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The Development of the Theory of Full Employment

Description: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and to review fundamental ideas and theories of employment and to set forth the policies that can best obtain the goal of full employment, which is defined as the condition where those who want to work at the prevailing rates of pay can find work without undue difficulty.
Date: 1956
Creator: Hughes, James Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Predicting the Use of External Labor Arrangements: A Transaction Costs Perspective

Description: Firms' use of external labor arrangements (ELAs), such as temporary, contract and seasonal workers, has become increasingly prevalent over the last two decades. Despite the increasing importance of this phenomenon, little is known about firms' reasons for using ELAs. Most research to date has been exploratory, using qualitative methods or archival data not well suited to the constructs. The result of this research has been a long and often contradictory list of proposed antecedents of ELA use. In this study, I tested the ability of the transaction costs theory to predict when firms will fill a given job using an ELA rather that a permanent employment relationship. According to this theory, three characteristics of the job will determine whether the job will be filled using an ELA: transaction-specific investment, likelihood of repetition, and uncertainty of performance. Firms will be less likely to staff a given job using an ELA when the job requires investment in idiosyncratic skills, when the firm is likely to require a person with that set of skills regularly, and when performance in that job is difficult to measure.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Masters, John K. (John Kendall)
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Employment for Veterans: Trends and Programs

Description: This report discusses veterans' employment trends and programs. The first section presents data on veterans' employment outcomes, identifying recent trends, and discussing issues to consider when interpreting veterans' employment data. The following sections present brief discussions of existing programs that provide employment-related services to veterans. These services are divided into (1) general programs that are broadly available to veterans, (2) programs that target veterans with service-connected disabilities, and (3) competitive grant programs that provide additional employment-related services to veterans but may be limited in scope or availability.
Date: February 20, 2014
Creator: Collins, Benjamin; Dilger, Robert Jay; Dortch, Cassandria; Kapp, Lawrence; Lowry, Sean & Perl, Libby
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Employment for Veterans: Trends and Programs

Description: Veterans' employment outcomes in the civilian labor market are an issue of ongoing congressional interest. This report offers introductory data on veterans' performance in the civilian labor market as well as a discussion of veteran-targeted federal programs that provide employment-related benefits and services.
Date: January 10, 2013
Creator: Collins, Benjamin; Bradley, David H.; Dilger, Robert Jay; Dortch, Cassandria; Kapp, Lawrence; Lowry, Sean et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Selected Characteristics of Private and Public Sector Workers

Description: This report begins with an analysis of the trends in employment in the private and public sectors. The public sector is separated into employees of the federal government, state governments, and local governments. Next, the report analyzes selected characteristics of private and public sector workers.
Date: March 21, 2014
Creator: Mayer, Gerald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Employment for Veterans: Trends and Programs

Description: This report discusses veterans' employment trends and programs. The first section presents data on veterans' employment outcomes, identifying recent trends, and discussing issues to consider when interpreting veterans' employment data. The following sections present brief discussions of existing programs that provide employment-related services to veterans. These services are divided into (1) general programs that are broadly available to veterans, (2) programs that target veterans with service-connected disabilities, and (3) competitive grant programs that provide additional employment-related services to veterans but may be limited in scope or availability.
Date: October 23, 2012
Creator: Collins, Benjamin; Bradley, David H.; Dortch, Cassandria; Kapp, Lawrence & Scott, Christine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Description: This report begins with an overview of the purpose of mentoring, including a brief discussion on research of structured mentoring programs. It then describes the evolution of federal policies on mentoring since the early 1990s and provides an overview of the components and funding for each of two recent (discontinued) federal mentoring programs, as well as a discussion of other federal mentoring initiatives that are currently funded.
Date: February 28, 2014
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Description: This report provides an overview of federal employment programs for vulnerable young people. It begins with a discussion of the current challenges in preparing all youth today for the workforce. The report then provides a chronology of job training and employment programs for at-risk youth that began in the 1930s and were expanded or modified from the 1960s through the 1990s. It goes on to discuss the five youth programs authorized under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), and draws comparisons between these programs.
Date: January 13, 2014
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Ministerial Exception of the First Amendment: Employment Discrimination and Religious Organizations

