2012
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

Description: This report discusses some of the proposed legislation and other issues related to the U.S. export control system. In considering the future of the U.S. export control system, Congress may weigh the merits of a unified export control system—the end result of the President's proposal—or the continuation of the present bifurcated system by reauthorizing the present Export Administration Act (EAA) or writing new legislation. In doing so, Congress may debate the record of the present dual-use system maintained by emergency authority, the aims and effectiveness of the present non-proliferation control regimes, the maintenance of the defense industrial base, and the delicate balance between the maintenance of economic competitiveness and the preservation of national security.
Date: May 18, 2012
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export Administration Act of 1979 Reauthorization

Description: The Export Administration Act of 2001 was introduced on January 23, 2001. Hearings were held by the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee, and the bill was reported for consideration by the full Senate by a vote of 19-1 to March 22, 2001. A companion version in the House, H.R. 2581, was introduced by Rep. Gilmanon July 20, 2001. The House International Relations Committee reported the measure with 35 amendments on August 1. The Export Administration Act of 1979 expired on August 20, 2001, however the President extended export control authority and the Export Administration Regulations by invoking the International Emergency Economic Powers Act. During the 106th Congress, both houses held hearings on export control legislation and the Senate Banking Committee voted to adopt the Export Administration Act of 1999 (S. 1712, reported on October 8, 1999, S.Rept. 106-180).
Date: August 29, 2001
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; Shuey, Robert; Elwell, Craig K. & Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export Administration Act of 1979 Reauthorization

Description: The Export Administration Act of 2001 was introduced on January 23, 2001. Hearings were held by the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee, and the bill was reported for consideration by the full Senate by a vote of 19-1 to March 22, 2001. A companion version in the House, H.R. 2581, was introduced by Rep. Gilmanon July 20, 2001. The House International Relations Committee reported the measure with 35 amendments on August 1. The Export Administration Act of 1979 expired on August 20, 2001, however the President extended export control authority and the Export Administration Regulations by invoking the International Emergency Economic Powers Act. During the 106th Congress, both houses held hearings on export control legislation and the Senate Banking Committee voted to adopt the Export Administration Act of 1999 (S. 1712, reported on October 8, 1999, S.Rept. 106-180).
Date: January 2, 2003
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; Shuey, Robert; Elwell, Craig K. & Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department