Description: This report analyzes the history and constitutional bases for the ministerial exception and examines selected statutory provisions reflecting its protections under federal employment laws. The report examines the distinction between the constitutional and statutory protections for religious organizations and addresses critical questions involved in judicial consideration of the ministerial exception. It analyzes which employees may qualify as ministerial, the extent to which courts may defer to religious entities claiming the exception, and whether the exception may apply to any claim brought against a religious entity.
Date: December 10, 2014
Creator: Brown, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Description: This report begins with an overview of the purpose of mentoring, including a brief discussion on research of structured mentoring programs. The report then describes the evolution of federal policies on mentoring since the early 1990s. The report provides an overview of the federal mentoring initiatives that are currently funded.
Date: October 22, 2015
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Description: In an increasingly global economy, and with retirement starting for the Baby Boomer generation, Congress has indicated a strong interest in ensuring that today's young people have the educational attainment and employment experience needed to become highly skilled workers, contributing taxpayers, and successful participants in civic life. Challenges in the economy and among certain youth populations, however, have heightened concern among policymakers that some young people may not be prepared to fill these roles. This report covers this history and current status of governmental assistance in federal youth employment and job training programs.
Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Description: Youth mentoring refers to a relationship between youth—particularly those most at risk of experiencing negative outcomes in adolescence and adulthood—and the adults who support and guide them. The origin of the modern youth mentoring concept is credited to the efforts of charity groups that formed during the Progressive era of the early 1900s to provide practical assistance to poor and juvenile justice-involved youth, including help with finding employment. Issues relevant to the federal role in mentoring include the limitations of research on outcomes for mentored youth, the potential need for additional mentors, grantees' challenges in sustaining funding, and the possible discontinuation of federal mentoring funding.
Date: January 20, 2012
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Description: This report provides an overview of federal employment programs for vulnerable young people. It begins with a discussion of the current challenges in preparing all youth today for the workforce. The report then provides a chronology of job training and employment programs for at-risk youth that began in the 1930s and were expanded or modified from the 1960s through the 1990s. It goes on to discuss the five youth programs authorized under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), and draws comparisons between these programs. Following this section is a detailed discussion of each of the programs.
Date: January 13, 2014
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Impact of EEO Legislation Upon Selection Procedures for Transfer, Training and Development and Promotion

Description: Legislation, court decisions, and the changing political and social climate provide evidence of the importance of the outcomes of EEO litigation involving challenged selection procedures for transfer, training and development, and promotion. These selection procedures are being challenged by more informed employees and, in many cases, result in costly litigation. Thus, organizations must be aware of the continuing developments in employment law especially as found in court decisions and related legislation. This study investigates judicial and EEOC decisions in discrimination cases to provide answers to these questions: Are organizations aware of the outcomes of EEO litigation involving challenged selection procedures for transfer, training and development, and promotion? Are organizations aware of what constitutes a discriminatory practice in the selection of employees for transfer, training and development, and promotion? Does management recognize and follow nondiscriminatory procedures in selecting personnel for transfer, training and development, and promotion? The purposes of the study are 1. To analyze outcomes of EEO litigation involving challenged selection procedures for transfer, training and development, and promotion; 2. To develop a model set of guidelines to aid organizations in developing nondiscriminatory procedures for use in selecting employees for transfer, training and development, and promotion. This study concludes that many employers are aware of the outcomes of EEO litigation involving challenged selection procedures for transfer, training and development, and promotion. Many employers are also aware of what constitutes a discriminatory practice in the selection of employees for some employment advantage. However, management does not always recognize and follow nondiscriminatory procedures when selecting employees for transfer, training and development, and promotion. The number of cases in which selection procedures were found discriminatory supports this conclusion.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Rach, Margaret M. (Margaret Mannion)
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Career and Occupational Implementation Among Women College Graduates

Description: This follow-up study involved college women seven years after graduation. The purpose was to investigate the predictability of women's career behavior from career aspirations at senior year of college. Some data were derived from The Role Outlook Study senior year questionnaire. In addition, a second questionnaire, The Role Outlook Follow-Up, was utilized which focused upon various events occurring in women's lives following college graduation, namely marriage, graduate school attendance, receipt of advanced degrees, and work experience. No significant association was found between women's career aspirations senior year and actual career behavior. Instead, marriage and the absence or presence of children differentiated working and non-working women. However, a significant association was found between women' s occupational preferences at senior year and their current occupations.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Shinn, Linda S.
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Reauthorization Proposals in the 113th Congress: Comparison of Major Features of Current Law and S.1356

Description: This report summarizes each of the WIA titles and highlights the major features of S. 1356, as ordered reported, pertaining to each title. The report also compares the proposed provisions of S. 1356 to current law
Date: October 29, 2013
Creator: Bradley, David H. & Collins, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Older Displaced Workers in the Context of an Aging and Slowly Growing Population

Description: This report analyzes the labor market experiences of those older workers who have involuntarily lost long-held jobs for reasons unrelated to their own performance (e.g., veteran factory workers at plants closed because of import competition, experienced information technology workers whose jobs have been outsourced to workers in other countries, and mid-level managers in positions eliminated through corporate restructuring). It examines current policies targeted at the reemployment of older displaced workers which, if successful, might lengthen their stay in the workforce.
Date: January 15, 2010
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Effects of a Summer Youth Employment Program for School Alienated and Adjudicated Youth

Description: This research was a reanalysis of an extant data set on a Youth Employment Demonstration Projects Act (YEDPA) summer program. The ten week, seven site program combined classroom training with a worksite experience and was targeted to drop-outs, potential drop—outs and adjudicated youth. Eligible youth were randomly assigned to participant and control groups and were measured at pre— and postprogram and three and eight month follow-up. The data set included information on 1901 participant and 978 control youth.
Date: December 1984
Creator: Ellis, Ann Marie, 1941-
Partner: UNT Libraries
open access

Employment Verification: Agencies Have Improved E-Verify, but Significant Challenges Remain

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This testimony discusses the E-Verify program, which provides employers a tool for verifying an employee's authorization to work in the United States. The opportunity for employment is one of the most powerful magnets attracting immigrants to the United States. According to the Pew Hispanic Center, as of March 2010, approximately 11.2 million unauthorized immigrants were living in the country, and an estimated 8 million of them, or about 70 percent, were in the labor force. Congress, the administration, and some states have taken various actions to better ensure that those who work here have appropriate work authorization and to safeguard jobs for authorized employees. Nonetheless, opportunities remain for unauthorized workers to fraudulently obtain employment by using borrowed or stolen documents and for unscrupulous employers to hire unauthorized workers. Immigration experts have noted that deterring illegal immigration requires, among other things, a more reliable employment eligibility verification process and a more robust worksite enforcement capacity. E-Verify is a free, largely voluntary, Internet-based system operated by the Verification Division of the Department of Homeland Security's U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) and the Social Security Administration (SSA). The goals of E-Verify are to (1) reduce the employment of individuals unauthorized to work, (2) reduce discrimination, (3) protect employee civil liberties and privacy, and (4) prevent undue burden on employers. Pursuant to a 2007 Office of Management Budget directive, all federal agencies are required to use E-Verify on their new hires and, as of September 2009, certain federal contractors and subcontractors are required to use E-Verify for newly hired employees working in the United States as well as existing employees working directly under the contract. A number of states have also mandated that some or all employers within the state use …
Date: April 14, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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